||This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the Croatian Wikipedia. (April 2015)|
|5,000 approx. (most declare themselves as Croats, with some as Krashovani)|
|Regions with significant populations|
|Romania (Caraş-Severin County)|
|Predominantly Roman Catholic|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Serbs of Romania|
The Krashovani (Romanian: Carașoveni, Croatian: Krašovani) are a South Slavic community inhabiting Carașova and Lupac in the Caraș-Severin County within Romanian Banat. They are regarded an ethnographic group of Croats, and predominantly declare as Croats. They are Roman Catholic by faith, and speak the Torlakian dialect.
In Romanian, they are commonly known as "Carașoveni"; other variants include Carașoveni, Cârșoveni, Cotcoreți or Cocoși. In Serbo-Croatian, they are commonly known as "Krašovani"; other variants include Karašovani, Krašovanje, Karaševci and Koroševci.
- Carașova commune
- Carașova (Krašovo)
- Nermed (Nermet)
- Iabalcea (Jablča)
- Lupac commune
- Clocotici (Klokotić)
- Rafnic (Ravnik)
- Vodnic (Vodnik)
- Lupac (Lupak)
The Krashovani are Serbo-Croatian speakers adhering to the Catholic church. Their dialect is regarded a sub-dialect of the Torlak dialect, a transitional dialect spoken in southeastern Serbia, westernmost Bulgaria and northeastern Macedonia.
According to the 2002 census in Romania, the population of the Carașova commune comprised 84.60% Croats, 4.96% others, 4.47% Roma, 4.41% Romanians, etc. 93,12% of the population in that commune declared their mother tongue as Croatian. Only 207 persons declared Krashovani ethnicity in the 2002 census.
Their ancestors first settled Carașova in the 13th and 14th centuries from northwestern Bosnia.[verification needed] They formed a community in the northern plateau of the Caraș river, in seven villages, the oldest, Carașova, being mentioned in the 13th and 14th centuries while the rest are first mentioned in the 17th century.
Serbian ethnographer Jovan Cvijić concluded that the community was "very old settlers with origin in Crna Reka who were Catholicised"; Stanko Žuljić claims that their origin is in Turopolje, in Croatia.
The Carașoveni were considered Bulgarians by some Bulgarian scientists in the first half of the 20th century (such as G. Cibrus, M. Mladenov, K. Telbizov, and T. Balkanski), partially based on their view that Torlakian-speakers are ethnically Bulgarians.
According to the Austrian population census there were over 10,000 Carașoveni in Banat. In the 1847 census over 10,000 people declared as Carașoveni. In 1896 the Austro-Hungarian census around 7,500 Carașoveni were listed. The same was stated by the authorities of the Kingdom of Romania in 1940. Their number dropped to 2,775 in 1992.
Ever since the Romanian Revolution, the government of Romania has awarded special minority status and privileges to its ethnic Serb citizens. The Democratic Union of Serbs and Krashovani of Romania (Uniunea Democratică a Sârbilor si Carașovenilor din România) was founded in 1992.
- Гласник Етнографског института. 42-43. Научно дело. 1993. p. 11.
- Dalibor Brozović (1999). Hrvatska enciklopedija: O-Pre. Leksikografski zavod "Miroslav Krleža". p. 675. ISBN 978-953-6036-29-5.
- ["Structura etno-demografică pe arii geografice: Carașova". Ethnocultural Diversity Resource Center.
- (Romanian) Recensământ 2002. Rezultate: Populaţia după etnie la recensământul din 2002; retrieved November 10, 2007
- Marius Rotar; Adriana Teodorescu; Corina Rotar (17 March 2014). Dying and Death in 18th-21st Century Europe: Volume 2. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 19–. ISBN 978-1-4438-5746-8.
- Stanko Žuljić (1997). Srpski etnos i velikosrpstvo. AGM. pp. 110, 274.
- Spațiul istoric și etnic românesc, Vol.I, Editura Militară, Bucharest, 1992