Kotzebue, Alaska

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"Kotzebue" redirects here. For other uses, see Kotzebue (disambiguation).
Kotzebue, Alaska
Qikiqtaġruk
City
Aerial view of Kotzebue
Aerial view of Kotzebue
Motto: "Gateway to the Arctic"
Location in Northwest Arctic Borough and the state of Alaska.
Location in Northwest Arctic Borough and the state of Alaska.
Coordinates: 66°53′50″N 162°35′8″W / 66.89722°N 162.58556°W / 66.89722; -162.58556Coordinates: 66°53′50″N 162°35′8″W / 66.89722°N 162.58556°W / 66.89722; -162.58556
Country United States
State Alaska
Borough Northwest Arctic
Incorporated October 14, 1958[1]
Government
 • Mayor Clement Richards, Sr.[2]
Area
 • Total 28.7 sq mi (74.2 km2)
 • Land 27.0 sq mi (69.9 km2)
 • Water 1.7 sq mi (4.3 km2)
Elevation 20 ft (6 m)
Population (2010)
 • Total 3,201
 • Density 110/sq mi (43/km2)
  [3]
Time zone AKST (UTC-9)
 • Summer (DST) AKDT (UTC-8)
ZIP code 99752
Area code 907
FIPS code 02-41830
Website City of Kotzebue, Alaska

Kotzebue /ˈktsʌˌbj/ (Qikiqtaġruk /qikiqtaʁʐuk/ in Iñupiaq) is a city in Northwest Arctic Borough in the U.S. state of Alaska. The population of the city was 3,201 as of the 2010 census. Kotzebue is the largest city in the Northwest Arctic Borough.

History[edit]

There is archaeological evidence that Inupiat people have lived at Kotzebue since at least the 15th century.[citation needed] Because of its location, Kotzebue was a trading and gathering center for the entire area because of its major size. The Noatak, Selawik and Kobuk Rivers drain into the Kotzebue Sound near Kotzebue to form a center for transportation to points inland. In addition to people from interior villages, inhabitants of the Russian Far East came to trade at Kotzebue. Furs, seal-oil, hides, rifles, ammunition, and seal skins were some of the items traded. People also gathered for competitions like the current World Eskimo Indian Olympics. With the arrival of the whalers, traders, gold seekers, and missionaries the trading center expanded.

Kotzebue was originally known as Kikiktagruk or Qikiqtagruk, which means "almost an island" in Inupiaq, the language of the Inupiat, which is a reference to the spit. Kotzebue gets its name from the Kotzebue Sound, which was named after Otto von Kotzebue, a Baltic German who explored the sound while searching for the Northwest Passage in the service of Russia in 1818.

19th century[edit]

Reindeer herding was introduced in the area in 1897.[citation needed] Although Alaska had caribou, the wild form of reindeer, the domesticated reindeer were brought to Alaska from Asia.

A United States post office was established in 1899.[4]

20th and 21st century[edit]

Kotzebue was a filming location for the 1991 film Salmonberries.[citation needed]

Geography[edit]

Kotzebue lies on a gravel spit at the end of the Baldwin Peninsula in the Kotzebue Sound. It is located at 66°53′50″N 162°35′8″W / 66.89722°N 162.58556°W / 66.89722; -162.58556 (66.897192, −162.585444),[5] approximately 30 miles (48 km) from Noatak, Kiana, and other nearby smaller towns. It is 33 miles (53 km) north of the Arctic Circle on Alaska's western coast.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 28.7 square miles (74 km2), of which 27.0 square miles (70 km2) is land, and 1.6 square miles (4.1 km2), or 5.76%, is water.

Kotzebue is home to the NANA Regional Corporation, one of thirteen Alaska Native Regional Corporations created under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1971 (ANCSA) in settlement of Alaska Native land claims.

Kotzebue is a gateway to Kobuk Valley National Park and other natural attractions of northern Alaska. A Northwest Arctic Heritage Center is located in the town to acclimate National Park Service travelers. Nearby Selawik National Wildlife Refuge also maintains office space in the town. [6]

Climate[edit]

Kotzebue has a subarctic climate (Köppen Dfc) bordering on the Tundra climate, with long, somewhat snowy, and very cold winters, and short, mild summers. Monthly daily average temperatures range from −3.5 °F (−19.7 °C) in February to 54.7 °F (12.6 °C) in July, with an annual mean of 21.8 °F (−5.7 °C). Days of above 70 °F (21 °C) are not common, but can be expected on 5 days per summer.[7] Precipitation is both most frequent and greatest during the summer months, averaging 10.1 inches (257 mm) per year. Snowfall usually falls in light bouts, averaging 39 inches (99 cm) a season. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −58 °F (−50 °C) to 85 °F (29 °C), with the latter occurring as recently as June 19, 2013.

