||This article possibly contains original research. (February 2011)|
|Founder(s)||Dennis Beradi, Peter LaPlaca, Gary Kramer, Henry Vaccaro, Phillip J Petillo PhD|
|Headquarters||United States of America|
|Key people||Dennis Beradi, Peter LaPlaca, Gary Kramer, Henry Vaccaro, Phillip J Petillo PhD, Richie Sambora, Floyd D. Rose, Paul Unkert, Andy Papiccio, Eddie Van Halen, Chad Ummel, Mick Mars, Neal Schon, Jeff LaBar|
|Products||Guitars and basses|
Kramer Guitars (pronounced "KRAY-MUR") is an American manufacturer of electric guitars and basses. Kramer produced aluminum-necked electric guitars and basses in the 1970s and wooden-necked guitars catering to hard rock and heavy metal musicians in the 1980s; Kramer is currently a division of Gibson Guitar Corporation. Kramer was one of the most popular guitar brands of the 1980s and the best-selling brand of 1985 and 1986. At the height of its popularity, Kramer was considered a prestige instrument and was endorsed by many famous musicians of the day, including Eddie Van Halen, Richie Sambora, Mick Mars, Jennifer Batten, Tom Morello, and Vivian Campbell .
- 1 Formation
- 2 Aluminum neck period
- 3 Wooden neck period
- 4 Early to mid-1980s
- 5 Late 1980s
- 6 1990-Present
- 7 Kramer Models
- 8 Players endorsing Kramer Guitars
- 9 External links
- 10 References
The company was founded in the late 1970s by Dennis Berardi, Gary Kramer and Phillip J. Petillo Ph.D., Master Luthier-Engineer to manufacture aluminum-necked guitars. Gary Kramer, Dennis Berardi, Peter LaPlaca (a Vice President at Norlin, parent company of Gibson), and investor Henry Vaccaro joined forces to open a plant in Neptune, New Jersey. The first four prototypes of Kramer Guitars were produced in 1976 at the 1206 Herbert Ave. Ocean, NJ studio workshop by Phil Petillo and were featured on the first Kramer Brochure that was introduced at the 1977 NAMM show in Chicago, Illinois. At that show, the fledgling guitar company sold $250,000.00 worth of orders based on the interest generated from the prototype guitars. Petillo helped design and set up the factory located in Neptune and proceeded to build the first Fingerboard Machine that cut the slots in the fingerboards for Petillo's Trade Secret Scales with perfect intonation. These designs were kept in a safe by Dennis Berardi at the Neptune Factory. Due to differences in design and factory quality control along with disagreements with Peter LaPlaca, Petillo was forced out of the company. An article was written by Phillip and Lucille Petillo that appeared in the NAMM issue of Musical Merchandise Review describing in detail how these unique guitars were made. (MMR Issue,October 1, 1976) Soon after, Gary Kramer moved to Los Angeles, and his connection with the company would be in name only.
Aluminum neck period
Introduced in 1976, early models featured the trademark "tuning fork head" aluminum-reinforced necks with a fretboard made of Ebonol—material similar to one used in bowling ball production. Other features of the necks included aluminum dots, and a zero fret made out of Petillo Patented fretwire(USPatent#4,064,779). Unlike Travis Bean, Kramer went beyond the idea of a neck forged entirely out of aluminum, due to both its weight and its feel. Instead, Kramer opted for wooden inserts in the aluminum necks. The inserts, set in epoxy, were usually Walnut or Maple. The bodies were usually made of high grade Walnut or Maple, with the earliest instruments made of exotic tonewoods including Koa, Afromosia, Swietenia, Shedua, and Bubinga. The hardware was also from a known quality brand: Schaller tuning keys and bridges; Schaller and DiMarzio pickups; custom-made strap pins; aluminum cavity covers. Kramer's "alumi-neck" line lasted roughly until 1982. Out of this early part of Kramer history in 1976-1980 were born some exquisite musical instruments; truly a fine example of the input of Master Luthier-Engineer, Phillip J. Petillo PhD lutherie. Generally, the ratio of basses to guitars produced was about 4:1, primarily because bass players were more willing to experiment. By 1981, Kramer had the tools, and the experience, to take guitar mass production to a new level. Switching to wooden-necked instruments both held the promise of keeping production costs low as well as being able to appeal to traditionally-minded guitar players.
