Kraepelinian dichotomy

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Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926)

The Kraepelinian dichotomy is the division of the major endogenous psychoses into the disease concepts of dementia praecox, which was reformulated as schizophrenia by Eugen Bleuler by 1908,[1][2] and manic-depressive psychosis, which has now been reconceived as bipolar disorder.[3] This division was formally introduced in the sixth edition of Emil Kraepelin's psychiatric textbook Psychiatrie. Ein Lehrbuch für Studirende und Aertze, published in 1899.[3] It has been highly influential on modern psychiatric classification systems, the DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10, and is reflected in the taxonomic separation of schizophrenia from affective psychosis.[4] However, there is also a diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder to cover cases that seem to show symptoms of both.

History[edit]

The Kraepelinian system and the modern classification of psychoses are ultimately derived from the insights of Karl Kahlbaum.[5] In 1863 the Prussian psychiatrist published his Habilitation which was entitled, Die Gruppierung der psychischen Krankheiten (The Classification of Psychiatric Diseases).[6] In this text he reviewed the then heterogeneous state of medical taxonomies of mental illness and enumerated the existence of some thirty such nosologies from the early seventeenth-century until the mid-nineteenth-century.[7] The major contribution of his published dissertation, which is still the foundation of modern psychiatric nosology,[7] was to first formulate the clinical method for the classification of psychosis by symptom, course and outcome.[8]

Kahlbaum also differentiated between two major groups of mental illnesses which he termed vecordia and vesania.[7]

Emil Kraepelin first introduced his proposed dichotomy between the endogenous psychoses of manic-depressive illness and dementia praecox during a public lecture in Heidelberg, Germany on 27 November 1898.[9]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Jablensky 2007, p. 383; Greene 2007, p. 362
  2. ^ Yuhas, Daisy. "Throughout History, Defining Schizophrenia Has Remained a Challenge". Scientific American Mind (March 2013). Retrieved 2 March 2013. 
  3. ^ a b Decker 2007, p. 399.
  4. ^ Greene 2007, p. 361; Palm & Möller 2011, p. 318
  5. ^ Jablensky 1999, p. 96; Berrios, Luque & Villagrán 2003, p. 126
  6. ^ Noll 2007, p. 242; Kahlbaum 1863
  7. ^ a b c Angst 2002, p. 6.
  8. ^ Angst 2002, p. 6; Möller 2008, p. 60
  9. ^ Noll 2007, p. 262.

Bibliography[edit]