Krasnodar Krai

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Krasnodar Krai
Краснодарский край (Russian)
—  Krai  —

Flag

Coat of arms
Anthem: Anthem of Krasnodar Krai
Coordinates: 45°22′N 39°26′E / 45.367°N 39.433°E / 45.367; 39.433Coordinates: 45°22′N 39°26′E / 45.367°N 39.433°E / 45.367; 39.433
Political status
Country  Russia
Federal district Southern[1]
Economic region North Caucasus[2]
Established September 13, 1937[3]
Administrative center Krasnodar
Government (as of August 2010)
 - Head of Administration (Governor)[5] Alexander Tkachyov[4]
 - Legislature Legislative Assembly[6]
Statistics
Area (as of the 2002 Census)[7]
 - Total 76,000 km2 (29,000 sq mi)
Area rank 42nd
Population (2010 Census)[8]
 - Total 5,226,647
 - Rank 3rd
 - Density[9] 68.77 /km2 (178.1 /sq mi)
 - Urban 52.9%
 - Rural 47.1%
Time zone(s) MSK (UTC+04:00)[10]
ISO 3166-2 RU-KDA
License plates 23
Official languages Russian[11]
Official website

Krasnodar Krai (Russian: Краснода́рский край, tr. Krasnodarsky kray; IPA: [krəsnɐˈdarskʲɪj kraj]) is a federal subject of Russia (a krai), located in the Southern Federal District. Its administrative center is the city of Krasnodar. It had a population of 5,226,647 (2010 Census);[8] 5,404,273 (official estimate as at 1 January 2014).[12]

The krai is sometimes referred to as Kuban, a historical region of southern Russia.

Geography[edit]

A hilly landscape near Goryachy Klyuch
Seat of the Krai administration in Krasnaya street, Krasnodar
EMU train Lastotschka, Sochi
Waterfall Pshada
Former chairlift Alpica Service. Dismantled in 2012

Krasnodar Krai encompasses the western part of the Forecaucasus and a part of the northern slopes of Caucasus Major. Krasnodar Krai borders, clockwise from the west, Crimea—from which it is separated by the Strait of Kerch and the Sea of Azov—Russia's Rostov Oblast, Stavropol Krai, and the Karachay–Cherkess Republic, and the breakaway republic of Abkhazia (claimed by Georgia). The krai's territory entirely encircles the Republic of Adygea. Krasnodar Krai's southern border is formed by what is left of Russia's Black Sea coast, with the most important port (Novorossiysk) and resort (Sochi) in this part of the country. Geographically, the area is split by the Kuban River into two distinct parts. The southern, seaward third (Circassia) is the western extremity of the Caucasus range, lying within the Crimean Submediterranean forest complex ecoregion; the climate is Mediterranean or, in the south-east, subtropical. The northern two-thirds lies on the Pontic Steppe and shares continental climate patterns. The largest lake is Abrau in the wine-making region of Abrau-Dyurso.

The Apsheronsk narrow-gauge railway, the longest mountain - narrow-gauge railway in Russia, runs through Krasnodar Krai.

History[edit]

In 631, Kubrat was founded on the Kuban State and the Great Bulgar Khans dynasty began. The Royal city became Phanagoria. The territory of Krasnodar Region from the 8th to the 10th centuries was part of the Khazars. After the defeat of the Khazar Khanate in 965 Kievan prince Svyatoslav conquered the area, it came under the rule of Kievan Rus', and it then formed the Tmutarakan principality. Later, due to the increasing claims of Byzantium at the end of the 11th century, the Tmutarakan principality came under the authority of the Byzantine emperors (until 1204).

In that period of history, Russian Circassians first appeared under the name (ethnonym) Kasogs. For example, Rededi Prince Kasozhsky was mentioned in The Tale of Igor's Campaign.

In 1243-1438 the current territory of the Kuban was part of the Golden Horde. After the collapse of the latter, parts of Kuban were held under the Crimean Khanate, Circassia, and the Ottoman Empire, which dominated the region. The Tsardom of Russia began to challenge the protectorate of the Ottoman Empire in the area during the Russian-Turkish wars.

In April of 1783 by decree of Catherine II right-bank Kuban and Taman Peninsula were annexed to the Russian Empire. In the years 1792-93 cossacks moved here from Zaporozhye, now located in Ukraine, and formed the Black Sea Area troops, with the creation of a solid cordon line for the Kuban River and the marginalization of the neighboring Circassians.