Wooden neck period
Kramer first released wooden-necked guitars in late 1981, following Charvel's lead on producing instruments that essentially copied the stratocaster headstock shape from Fender, in violation of Fender's US trademark and design patent. After only a thousand or so instruments were built, in May 1981, Kramer received a cease and desist order from Fender to halt the production of strathead guitars. Instead, Kramer opted for a "beak" headstock reminiscent of 1960s Kent guitar headstocks. The earliest beak guitars were in fact stratheads with a lobbed off headstock; these can be identified by prominent sanding marks on the curve of the headstock. Later, and most common beak guitars, were manufactured with a beak headstock from the factory.
Wooden-necked instruments represented Kramer's first foray into offshoring the production of guitar components to Eastern Asia. Tuning keys and vintage fulcrum tremolos were made by Gotoh in Japan, while the necks were made by Japan's ESP Guitars and shipped to New Jersey for fretting and finishing.
Kramer executives saw that the guitar techniques of the early 1980s demanded a high-performance tremolo system. Kramer partnered with a German inventor named Helmut Rockinger, and installed his bulky tremolos, precursors to Floyd Rose systems, on its instruments.
Early to mid-1980s
A chance encounter between Dennis Berardi and Eddie Van Halen's managers on an airplane flight set the foundation for Kramer's meteoric rise in the 1980s. Eddie was interested in a tremolo that stayed in tune, which the Rockinger system offered. A meeting between Eddie Van Halen and Kramer execs took place, and Eddie was sold. At the meeting, he reportedly quipped that he would help make Kramer the "#1 guitar company in the world."
By 1983 the Rockinger tremolo (sometimes dubbed "The Eddie Van Halen tremolo") had been widely replaced by the Floyd Rose system. In addition, Kramer once again offered Schaller tuners on their guitars, tapping Schaller to produce Floyd Rose tremolos as well. Kramer was the only guitar company offering Original Floyd Rose tremolos stock on their production guitars, a competitive advantage of Kramer over other guitar manufacturers of the period.
In late 1983 Kramer switched from the "beak" headstock design to the Gibson Explorer-like "banana" headstock design. This distinctive look also helped rank Kramer highly with guitar enthusiasts. One notable Kramer guitar was the Baretta model, which was a single-humbucker instrument similar to guitars Eddie Van Halen used on stage. The Kramer Baretta was the flagship of the Kramer line and helped popularize the single-pickup 1980s superstrat guitar design.
By late 1985 Kramer began installing Seymour Duncan pickups in its guitars, in preference to the more vintage-sounding Schaller pickups. When the sales figures came in, Kramer was the best-selling guitar brand of 1985.
In 1986 Kramer switched to the radically drooped "pointy headstock" design, no doubt influenced by the pointy designs of Jackson/Charvel and other manufacturers such as Hamer and Washburn. Schaller tuners, Floyd Rose tremolos, Seymour Duncan pickups and exciting graphics by talented factory artists such as Dennis Kline helped propel Kramer to become the best-selling guitar brand of 1986.
Kramer continued its success into the late 1980s, with the majority of hard rock and glam metal artists from Mötley Crüe's Mick Mars to Whitesnakes' Vivian Campbell being major endorsees. Almost every rock guitarist in the late 80's had at least one Kramer in their arsenal.
By 1987, Kramer was using ESP Guitars exclusively for manufacturing its necks and bodies. The "American Series" of instruments were ESP parts, assembled in Neptune, New Jersey. The Aerostar series were made completely in Korea, while the Focus series was made and assembled by ESP Guitars. Some early Focus guitars were also made in Japan by the Matsumoku company.
During 1987, Kramer also commissioned guitarist Rich Excellente, designer of the "1957 Chevy Tail-fin" guitar, to create a series of guitars based on the patented features Excellente developed on his "Chevy Tail-Fin" guitar. Kramer, under license from Excellente, manufactured a line of guitars which were marketed as "The Kramer American Showster Series". These guitars were sleeker versions of the more traditional shapes of the day, and utilized Excellente's patented "tear-drop" body taper and "metal loading" insert feature to increase tone and sustain.(U.S.Pat.4,635,522). Fewer than 1,000 of these guitars were produced between 1988-1990, and the line was discontinued during 1990 due to manufacturing problems which began to plague Kramer during that time. American Showster reemerged in 2014 and the company is slated to release a new collection of american made guitars in the Summer of 2015.
