|- City -|
Location of Krasnodar Krai in Russia
|City Day||Last non-working day of September|
|Administrative status (as of May 2013)|
|Federal subject||Krasnodar Krai|
|Administratively subordinated to||City of Krasnodar|
|Administrative center of||Krasnodar Krai, City of Krasnodar|
|Municipal status (as of February 2012)|
|Urban okrug||Krasnodar Urban Okrug|
|Administrative center of||Krasnodar Urban Okrug|
|Head||Vladimir Yevlanov|
|Representative body||City Duma|
|Population (2010 Census)||744,995 inhabitants|
|- Rank in 2010||17th|
|Time zone||MSK (UTC+03:00)|
|Founded||January 12, 1794|
|City status since||1867|
|Previous names||Yekaterinodar (until 1920)|
|Postal code(s)||350000–350005, 350007, 350010–350012, 350014–350016, 350018–350020, 350033, 350035, 350038–350040, 350042, 350044, 350047, 350049, 350051, 350058, 350059, 350061–350067, 350072, 350075, 350078, 350080, 350086–350090, 350500, 350880, 350890, 350899–350901, 350910–350912, 350931, 350960, 350961, 350963–350965, 350991–350999|
|Dialing code(s)||+7 861|
|Krasnodar on WikiCommons|
Krasnodar (Russian: Краснодар; IPA: [krəsnɐˈdar]) is a city and the administrative center of Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the Kuban River about 148 kilometers (92 mi) northeast of the Black Sea port of Novorossiysk. Population: 744,995 (2010 Census); 646,175 (2002 Census); 620,516 (1989 Census).
It was founded on January 12, 1794 (Gregorian calendar) as Yekaterinodar (Екатеринода́р). The original name meant "Catherine's Gift", recognizing both Catherine the Great's grant of land in the Kuban region to the Black Sea Cossacks (created from former Zaporozhian Cossacks) and Saint Catherine of Alexandria, who is considered to be the patron of the city.
In December 1920, as a result of the October Revolution, Yekaterinodar was renamed Krasnodar (Gift of the Reds). The new name consists of Krasno- (Красно- – 'red', i.e. Communist, but also archaic/poetic form of 'beautiful'); and dar (дар – 'gift'). 
The city originated in 1793 as a military camp, then as a fortress built by the Cossacks to defend imperial borders and to assert Russian dominion over Circassia, a claim which Ottoman Turkey contested. In the first half of the 19th century, Yekaterinodar grew into a busy center of the Kuban Cossacks. It gained town status in 1867. By 1888 about 45,000 people lived in the city, which had become a vital trade center for southern Russia. In 1897 an obelisk commemorating the two-hundred-year history of the Kuban Cossacks (seen as founded in 1696) was erected in Yekaterinodar.
During the Russian Civil War (1917-1922) the city changed hands several times, coming successively under the control of the Red Army and of the Volunteer Army. Many Kuban Cossacks, as committed anti-Bolsheviks, supported the White Movement. Lavr Kornilov, a White general, captured the city on April 10, 1918, only to be killed a week later when a Bolshevik artillery shell blew up the farmhouse where he had set up his headquarters.
During World War II units of the German Army occupied Krasnodar between August 12, 1942 and February 12, 1943. The city sustained heavy damage in the fighting but was rebuilt and renovated after the war. German forces, including Gestapo and "mobile SS execution squads", killed thousands of Jews, Communists, and "supposed Communist 'partisans.'" Shooting, hanging, burning, and even gas vans were used. 
In the summer of 1943 the Soviets began trials, including of their own citizens, for collusion with the Nazis and for participation in war crimes. The first such trial took place at Krasnodar from July 14 to 17, 1943. The Krasnodar tribunal pronounced eight death sentences, which were summarily carried out in the city square in front of a crowd of about thirty thousand people.
Administrative and municipal status
Krasnodar is the administrative center of the krai. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with twenty-nine rural localities, incorporated as the City of Krasnodar—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the City of Krasnodar is incorporated as Krasnodar Urban Okrug.
Other attractions include St. Catherine's Cathedral, the State Arts Museum, a park and theater named after Maxim Gorky, the beautiful concert hall of the Krasnodar Philharmonic Society, which is considered to have some of the best acoustics in southern Russia, State Cossack Choir and the Krasnodar circus
The most interesting place of Krasnodar is Krasnaya Street (which translates as "Red, Beautiful Street"). There are situated many sights of Krasnodar. In the beginning of this street one can see the Central Concert Hall; at the other end one can see the Avrora cinemacenter. A "Triumphal Arch" is situated in the middle of Krasnaya Street.
Theater Square is home to the largest splash fountain in Europe. This fountain was officially inaugurated on September 25, 2011 along with the official ceremony to celebrate the City Day in Krasnodar.
Krasnodar is the economic center of southern Russia. For several years, Forbes magazine named Krasnodar the best city for business in Russia. The industrial sector of the city has more than 130 large and medium-sized enterprises.
