Krasnodar

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses of "Krasnodar", see Krasnodar (disambiguation).
Krasnodar (English)
Краснодар (Russian)
-  City[1]  -
Krasnodar attraction.jpg
In Krasnodar
Map of Russia - Krasnodar Krai (2008-03).svg
Location of Krasnodar Krai in Russia
Krasnodar is located in Krasnodar Krai
Krasnodar
Krasnodar
Magnify-clip.png
Location of Krasnodar in Krasnodar Krai
Coordinates: 45°02′N 38°58′E / 45.033°N 38.967°E / 45.033; 38.967Coordinates: 45°02′N 38°58′E / 45.033°N 38.967°E / 45.033; 38.967
Coat of Arms of Krasnodar (Krasnodar krai).png
Flag of Krasnodar (Krasnodar krai) (2006).png
Coat of arms
Flag
City Day Last non-working day of September[citation needed]
Administrative status (as of May 2013)
Country Russia
Federal subject Krasnodar Krai[2]
Administratively subordinated to City of Krasnodar[1]
Administrative center of Krasnodar Krai,[2] City of Krasnodar[1]
Municipal status (as of February 2012)
Urban okrug Krasnodar Urban Okrug[3]
Administrative center of Krasnodar Urban Okrug[3]
Head[citation needed] Vladimir Yevlanov[4]
Representative body City Duma[citation needed]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census) 744,995 inhabitants[5]
Rank in 2010 17th
Time zone MSK (UTC+04:00)[6]
Founded January 12, 1794[citation needed]
City status since 1867[citation needed]
Previous names Yekaterinodar (until 1920)[citation needed]
Postal code(s)[7] 350000–350005, 350007, 350010–350012, 350014–350016, 350018–350020, 350033, 350035, 350038–350040, 350042, 350044, 350047, 350049, 350051, 350058, 350059, 350061–350067, 350072, 350075, 350078, 350080, 350086–350090, 350500, 350880, 350890, 350899–350901, 350910–350912, 350931, 350960, 350961, 350963–350965, 350991–350999
Dialing code(s) +7 861[citation needed]
Official website
Krasnodar on WikiCommons

Krasnodar (Russian: Краснодар; IPA: [krəsnɐˈdar]) is a city and the administrative center of Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the Kuban River about 148 kilometers (92 mi) northeast of the Black Sea port of Novorossiysk. Population: 744,995 (2010 Census);[5] 646,175 (2002 Census);[8] 620,516 (1989 Census).[9]

Name[edit]

A 19th century photograph of the Kuban Cossacks Obelisk in Yekaterinodar

It was founded on January 12, 1794 (Gregorian calendar) as Yekaterinodar (Екатеринода́р). The original name meant "Catherine's Gift", recognizing both Catherine the Great's grant of land in the Kuban region to the Black Sea Cossacks and Saint Catherine of Alexandria, who is considered to be the patron of the city.

In December 1920, as a result of the October Revolution, Yekaterinodar was renamed Krasnodar (Gift of the Reds). The new name consists of Krasno- (Красно- – 'red', i.e. Communist, but also archaic/poetic form of 'beautiful'); and dar (дар – 'gift'). [10]

History[edit]

Yekaterinodar in the early 20th century

The city originated as a fortress built by Cossacks to defend imperial borders and assert Russian dominion over Circassia, a claim which Ottoman Turkey contested. In the first half of the 19th century, Yekaterinodar grew into a busy center of the Kuban Cossacks. It was granted town status in 1867.[citation needed] By 1888, about 45,000 people lived in the city, which had become a vital trade center for southern Russia. In 1897, an obelisk commemorating the two-hundred-year history of the Kuban Cossack Host was erected in Yekaterinodar.

During the Russian Civil War, the city changed hands several times between the Red Army and the Volunteer Army. Many Kuban Cossacks were committed anti-Bolsheviks who supported the White Movement. Lavr Kornilov, a White general, captured the city on April 10, 1918, only to be killed a week later when a Bolshevik artillery shell blew up the farmhouse he was using as his headquarters.

During the World War II, Krasnodar was occupied by the German Army between August 12, 1942 and February 12, 1943. The city sustained heavy damage in the fighting but was rebuilt and renovated after the war.