In addition, Kramer embraced the excess of the late 1980s—producing slick and fluorescent guitars, losing its thought leadership in the guitar manufacturing arena, and damaging the image of the brand. Similarly, the image of the Kramer brand was being tarnished by an influx of Aerostar guitars—made cheaply and with cheap components.
By 1989, Dennis Berardi had started Berardi/Thomas Entertainment, Inc—an artist management company. Seeing promise in a young band out of the Soviet Union, Gorky Park, BTE started managing the group. To help promote the band, the infamous "Gorky Park" guitars were made, reportedly to be given to guitar dealers as promotional pieces. BTE banked on the Gorky Park guitars to help promote the group. When the Russian band achieved only a mild measure of success, this was a significant, and final blow to the first incarnation of the Kramer company.
The original Kramer company effectively came to an end in January 1991, mostly due to financial problems. The company had been spending huge amounts on advertising and endorsements, and then lost a lawsuit with Floyd D. Rose over royalties. A notorious firesale of surplus necks, bodies and hardware was held out of New Jersey.
By 1995, Henry Vaccaro owned the Kramer brand; in addition, he was the only one of the original partners interested in continuing in the guitar business. He tried one last time to produce Kramer guitars from surplus parts, in the Neptune plant, but only a few hundred were made. Henry Vaccaro started making aluminum-necked guitars under the name Vaccaro Guitars, but that, too, was short-lived.
In 2005 the original founder and namesake of Kramer Guitars, Gary Kramer, started his own guitar company: Gary Kramer Guitars. In 2007, the original service manager of Kramer Guitars, legendary luthier Paul Unkert started his own guitar company, featuring designs reminiscent of aluminum-era Kramers: Unk Guitars. During the summer of 2014 Paul Unkert began negotiations to work with American Showster guitars on their 2015 collection.
The Kramer brand was sold out of bankruptcy to Gibson Guitar Corporation. Gibson's Epiphone division has produced guitars and basses under the Kramer brand since the late 1990s, mostly factory-direct through the now-defunct MusicYo.com website. Encouraged by the resurgence of interest in the Kramer brand, Epiphone has been reissuing classic Kramer models, including the "1984 Model;" (a homage to Eddie Van Halen's famous "5150" guitar used from 1984-1991) the "Jersey Star;" (a homage to the Richie Sambora signature 1980s Kramer) and most recently, the "1985 Baretta Reissue (A standard slant-pickup Baretta)". These high-end instruments are assembled in the USA from American components. On January 2009, Gibson shut down the MusicYo.com website, instead promising that Kramers would be available through dealers and in music stores by the end of 2009. But supply was not consistent and promised new models were either seriously delayed or never produced.
More recently however under guidance from a dedicated Kramer team at Gibson, new models have made it to stores, and now includes the budget priced Baretta Special (a model touted on the MusicYo pages but never released until now) plus designs never seen before including the Pariah & Assault (including FR tremolo models) ranges brought out to bring the Kramer name to a new generation of rock musicians, while homages to vintage models like the Stagemaster in the form of the SM-1 and Classic Pacer Imperial now simply called the Pacer Vintage are also still produced.
In 2007, a Kramer Striker controller was created for Guitar Hero III for the PS2, under a licensing agreement with Gibson Guitar Corporation. A Kramer Focus was also available as an in-game guitar, as was one of the earlier aluminum neck model Kramers. The Kramer Fatboy has been featured in Guitar Hero III: Legends of Rock and Guitar Hero Aerosmith.
The Internet greatly helped fuse the interest of Kramer collectors around the globe. In the mid-1990s, pioneering sites Kramer Krazy, by Terry Boling, and Kramermaniaxe, by Mike Mojabi helped spark a renewed interest in these instruments. Beginning in 2002, VintageKramer.com, by Mike Wolverton, and KramerForum.com, by George Tarnopolsky, have become the primary voice of Kramer Musical Instruments enthusiasts worldwide.
Original Kramer guitars are now highly collectable, after being considered undesirable in the early-mid-1990s. They regularly fetch high prices on eBay and other auction sites. Kramer collectors held a Kramer Expo every year in Nashville, Tennessee, near the Gibson plant, from 2003-2008. More recently, expos have been held annually in locations around Europe including the Netherlands, Newcastle upon Tyne in 2006 & 2007, and Liverpool, UK in 2010 & 2012, to showcase and celebrate Kramer guitars.
