Krasue

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Krasue
(Ahp, Penanggalan, Leyak)
XRF-krasue.jpg
Krasue (Thai) or Ahp (Khmer) ghost
Grouping Legendary creature
Sub grouping Nocturnal, undead
Similar creatures Manananggal (Philippines)
Mythology Southeast Asian folk mythology
Country Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Malaysia, Indonesia
Region Southeast Asia

The Krasue (Thai: กระสือ), known as Ahp (Khmer: អាប) in Cambodia and as Kasu in Laos, is a nocturnal female spirit of Southeast Asian folklore. It manifests itself as a woman, usually young and beautiful, with her viscera hanging down from the neck, trailing below the head.[1]

According to Thai ethnographer Phraya Anuman Rajadhon, the Krasue consists of a floating head accompanied by a will-o'-the-wisp kind of glow.[2] The explanations attempted about the origin of the glow include the presence of methane in marshy areas.[3] The Krasue is often said to live in the same areas as Krahang, a male spirit of the Thai folklore.

This spirit moves about by hovering in the air above the ground, for it has no lower body. The throat may be represented in different ways, either as only the trachea or with the whole neck.[4] The organs below the head usually include the heart and the stomach with a length of intestine,[5] the intestinal tract emphasizing the ghost's voracious nature. In recent movie Krasue Valentine, this ghost is represented with more internal organs, such as lungs and liver, but much reduced in size and anatomically out of proportion with the head.[6] The viscera are sometimes represented freshly daubed with blood,[7] as well as glowing.[8] In contemporary representations her teeth often include pointed fangs in yaksha (Thai: ยักษ์) or vampire fashion.[9] In the movie Ghosts of Guts Eater she has a halo around her head.[10]

Krasue has been the subject of a number of movies in the region, including Kon Aeuy Madai Ahp (Khmer: កូនអើយ ម្តាយអាប). Also known as Krasue Mom, this Cambodian horror film has the distinction of being the first movie made in the People's Republic of Kampuchea after the absence of locally-made movies and the repression of local folklore in Cambodia during the Khmer Rouge era.[11]

The Krasue is also found in the popular mythology of Malaysia and Indonesia, where it is called Penanggalan, Hantu Penanggal or Leyak, among other names. This spirit is also part of Vietnamese folklore, as Ma Lai, via the tribal societies of Vietnam's Western Highlands. In the Philippines there is a similar ghost, Manananggal, a local spirit that haunts pregnant women.[12]

Legends[edit]

Origin[edit]

In Thailand, there is a modern legend of a certain Khmer princess becoming the Krasue in centuries past after having been executed by burning.The marriage to a powerful Siamese nobleman had been arranged for this Khmer lady following the defeat of her people in war. She was very distressed, however, for she was in love with one of the conquering soldiers, a younger man of a lower status. Eventually she was caught with her lover and the offended Siamese aristocrat sentenced her to death by burning. Shortly before the execution the princess got a Khmer sorceress to cast a magic spell over her to allow her body to be unharmed by the flames. The spell was powerful, but its effect arrived too late, when most of the body of the princess had been burnt except for her head and some of her viscera. Thenceforward the non-charred remains were cursed to continue living as the Krasue ghost. This modern version of Phi Krasue's legend that locates Krasue's origin in Angkorian Khmer culture was enacted in the 2002 Thai horror film Demonic Beauty.[13]

There are other oral traditions that say that this spirit was formerly a rich lady that had a length of black gauze or ribbon tied around the head and neck as protection from the sunshine. This woman was then possessed by an evil spirit and was cursed to become a Krasue. Other popular legends claim that origin of the spirit may have been a woman trying to learn black magic that made a mistake or used the wrong spell so that her head and body became separated. Past sins are also related to the transmission of the Krasue curse; women who aborted or killed someone in a previous life will become a Krasue as punishment. Other folk stories talk about a person being cursed to become a Krasue after having consumed food and drink contaminated with a krasue's saliva or flesh. Popular imagination also claims that the transformation into a Krasue is largely restricted to the relatives of women practicing witchcraft "Mae Mot" (แม่มด) or "Yai Mot" (ยายมด), especially their daughters or granddaughters. Often women acting strange in a community are suspected of becoming nightly a Krasue by other members of the village.[14]