Climate data for Kotzebue, Alaska
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 39
(4)
40
(4)
39
(4)
48
(9)
71
(22)
85
(29)
85
(29)
80
(27)
69
(21)
57
(14)
40
(4)
37
(3)
85
(29)
Average high °F (°C) 3.7
(−15.7)
3.0
(−16.1)
7.2
(−13.8)
19.6
(−6.9)
37.8
(3.2)
50.8
(10.4)
60.0
(15.6)
56.7
(13.7)
46.4
(8)
27.5
(−2.5)
13.3
(−10.4)
6.0
(−14.4)
27.67
(−2.41)
Average low °F (°C) −8.6
(−22.6)
−9.9
(−23.3)
−7.7
(−22.1)
3.3
(−15.9)
25.3
(−3.7)
38.8
(3.8)
49.4
(9.7)
47.4
(8.6)
37.2
(2.9)
18.8
(−7.3)
3.2
(−16)
−6.4
(−21.3)
15.9
(−8.93)
Record low °F (°C) −55
(−48)
−52
(−47)
−58
(−50)
−44
(−42)
−12
(−24)
20
(−7)
30
(−1)
26
(−3)
13
(−11)
−19
(−28)
−37
(−38)
−49
(−45)
−58
(−50)
Precipitation inches (mm) .55
(14)
.42
(10.7)
.38
(9.7)
.41
(10.4)
.33
(8.4)
.57
(14.5)
1.43
(36.3)
2.00
(50.8)
1.70
(43.2)
.95
(24.1)
.71
(18)
.60
(15.2)
10.05
(255.3)
Snowfall inches (cm) 5.6
(14.2)
4.3
(10.9)
3.9
(9.9)
3.9
(9.9)
1.2
(3)
trace trace trace 1.0
(2.5)
5.8
(14.7)
6.5
(16.5)
7.1
(18)
39.3
(99.8)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 8.5 6.9 6.7 6.5 5.5 5.9 9.9 14.0 12.3 10.9 9.5 9.6 106.2
Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 7.8 6.5 6.0 6.5 2.1 .1 0 0 1.1 7.4 8.6 8.9 55.0
Source: NOAA (normals, 1971−2000),[7] Weather.com (extremes) [8]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1910 193
1920 230 19.2%
1930 291 26.5%
1940 372 27.8%
1950 623 67.5%
1960 1,290 107.1%
1970 1,696 31.5%
1980 2,054 21.1%
1990 2,751 33.9%
2000 3,082 12.0%
2010 3,201 3.9%
source:[9]

As of the census[10] of 2000,[dated info] there were 3,082 people, 889 households, and 656 families residing in the city. The population density was 114.1 people per square mile (44.1/km²). There were 1,007 housing units at an average density of 37.3 per square mile (14.4/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 71.19% Native American, 19.47% White, 1.82% Asian, 0.32% Black or African American, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.78% from other races, and 6.36% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.17% of the population.

There were 889 households out of which 50.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.1% were married couples living together, 17.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 26.1% were non-families. 19.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.40 and the average family size was 3.93.

In the city the age distribution of the population shows 39.8% under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 30.4% from 25 to 44, 17.2% from 45 to 64, and 4.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 26 years. For every 100 females there were 102.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 104.5 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $57,163, and the median income for a family was $58,068. Males had a median income of $42,604 versus $36,453 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,289. About 9.2% of families and 13.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.9% of those under age 18 and 6.0% of those age 65 or over.

Infrastructure[edit]

Airport[edit]

Kotzebue's Ralph Wien Memorial Airport is the one airport in the Northwest Arctic Borough with regularly scheduled large commercial passenger aircraft service to and from Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport and the Nome Airport.

Health care[edit]

Kotzebue is home to the Maniilaq Association, a tribally-operated health and social services organization named after Maniilaq and part of the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium. Maniilaq Health Center is the primary health care facility for the residents of the Northwest Arctic Borough. The facility houses an emergency room with local and medevac support for accident/trauma victims, as well as an ambulatory care clinic, dental and eye care clinics, a pharmacy, a specialty clinic, and an inpatient wing with 24 beds for recovering patients.

Notable people[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1996 Alaska Municipal Officials Directory. Juneau: Alaska Municipal League/Alaska Department of Community and Regional Affairs. January 1996. p. 86. 
  2. ^ "Community: Kotzebue". Community Database Online. Juneau: Alaska Department of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Division of Community and Regional Affairs. February 11, 2014. Retrieved February 21, 2014. 
  3. ^ "2010 City Population and Housing Occupancy Status". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved May 14, 2012. 
  4. ^ Dickerson, Ora B. (1989) 120 Years of Alaska Postmasters, 1867-1987, p. 44. Scotts, Michigan: Carl J. Cammarata
  5. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  6. ^ "Kobuk Valley National Park". U.S. National Park Service. January 20, 2011. Retrieved July 28, 2011. 
  7. ^ a b "Climatology of the United States No. 20 1971−2000: KOTZEBUE WIEN AP, AK" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2004. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  8. ^ "Average Weather for Kotzebue, AK − Temperature and Precipitation". Weather.com. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  9. ^ "Census of Population and Housing". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-05-25. 
  10. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 

Further reading[edit]

Anderson, Douglas D., and Robert A. Henning. The Kotzebue Basin. Alaska geographic, v. 8, no. 3. Anchorage: Alaska Geographic Society, 1981. ISBN 0-88240-157-2
Giddings, J. Louis, and Douglas D. Anderson. Beach Ridge Archeology of Cape Krusenstern Eskimo and Pre-Eskimo Settlements Around Kotzebue Sound, Alaska. Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, U.S. Dept. of the Interior, 1986.
Lucier, Charles V., and James W. VanStone. Traditional Beluga Drives of the Iñupiat of Kotzebue Sound, Alaska. Fieldiana, new ser., no. 25. Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History, 1995.

External links[edit]