Kramer Aluminum Neck Guitars
- Kramer 250
- Kramer 335 (Hollowbody)
- Kramer 350
- Kramer 450
- Kramer 650
- Kramer DMZ series
- Kramer XK series
- Kramer Duke series
- Kramer Gene Simmons axe guitar and bass
- Kramer Challenger
- Kramer Stagemaster series
Kramer USA and American
- Kramer Baretta I,II,and III
- Kramer Classic
- Kramer Condor
- Kramer Liberty
- Kramer Pacer
- Kramer Pioneer Bass
- Kramer Proaxe
- Kramer Triax
- Kramer Enterprize
- Kramer Invader
- Kramer Vanguard
- Kramer Voyager
Kramer USA and American — signature models
- Kramer Floyd Rose Model
- Kramer Elliot Easton Model
- Kramer NightSwan (Vivian Campbell Model)
- Kramer Sambora (aka "Jersey Star") (Richie Sambora Model)
- Kramer Ripley (Steve Ripley Model)
- Kramer Gorky Park model
- Kramer Paul Dean model
Kramer Overseas — made in Czech Republic
- Kramer Pacer (S Serial Number, No "American" on headstock)
Kramer Overseas — made in Japan
- Kramer Focus Series
- Kramer Forum Series (Bass)
- Kramer JK, LK, MK Series (Made for Japanese market)
Kramer Overseas — made in Korea
- Kramer 360
- Kramer Aerostar (ZX)
- Kramer Ferrington
- Kramer Gorky Park Model
- Kramer Imperial (Music Yo era)
- Kramer KS-400, KS400
- Kramer Metallist
- Kramer Regent
- Kramer Savant
- Kramer Showster
- Kramer Starfighter
- Kramer Striker Series
- Kramer Hundred Series
- Kramer S-400S, FR-4xx (Music Yo era)
- Kramer Vanguard FR-404 (Music Yo era)
- Kramer XL series
Kramer by Gibson -- USA-made Models
- Kramer 1985 Baretta Reissue
- Kramer "1984" Guitart "The Blowtorch" and "Black Sheep" only.
Players endorsing Kramer Guitars
- Al Pitrelli
- Andy Timmons
- Bob Wootton
- Brian Egeness of Die Kreuzen
- Casey Jones
- Charlie Parra del Riego
- Chris DeGarmo
- Criss Oliva
- Dave Meniketti
- Derek Frigo
- Dweezil Zappa
- Eddie Ojeda
- Eddie Van Halen
- Elliot Easton
- Gene Simmons
- George Lynch
- Gustavo Guerra
- Howard Leese
- Steve Wasser (unsigned guitarist)
- Jay Jay French
- Jayce Allisson Karl
- Jeff LaBar
- Joe Satriani
- Jon Bon Jovi
- Jordan Brandenburg
- Leslie West
- Luka Adikashvili
- Mark Kendall
- Matt Tuck
- Michael Wilton
- Mick Mars
- Nancy Wilson
- Nick Bowcott
- Nicolas York - Black Fang (Argentinian band)
- Paul Dean
- Petri Lindroos
- Reb Beach
- Richie Sambora
- Rick Nielsen
- Ronni Le Tekrø
- Sal Costa (My Darkest Days)
- Sam Kinison
- Sam Totman
- Sammy Hagar
- Satchel (Steel Panther)
- Scotti Hill
- Spike Mckay
- Steve Stevens
- Tim Dailey
- Tom Morello
- Tony Macalpine
- Vivian Campbell
- Piotr Bajus
- Victor Tsoy
- Kramer Guitars Official home page
- Vintage Kramer site, with much detailed history ("most of it true" according to the site).
- The Kramer Forum Online community of Kramer enthusiasts worldwide
- Gary Kramer Guitars History page Lists the most detailed account of how the Kramer Guitar company got started from Gary Kramer's point of view.
- V i n t a g e K r a m e r - The Online Resource for Vintage and New Kramer Guitars
- Premier Guitar, May 2009
- Kramer Guitar Forum - Powered by vBulletin
- Kramer Aluminum Neck Guitars
- Kramer Expo DOT COM - Official Website
<http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=4,064,779.PN.&OS=PN/4,064,779&RS=PN/4,064,779> <http://www.premierguitar.com/Magazine/Issue/2009/May/Phil_Petillo_Mas ... entor.aspx> <Musical Merchandise Review, October 1, 1976, Guitar Neck Constriction by Phillip Petillo PhD>