In the summer of 1943, the Soviets began trials, including of their own citizens, for collusion with the Nazis and participation in war crimes. The first such trial was held at Krasnodar from July 14 to 17, 1943. The Krasnodar tribunal pronounced eight death sentences, which were summarily executed in the city square in front of a crowd of about thirty thousand people.

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Krasnodar is the administrative center of the krai.[2] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with twenty-nine rural localities, incorporated as the City of Krasnodar—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the City of Krasnodar is incorporated as Krasnodar Urban Okrug.[3]

Main sights[edit]

The Splash Fountain in Krasnodar
Obelisk to Red Army soldiers

Krasnodar is home to the steel lattice hyperboloid tower built by the Russian engineer and scientist Vladimir Grigorievich Shukhov in 1928; it is located near Krasnodar Circus.

Other attractions include St. Catherine's Cathedral, the State Arts Museum, a park and theater named after Maxim Gorky, the beautiful concert hall of the Krasnodar Philharmonic Society, which is considered to have some of the best acoustics in southern Russia, State Cossack Choir and the Krasnodar circus

The most interesting place of Krasnodar is Krasnaya Street (which translates as "Red, Beautiful Street"). There are situated many sights of Krasnodar. In the beginning of this street one can see the Central Concert Hall; at the other end one can see the Avrora cinemacenter. A "Triumphal Arch" is situated in the middle of Krasnaya Street.

Theater Square is home to the largest splash fountain in Europe.[11] This fountain was officially inaugurated on September 25, 2011 along with the official ceremony to celebrate the City Day in Krasnodar.

Economy[edit]

Krasnodar is the economic center of southern Russia. For several years, Forbes magazine named Krasnodar the best city for business in Russia.[12] In the industrial sector of the city has more than 130 large and medium-sized enterprises.

The main industries of Krasnodar:

  • Agriculture and food industry: 42.8%
  • Energy sector: 13.4%
  • Fuel industry: 10.5%
  • Machine construction: 9.4%
  • Forestry and chemical industries: about 4%

In Krasnodar is a highly developed commercial area. Krasnodar has the largest turnover in the Southern Federal District of Russia. Retail trade turnover in 2010 reached 290 billion RUB. Krasnodar is the first in Russia in the number of malls (per capita). Note that in the crisis year 2009 turnover of Krasnodar continued to grow, while most of the cities showed a negative trend of circulation of goods.

Krasnodar has the lowest unemployment rate among the cities of the Southern Federal District with 0,3% of the total working-age population. Also, Krasnodar holds the first place by the highest average salary - 21742 roubles per capita.[13]

Tourism comprises a large part of Krasnodar's economy. There are more than 80 hotels in Krasnodar. Hilton Garden Inn, opened in 2013, is the first world-class hotel in the city.[14]

Transportation[edit]

A tram in Krasnodar

Like with many other major cities in Russia, the primary mode of local transportation in Krasnodar is automobile, though efforts have been made to increase the availability of alternative modes of transportation, including the construction of light rail lines (projected), biking paths, and wide sidewalks. Public transportation within Krasnodar consists of city buses, trolleybuses, trams, and marshrutkas (routed taxis). Trolleybuses and trams, both powered by overhead electric wires, are the main form of transportation in Krasnodar. Krasnodar does not have a metro system.

The main airline is Kuban Airlines (at Krasnodar International Airport), and the largest hotels in the city include the Intourist, Hotel Moskva, and Hotel Platan. Krasnodar uses a 220 V/50 Hz power supply with two round-pin outlets, like most European countries.

Education[edit]

In Krasnodar there are 15 gymnasiums, 5 lyceums, 67 schools of general education and 20 specialized schools, as well as 7 non-state lyceums and schools.[15]

The city has numerous institutions of higher education, including some state universities (Kuban State University, Kuban State Technological University, Kuban State Agrarian University, Kuban State Medical University, etc.). Other universities include: Marketing and Social Technology University of Krasnodar.

Culture[edit]

Pushkin Library

The oldest part of the city is Old Downtown Krasnodar, which consists of many historic buildings, several from the 19th century. Buildings have been preserved, restored or reconstructed, and the district is now a substantial tourist attraction.