During the campaign for control of the North Caucasus (Caucasian war 1763-1864) to Russia in 1829 pushed the Ottoman Empire and the 1830s. Border was marked on the Black Sea coast.

In 1783 present northern territory of Kuban region, became part of Russia after the liquidation of the Crimean Khanate. To protect the river Kuban, a border garrison was here in the years 1793-94. The remains were relocated to the Cossacks, initiating development of the region. Administrative region received the status of "Land of Black Sea Cossack Army".

Before the October Revolution of 1917, most of the territory of modern Kuban-Krasnodar territory occupied area, formed in 1860 from the Black Sea Cossack Army, the western part of the Caucasus Line Cossack troops. Kuban region was a territory of the Kuban Cossack Army.

In 1900 the region's population numbered around two million people. In 1913 the gross grain harvest Kuban region entered the 2nd place in Russia, for the production of marketable grain - in the 1st place.

Politics[edit]

During the Soviet period, the high authority in the Krai was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Krasnodar CPSU Committee (who in reality had the biggest authority), the chairman of the Krai Soviet (legislative power), and the Chairman of the Krai Executive Committee (executive power). Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, and the head of the Krai administration, and eventually the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament.

The Charter of Krasnodar Krai is the fundamental law of the region. The Legislative Assembly of Krasnodar Krai is the province's standing legislative (representative) body. The Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws, resolutions, and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it. The highest executive body is the Krai Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations, committees, and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province. The Krai administration supports the activities of the Governor who is the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the Krai Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia.

Administrative divisions[edit]

Krasnodar Krai is administratively divided into thirty-eight districts (raions) and fifteen cities of district equivalence. The districts and cities are further subdivided into eleven towns, plus urban-type settlements, and rural okrugs and stanitsa okrugs.

Demographics[edit]

Population: 5,404,273 (1.1.2014 estimate);[13] 5,226,647 (2010 Census);[8] 5,125,221 (2002 Census);[14] 5,113,148 (1989 Census).[15]

The population of Krasnodar Krai is concentrated in the Kuban River drainage basin, which used to be traditional Cossack land (see History of Cossacks). The Kuban Cossacks are now generally considered to be ethnic Russians, even though they are still an important minority in their own right in this area. Other notable ethnic groups are the Adyghe who have lived in the Kuban area before the Cossacks and for thousands of years; other residents include the Armenians (including Christian Hamsheni and Cherkesogai) who have lived in the region since at least the 18th century.

Ethnic groups: the 2010 Census identified ethnic groups, as shown in the following table:[8]

Population Ethnicity Percentage of total population
4,522,962 Russians 88.3%
281,680 Armenians 5.5%
83,746 Ukrainians 1.6%
24,840 Tatars 0.5%
22,595 Greeks 0.4%
17,826 Georgians 0.3%
16,890 Belarusians 0.3%
13,834 Adyghe 0.3%
12,920 Romani 0.3%
12,171 Germans 0.2%
10,165 Azeris 0.2%
8,527 Turks 0.2%
5,170 Moldovans 0.1%
3,764 Assyrians 0.1%
79,768 Others 1.5%
  • 101,657 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.[16]

Vital Statistics for 2007: Source

  • Birth Rate: 11.19 per 1000
  • Death Rate: 14.39 per 1000
  • Net Immigration: +7.1 per 1000
  • NGR: -0.32% per Year
  • PGR: +0.39% per Year

Vital Statistics for 2008:[17]

  • Population (Jan 2009): 5,100,000
  • Births (2008): 62,200
  • Deaths (2008): 72,900
Vital statistics for 2012
  • Births: 69 031 (13.1 per 1000)
  • Deaths: 69 427 (13.1 per 1000) [18]
  • Total fertility rate:[19]

2009 - 1.59 | 2010 - 1.57 | 2011 - 1.58 | 2012 - 1.70 | 2013 - 1.72(e)

Religion[edit]





Circle frame.svg

Religion in Krasnodar Krai (2012)[20][21]

  Russian Orthodox (52.2%)
  Unaffiliated Christian (3%)
  Muslim (1%)
  Other Orthodox (1%)
  Spiritual but not religious (22%)
  Atheist (13%)
  Other or undeclared (7.8%)

According to a 2012 official survey[20] 52.2% of the population of Krasnodar Krai adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 3% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% adheres to other Orthodox Churches, and 1% are Muslims. In addition, 22% of the population deems itself to be "spiritual but not religious", 13% is atheist, and 7.8% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question.[20]