The main industries of Krasnodar:
- Agriculture and food industry: 42.8%
- Energy sector: 13.4%
- Fuel industry: 10.5%
- Machine construction: 9.4%
- Forestry and chemical industries: about 4%
Krasnodar is a highly developed commercial area. Krasnodar has the largest turnover in the Southern Federal District of Russia. Retail trade turnover in 2010 reached 290 billion RUB. Krasnodar is the first in Russia in the number of malls (per capita). Note that in the crisis year 2009 turnover of Krasnodar continued to grow, while most of the cities showed a negative trend in the sale of goods.
Krasnodar has the lowest unemployment rate among the cities of the Southern Federal District at 0,3% of the total working-age population. Also, Krasnodar holds the first place in terms of highest average salary - 21,742 roubles per capita.
Tourism comprises a large part of Krasnodar's economy. There are more than 80 hotels in Krasnodar. Hilton Garden Inn, opened in 2013, is the first world-class hotel in the city.
As in many other major cities in Russia, the primary mode of local transportation in Krasnodar is the automobile, though efforts have been made to increase the availability of alternative modes of transportation, including the construction of light rail lines (projected), biking paths, and wide sidewalks. Public transportation within Krasnodar consists of city buses, trolleybuses, trams, and marshrutkas (routed taxis). Trolleybuses and trams, both powered by overhead electric wires, are the main form of public transportation in Krasnodar. Krasnodar does not have a metro system.
The main airline is Kuban Airlines (at Krasnodar International Airport), and the largest hotels in the city include the Intourist, Hotel Moskva, and Hotel Platan. Krasnodar uses a 220 V/50 Hz power supply with two round-pin outlets, like most European countries.
The city has numerous institutions of higher education, including some state universities (Kuban State University, Kuban State Technological University, Kuban State Agrarian University, Kuban State Medical University, etc.). Other universities include: Marketing and Social Technology University of Krasnodar.
The oldest part of the city is Old Downtown Krasnodar, which consists of many historic buildings, several from the 19th century. Buildings have been preserved, restored or reconstructed, and the district is now a substantial tourist attraction.
There are several major theater venues for Krasnodar:
- The Gorky Krasnodar State Academic Drama Theater
- The Krasnodar Ballet Theater
- The Krasnodar State Academic Drama Theater
- The Krasnodar Regional Puppet Theater
- The Krasnodar Musical Theater
- The Children's Ballet Theater "Fugitives"
- The Krasnodar State Circus
- The Krasnodar Youth Theater
- The Ponomarenko Krasnodar Philharmonic
- The Kuban Cossack Choir
- The Creative Association "Premiere"
- The New Puppet Theater
Krasnodar has several major museums. The Kovalenko Krasnodar Regional Art Museum, the oldest public art museum in the North Caucasus, is one of the finest.
The largest public library of the city is the Pushkin Krasnodar Regional Universal Scientific Library, founded in 1900.
Several sports clubs are active in the city:
|Kuban Krasnodar||Football||1928||Russian Premier League||1st||Kuban Stadium|
|FC Krasnodar||Football||2008||Russian Premier League||1st||Kuban Stadium|
|Kubanochka Krasnodar||Football||1988||Women's Top Division||1st||Trud Stadium|
|Lokomotiv Kuban||Basketball||2009||Professional Basketball League||1st||Basket Hall|
|Kuban Krasnodar||Rugby union||1996||Professional Rugby League||1st||Yunost stadium|
|Kuban Krasnodar||Ice hockey||2012||Higher Hockey League||2nd||Kuban Ice Palace|
|Dynamo Krasnodar||Volleyball||1994||Volleyball Super League||1st||Olimp Sports Palace|
|Dynamo Krasnodar||Volleyball||1946||Women's Volleyball Super League||1st||Olimp Sports Palace|
|SKIF Krasnodar||Handball||1963||Handball Super League||1st||Olimp Sports Palace|
|Kuban Krasnodar||Handball||1965||Women's Handball Superleague||1st||Olimp Sports Palace|
Coat of arms
The coat of arms of Yekaterinodar was introduced in 1841 by the Cossack yesaul Ivan Chernik. The royal letter "E" in the middle is for Ekaterina II (Russian for Catherine II). It also depicts the date city was founded, the Imperial double headed eagle (symbolizing Tsar's patronage of Black Sea Cossacks), a bulawa of a Cossack ataman, Yekaterinodar fortress, and flags with letters "E", "P", "A", and "N" standing for Catherine II, Paul I, Alexander I and Nicholas I. Yellow stars around the shield symbolized 59 Black Sea stanitsas around the city.
Winters are cold and damp, with unstable snow cover. The average temperature in January, the area's coldest month, is 1 °C (34 °F). Weather conditions in winter vary greatly. Temperatures can exceed 20 °C (68 °F) for a few days, but temperatures below −20 °C (−4 °F) are not uncommon for Krasnodar as the city is not protected by mountains from cold waves. Summers are typically hot with a July average of 24.1 °C (75.4 °F).