There are several major theater venues for Krasnodar:

  • The Gorky Krasnodar State Academic Drama Theater
  • The Krasnodar Ballet Theater
  • The Krasnodar State Academic Drama Theater
  • The Krasnodar Regional Puppet Theater
  • The Krasnodar Musical Theater
  • The Children's Ballet Theater "Fugitives"
  • The Krasnodar State Circus
  • The Krasnodar Youth Theater
  • The Ponomarenko Krasnodar Philharmonic
  • The Kuban Cossack Choir
  • The Creative Association "Premiere"
  • The New Puppet Theater

Krasnodar has several major museums. The Kovalenko Krasnodar Regional Art Museum, the oldest public art museum in the North Caucasus, is one of the finest.

The largest public library of the city is the Pushkin Krasnodar Regional Universal Scientific Library, founded in 1900.

Sports[edit]

Several sports clubs are active in the city:

Club Sport Founded Current League League
Rank
Stadium
Kuban Krasnodar Football 1928 Russian Premier League 1st Kuban Stadium
FC Krasnodar Football 2008 Russian Premier League 1st Kuban Stadium
Kubanochka Krasnodar Football 1988 Women's Top Division 1st Trud Stadium
Lokomotiv Kuban Basketball 2009 Professional Basketball League 1st Basket Hall
Kuban Krasnodar Rugby union 1996 Professional Rugby League 1st Yunost stadium
Kuban Krasnodar Ice hockey 2012 Higher Hockey League 2nd Kuban Ice Palace
Dynamo Krasnodar Volleyball 1994 Volleyball Super League 1st Olimp Sports Palace
Dynamo Krasnodar Volleyball 1946 Women's Volleyball Super League 1st Olimp Sports Palace
SKIF Krasnodar Handball 1963 Handball Super League 1st Olimp Sports Palace
Kuban Krasnodar Handball 1965 Women's Handball Superleague 1st Olimp Sports Palace

Coat of arms[edit]

The coat of arms of Yekaterinodar was introduced in 1841 by the Cossack yesaul Ivan Chernik. The royal letter "E" in the middle is for Ekaterina II (Russian for Catherine II). It also depicts the date city was founded, the Imperial double headed eagle (symbolizing Tsar's patronage of Black Sea Cossacks), a bulawa of a Cossack ataman, Yekaterinodar fortress, and flags with letters "E", "P", "A", and "N" standing for Catherine II, Paul I, Alexander I and Nicholas I. Yellow stars around the shield symbolized 59 Black Sea stanitsas around the city.

Climate[edit]

Under the Köppen climate classification Krasnodar has a humid subtropical climate climate (Cfa).

Winters are cold and damp, with unstable snow cover. The average temperature in January, the area's coldest month, is 33 °F (1 °C). Weather conditions in winter vary greatly. Temperatures can exceed 68 °F (20 °C) for a few days, but temperatures below −4 °F (−20 °C) are not uncommon for Krasnodar as the city is not protected by mountains from cold waves. Summers are typically hot with a July average of 75.4 °F (24.1 °C).

The city receives 28.94 inches (735 mm) of precipitation annually, fairly spread throughout the year. Extreme storms are rare in the Krasnodar area. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −27.2 to 105.3 °F (−32.9 to 40.7 °C), recorded on January 11, 1940 and July 30, 2000, respectively.