Description in Thai folklore[edit]

The Krasue is under a curse that makes it ever hungry and always active in the night when it goes out hunting to satisfy its gluttony, seeking blood to drink or raw flesh to devour. It may attack cattle or chicken in the darkness, drinking their blood and eating their internal organs.[15] It may also prey on pieces of cattle, such as water buffalo that have died of other causes during the night. If blood is not available the Krasue may eat feces or carrion.[16] Clothes left outside would be found soiled with blood and excrement in the morning, allegedly after she had wiped her mouth. Therefore villagers would not leave clothes hanging to dry outside during the night hours.

The Krasue also preys on pregnant women in their homes just before or after the childbirth. It hovers around the house of the pregnant woman uttering sharp cries to instil fear. It uses an elongated proboscis-like tongue[17][18] to reach the fetus or its placenta within the womb. This habit, among other unmentionable things that this spirit does, is believed to be the cause of many diseases affecting women mainly in rural areas during their pregnancy. In some cases it may catch the unborn child and use its sharp teeth to devour it. In order to protect pregnant women from becoming victims before delivery, their relatives place thorny branches around the house. This improvised thorny fence discourages the Krasue from coming to suck the blood and causing other suffering to the pregnant lady within the house.[19] After delivery, the woman's relatives must take the cut placenta far away for burial to hide it from the Krasue. There is the belief that if the placenta is buried deep enough the spirit can not find it. [16]

The Krasue hides the headless body from which it originates in a quiet place because it needs to join it before daybreak,[20] living like a normal person during the day.[21] To crush the still headless body of the krasue is fatal to the spirit. The flying head will return after hunting but rejoin with the wrong body which will lead it to suffer torment until death. If the top part of the body fails to find the lower half before daybreak it will die in terrible pain. The Krasue will also die if its intestines get cut off or if its body disappears or gets hidden by someone. Some folk beliefs hold that the creature can be destroyed by burning it. The main foes of the Krasue are mobs of angry villagers carrying torches and machetes. They may catch the Krasue and kill it or watch where she goes before dawn and destroy her body.

Modern popular culture[edit]

Countries where the Krasue tale is popular have adapted it to film.[22] Several Thai films depict this spirit, including 1973 movie Krasue Sao (Ghosts of Guts Eater), Thai: กระสือสาว with Sombat Metanee, which features a fight between two Krasues,[23] Itthirit Nam Man Phrai Thai: อิทธิฤทธิ์น้ำมันพราย made in 1984, with Tanid Pongmanoon and Praew Mardmarud,[24] Krasue Kat Pop Thai: กระสือกัดปอบ (1990) with Bin Banleurit and Trirak Rakkarndee,[25] Krasue Krahailueat (Bloodthirsty Krasue) made in 1995 with Thida Teerarat,[26] Tamnan Krasue Thai: ตำนานกระสือ(Demonic Beauty) released in 2002, Krasue Valentine (2006) by Yuthlert Sippapak, Krasue (The Gluttonous Fear) Thai: กระสือ made in 2007, with Jedsada Roongsakorn and Sirintorn Parnsamutr,[27] Krasue Fat Pop Thai: กระสือฟัดปอบ (2009) with Chutima Naiyana, in which Krasue fights against Phi Pop,[28] and Fullmoon Devil (2011) by Komson Thripong. In all these movies Krasue plays a central role, but she also appears in many other movies in lesser roles.