The city receives 735 millimeters (28.9 in) of precipitation annually, fairly spread throughout the year. Extreme storms are rare in the Krasnodar area. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −32.9 to 40.7 °C (−27.2 to 105.3 °F), recorded on January 11, 1940 and July 30, 2000, respectively.
February 2, 2015 was beaten by the absolute temperature record for more than 70 years of observations. The air in the capital of the Kuban has warmed up to + 20 degrees Celsius (68 Fahrenheit).
|Climate data for Krasnodar|
|Record high °C (°F)||20.8
|Average high °C (°F)||4.4
|Daily mean °C (°F)||0.6
|Average low °C (°F)||−2.2
|Record low °C (°F)||−32.9
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||66
|Average snowfall cm (inches)||3
|Avg. rainy days||13||11||14||15||14||14||10||8||10||12||14||15||150|
|Avg. snowy days||6||6||3||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||2||5||22|
|Average relative humidity (%)||84||79||75||70||70||70||66||64||70||77||83||85||74|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||71.3||87.0||136.4||180.0||248.0||276.0||303.8||285.2||237.0||173.6||87.0||55.8||2,141.1|
|Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net|
|Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory (sun only)|
Twin towns and sister cities
Krasnodar is twinned with:
|United States||Tallahassee, Florida|
- Viktor Popkov (b. 1946), Christian
- Violetta Egorova (b. 1969), concert pianist
- Alexandre Bondar (b. 1972), writer and novelist
- Natalia Chernova (b. 1976), gymnast
- Tatyana Chernova (b. 1988), heptathlon athlete
- Pyotr Gavrilov (1900-1979), Soviet war hero, last defender of the Brest Fortress
- Alexander Karasyov (b. 1971), writer
- Irina Karavayeva (b. 1975), trampoline gymnast
- Eduard Koksharov (b. 1975), handball player
- Viktor Likhonosov (b. 1936), writer
- Anna Netrebko (b. 1971), opera singer
- Gennady Padalka (b. 1958), cosmonaut
- Lazaros Papadopoulos, (b. 1980), Greek basketball player
- Andrei Shkuro, counter revolutionary
- Viktor Sorokin (b. 1979), singer and leader of the Kuban Cossack Choir
- Alexander Tamanian (1878–1936), neoclassical architect
- Sergei Tiviakov (b. 1973), chess Grandmaster
- Sergei Vorzhev (b. 1950), artist
- Inna Zhukova (b. 1986), rhythmic gymnast
- Ilya Ezhov (b. 1987), ice hockey goaltender, Gagarin Cup champion
- Reference Information #34.01-707/13-03
- Charter of Krasnodar Krai, Article 13
- Law #670-OZ
- "Евланов Владимир Лазаревич - глава муниципального образования город Краснодар". Retrieved August 15, 2014.
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
- Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014.
- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
- Azarenkova et al., pp. 9ff.
- "Renaming of the city of Yekaterinodar" (in Russian). Official site of the Education and Science Department of Krasnodar Krai. Archived from the original on August 22, 2011. Retrieved December 4, 2010.
- Lichtblau (2014), p. 47-48
- "The Splash Fountain in Krasnodar". Sergio-zevs.blogspot.com. 2011-09-25. Retrieved 2012-12-17.
- "Krasnodar again was named best city for business in Russia. RU". Vesti.kz. Retrieved 2012-12-17.
- В рейтинге Минрегионразвития Краснодар лидирует по 16-ти из 26-ти позиций
- Центральная Югополис, 30.04.2013
- Рейтинг школ: кто первый? «Югополис», 05.01.2011
- "Pogoda.ru.net (Weather and Climate-The Climate of Krasnodar)" (in Russian). Weather and Climate. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
- "Climatological Information for Krasnodar, Russia". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
- Управление по взаимодействию с органами местного самоуправления Администрации Краснодарского края. Справочная информация №34.01-707/13-03 от 23 мая 2013 г. «Реестр административно-территориальных единиц Краснодарского края». (Department of Cooperation with the Organs of the Local Self-Government of the Administration of Krasnodar Krai. Reference Information #34.01-707/13-03 of May 23, 2013 Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units of Krasnodar Krai. ).
- Законодательное Собрание Краснодарского края. Закон №670-КЗ от 10 марта 2004 г. «Об установлении границ муниципального образования город Краснодар и наделении его статусом городского округа», в ред. Закона №2435-КЗ от 3 февраля 2012 г «О внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Краснодарского края об установлении границ муниципальных образований». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Кубанские новости", №37–38, 13 марта 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Krasnodar Krai. Law #670-OZ of March 10, 2004 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formation of the City of Krasnodar and on Granting It Urban Okrug Status, as amended by the Law #2435-KZ of February 3, 2012 On Amending Various Legislative Acts of Krasnodar Krai on Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
- Lichtblau, Eric. "The Nazis Next Door: How America Became A Safe Haven For Hitler's Men" (2014) pp: 47-48.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Krasnodar.|
- Official website of Krasnodar City Administration and City Duma
- Krasnodar photographs
- Krasnodar news
- News and events in Krasnodar
- Old pictures of Yekaterinodar