Climate data for Krasnodar
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 20.8
(69.4)
22.2
(72)
28.5
(83.3)
34.7
(94.5)
34.9
(94.8)
38.1
(100.6)
40.7
(105.3)
40.0
(104)
38.5
(101.3)
33.9
(93)
27.4
(81.3)
22.9
(73.2)
40.7
(105.3)
Average high °C (°F) 4.4
(39.9)
5.7
(42.3)
10.7
(51.3)
18.0
(64.4)
23.2
(73.8)
27.1
(80.8)
30.2
(86.4)
30.2
(86.4)
24.9
(76.8)
18.1
(64.6)
10.7
(51.3)
5.8
(42.4)
17.4
(63.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.6
(33.1)
1.1
(34)
5.5
(41.9)
12.2
(54)
17.2
(63)
21.3
(70.3)
24.1
(75.4)
23.7
(74.7)
18.5
(65.3)
12.3
(54.1)
6.1
(43)
2.1
(35.8)
12.1
(53.8)
Average low °C (°F) −2.2
(28)
−2.3
(27.9)
1.8
(35.2)
7.6
(45.7)
12.2
(54)
16.4
(61.5)
18.7
(65.7)
18.0
(64.4)
13.3
(55.9)
7.9
(46.2)
2.8
(37)
−0.7
(30.7)
7.8
(46)
Record low °C (°F) −32.9
(−27.2)
−29.8
(−21.6)
−25.6
(−14.1)
−5.6
(21.9)
−1.2
(29.8)
4.2
(39.6)
9.5
(49.1)
3.9
(39)
−2.2
(28)
−9.9
(14.2)
−20.4
(−4.7)
−27.6
(−17.7)
−32.9
(−27.2)
Precipitation mm (inches) 66
(2.6)
54
(2.13)
58
(2.28)
51
(2.01)
68
(2.68)
86
(3.39)
56
(2.2)
44
(1.73)
46
(1.81)
56
(2.2)
73
(2.87)
77
(3.03)
735
(28.94)
Avg. rainy days 11 9 13 14 14 13 9 8 9 10 13 14 137
Avg. snowy days 9 8 5 0.2 0 0 0 0 0 0.4 3 7 32.6
 % humidity 84 79 75 70 70 70 66 64 70 77 83 85 74
Mean monthly sunshine hours 71.3 87.0 136.4 180.0 248.0 276.0 303.8 285.2 237.0 173.6 87.0 55.8 2,141.1
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net[16]
Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory (sun only)[17]

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Krasnodar is twinned with:

Notable people[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Reference Information #34.01-707/13-03
  2. ^ a b c Charter of Krasnodar Krai, Article 13
  3. ^ a b c Law #670-OZ
  4. ^ "Евланов Владимир Лазаревич - глава муниципального образования город Краснодар". Retrieved August 15, 2014. 
  5. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  6. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  7. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
  8. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  9. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  10. ^ "Renaming of the city of Yekaterinodar" (in Russian). Official site of the Education and Science Department of Krasnodar Krai. Archived from the original on August 22, 2011. Retrieved December 4, 2010. 
  11. ^ "The Splash Fountain in Krasnodar". Sergio-zevs.blogspot.com. 2011-09-25. Retrieved 2012-12-17. 
  12. ^ "Krasnodar again was named best city for business in Russia. RU". Vesti.kz. Retrieved 2012-12-17. 
  13. ^ В рейтинге Минрегионразвития Краснодар лидирует по 16-ти из 26-ти позиций
  14. ^ Центральная Югополис, 30.04.2013
  15. ^ Рейтинг школ: кто первый? «Югополис», 05.01.2011
  16. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net (Weather and Climate-The Climate of Krasnodar)" (in Russian). Weather and Climate. Retrieved August 16, 2012. 
  17. ^ "Climatological Information for Krasnodar, Russia". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved August 16, 2012. 
  18. ^ "Städte­partnerschaften" (in German). Stadt Karlsruhe. December 16, 2010. Archived from the original on July 24, 2010. Retrieved January 5, 2011. 

Sources[edit]

  • Управление по взаимодействию с органами местного самоуправления Администрации Краснодарского края. Справочная информация №34.01-707/13-03 от 23 мая 2013 г. «Реестр административно-территориальных единиц Краснодарского края». (Department of Cooperation with the Organs of the Local Self-Government of the Administration of Krasnodar Krai. Reference Information #34.01-707/13-03 of May 23, 2013 Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units of Krasnodar Krai. ).
  • Законодательное Собрание Краснодарского края. Закон №670-КЗ от 10 марта 2004 г. «Об установлении границ муниципального образования город Краснодар и наделении его статусом городского округа», в ред. Закона №2435-КЗ от 3 февраля 2012 г «О внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Краснодарского края об установлении границ муниципальных образований». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Кубанские новости", №37–38, 13 марта 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Krasnodar Krai. Law #670-OZ of March 10, 2004 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formation of the City of Krasnodar and on Granting It Urban Okrug Status, as amended by the Law #2435-KZ of February 3, 2012 On Amending Various Legislative Acts of Krasnodar Krai on Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).

External links[edit]