Krasue, as Ap (also spelt Arp or Arb), is present in the Cambodian horror films Neang Arp (Lady Vampire) (2004),[29] Tiyen Arp (Heredity of Krasue) (2007), Arb Kalum (The Sexiest Krasue) (2009)[30] and Phlerng Chhes Arb.[31] Hong Kong's Witch with the Flying Head (1977), which was dubbed in Thai as Krasue Sawat (กระสือสวาท), meaning "Lovely Krasue",[32] and Indonesia's Mystics in Bali (1981) also feature local versions of Krasue. In the Vietnam War-era drama Freedom Deal by Camerado, President Nixon orders the 1970 military incursion into Cambodia, unwittingly unleashing a legion of local ghosts similar to the Krasue.[33]

This ghost appears periodically in Thai television soap operas (ละคร). Krasue, a popular lakhon aired between 20 December 1994 and 21 March 1995, featured a Krasue in the central role.[34] The theme song of this TV soap opera became very famous.[35] There was a remake in 2011 named Krasue Cham Sin,[36] but it was poorly cast and produced, not being able to reach the popularity of the 1994 Lakhon. A Krasue has been also comically featured in a Sylvania light bulb commercial for Thai audiences[37] and in a more recent dietary supplement ad.[38] A rather ugly-looking Krasue has a role as well in the Nak animated movie.

Representations of Krasue, often humorous,[39] are very common in Thai comic books.[40][41][42] Since this ghost is a popular subject in some places of Southeast Asia, especially in Thailand, there are even costumes,[43] dolls,[44] keyholders[45] and lamps[46] in Krasue form.

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Chutima Pragatwutisarn (2010) (ชุติมา ประกาศวุฒิสาร), Evil Woman in a Beautiful Body: Femininity and the Crisis of Modernity in Thai Society, Chulalongkorn University
  • Baumann, Benjamin (2013) Tamnan Krasue - Constructing a Khmer Ghost for a Thai Film. in: Kyoto Review of Southeast Asia (14)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Spirits. Thailand: Thaiworldview. 2008. 
  2. ^ Essays on Thai Folklore, Editions Duang Kamol, ISBN 974-210-345-3
  3. ^ Mthai News Reporter
  4. ^ Krasue film posters
  5. ^ Movie poster
  6. ^ Krasue representation
  7. ^ Krasue Sao book cover
  8. ^ Glowing Krasue
  9. ^ Krasue Sawath ("กระสือสวาท"), Thai dubbed version of Hong Kong movie "Witch with the Flying Head" film poster
  10. ^ Ghosts of Guts Eater scene
  11. ^ Konm Eak Madia Arb film poster
  12. ^ Manananggal
  13. ^ Tamnan Krasue
  14. ^ Yeay Duol
  15. ^ Honourable Mention: The Ghost and Master Boh
  16. ^ a b Krasue feeding
  17. ^ Krasue tongue
  18. ^ Krasue tongue extended
  19. ^ "វិធីសម្រាលកូន:". Buddhist Institute. Retrieved 12 October 2008. 
  20. ^ Krasue emerging from its body
  21. ^ Fullmoon Devil
  22. ^ Krasue movies
  23. ^ Ghosts of Guts Eater (Thailand 1973)
  24. ^ Itthirith Nam Man Phrai (Thailand 1984)
  25. ^ Krasue Kat Pop (Thailand 1990)
  26. ^ Krasue Krahailueat (Thailand 1995)
  27. ^ The Gluttonous Fear (Thailand 2007)
  28. ^ Krasue Phat Pop (Thailand 2009)
  29. ^ Neang Arp - Moviecambodia
  30. ^ Khmai HORROR
  31. ^ Khmer Movies - Phlerng Chhes Arb
  32. ^ Witch with the Flying Head - Thai poster
  33. ^ Freedom Deal
  34. ^ Krasue - The Floating Head Thai Ghost Lakorn.flv
  35. ^ Krasue - Lakorn Theme song
  36. ^ ละครกระสือจำศีล (Lakhon Krasue Chamsin)
  37. ^ Sylvania light bulb commercial
  38. ^ On Air ทางฟรีทีวีแล้ววันนี้ !!! กับอาหารเสริม The Secret Plus
  39. ^ Krasue image
  40. ^ Comic Vignette
  41. ^ Comic page
  42. ^ Let Comic - Krasue leaving her body
  43. ^ Comedian with Krasue costume
  44. ^ Krasue doll
  45. ^ Krasue keyholder
  46. ^ Krasue lamp

External links[edit]