2012 floods[edit]

Main article: 2012 Russian floods

On 7 July 2012, at least 171 people died in Krasnodar Krai, after torrential rains overnight caused the worst flooding and landslides in over 70 years.[22][23][24] The average rainfall for 4–5 months, over 280 millimetres (11 in), was reported to have fallen within 48 hours.[22][24][25] A local police spokesman stated that most of the dead were in Krymsky District, where at least 159 died when a wave of water 5 metres (16 ft) high swept through the town of Krymsk in the middle of the night.[23][24][25] Ten more deaths occurred in Gelendzhik, including five electrocuted when a transformer fell into the floodwater, and two in Novorossiysk.[22][24][25] Authorities stated that 17 people had been officially reported missing, and there were fears the death toll would rise further, while medics had hospitalised 210 people, including 16 children.[24]

The regional government claimed that over 24,000 people were affected by the floods, with more than 3,000 evacuated, and that more than 10,000 rescuers and 140 helicopters were searching for victims and evacuating survivors.[22][24][25] In Krymsk, 14 temporary shelters were set up to house around 2,000 evacuees.[24] The transport system in the region was said to have collapsed, while oil shipments from Novorossiysk were halted when the port, located in the lower part of the city, was threatened by landslides.[22][25][26] Russia's President, Vladimir Putin, flew to the area to hold emergency talks with officials in Krymsk, while authorities in Perm dispatched a rescue team to evacuate dozens of children from the region, who had been staying at summer camps on the Black Sea coast.[22][24][26]

Residents of Krymsk claimed the wave of water that hit the town resulted from the sluice gates of a nearby reservoir being opened, although this was denied by the prosecutor general's investigative committee. Local prosecutors had earlier confirmed that the gates were opened, but stated that it was too early to determine whether this was the cause of the flooding.[23]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  2. ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  3. ^ Azarenkova et al., p. 114
  4. ^ Official website of Krasnodar Krai. Biography of Alexander Nikolayevich Tkachyov (Russian)
  5. ^ Charter, Article 41.1
  6. ^ Charter, Chapter 3
  7. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01. 
  8. ^ a b c d Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  9. ^ The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population.
  10. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  11. ^ Official on the whole territory of Russia according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  12. ^ State Committee of the Russian Federation on Statistics.
  13. ^ State Committee of the Russian Federation on Statistics, 2014.
  14. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  15. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  16. ^ Перепись-2010: русских становится больше. Perepis-2010.ru (2011-12-19). Retrieved on 2012-07-07.
  17. ^ Население Краснодарского края в 2008 году увеличилось на 0,4% - Новости России - ИА REGNUM. Regnum.ru (2009-02-19). Retrieved on 2012-07-07.
  18. ^ http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/2012/demo/edn12-12.htm
  19. ^ http://www.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_main/rosstat/ru/statistics/publications/catalog/doc_1137674209312
  20. ^ a b c Arena - Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia. Sreda.org
  21. ^ 2012 Survey Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 24-09-2012.
  22. ^ a b c d e f "Russia Flash Floods: 144 Killed in Krasnodar Region". BBC News (London). 7 July 2012. Retrieved 7 July 2012. 
  23. ^ a b c Elder, Miriam (9 July 2012). "Russian Floods Kill 150 and Leave Thousands Homeless". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 9 July 2012. 
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h "Over 170 Killed as Tsunami-like Flood Hits Southern Russia". Russia Today (Moscow). 7 July 2012. Retrieved 7 July 2012. 
  25. ^ a b c d e "Over 100 Die in Russia as Floods and Landslides Hit Krasnodar Region". The Guardian (London). 7 July 2012. Retrieved 7 July 2012. 
  26. ^ a b "Vladimir Putin Flies to Flood-hit Southern Russia as Death Toll Rises". The Guardian (London). 8 July 2012. Retrieved 9 July 2012. 

Sources[edit]

  • Азаренкова, А. С.; И. Ю. Бондарь; Н. С. Вертышева (1986) [1986]. Основные административно-территориальные преобразования на Кубани (1793–1985 гг.) (in Russian). Краснодарское книжное издательство. 
  • 10 ноября 1993 г. «Устав Краснодарского края», в ред. Закона №1523-КЗ от 21 июля 2008 г. (November 10, 1993 Charter of Krasnodar Krai, as amended by the Law #1523-KZ of July 21, 2008. ).

External links[edit]