Kratié Province

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Kratié
ក្រចេះ
Province
Sunset in Kratié Province
Sunset in Kratié Province
Map of Cambodia highlighting Kratié
Map of Cambodia highlighting Kratié
Coordinates: 12°29′N 106°1′E / 12.483°N 106.017°E / 12.483; 106.017Coordinates: 12°29′N 106°1′E / 12.483°N 106.017°E / 12.483; 106.017
Country  Cambodia
Capital Kratié
Area
 • Total 11,094 km2 (4,283 sq mi)
Population (2008)[1]
 • Total 318,523
 • Density 29/km2 (74/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+07
Dialing code +855
ISO 3166 code KH-10
Districts 5

Kratié or Kraches (Khmer: ក្រចេះ IPA: [krɑˈceh] "Powder Cosmetic") is a province (khaet) of Cambodia located in the northeast. It borders Stung Treng to the north, Mondulkiri to the east, Kampong Thom and Kampong Cham to the west, and Tbong Khmum and Vietnam to the south.

The capital of the province is The Town of Kratié located in the Kratié District.

History[edit]

The former Royal Capital Sampheak Borak during the Chenla Era is located in Sambo. In addition, Kratié has Vihear Sasar Muayroy Pagoda built in the 16th century. This pagoda is related to a Khmer legend Krapeur Nen Thun (Venerable Monk Thun, the Crocodile). Kratié has several temples built in the 8th century such as Khvas Pi, Pram, and Koh Kring that has perfect deities, ancient halls, Khmer ancient houses, and French-style buildings. The area near Kratié along the Mekong River was one of the most densely populated regions of the pre-Angkorian era of Cambodia.[2]

Lon Nol was the province's governor in 1945.[3] During foreign incursions and the civil wars into Cambodia, Kratié especially saw heavy fighting.[4] During Operation Menu, Kratié was heavily bombed by the United States.[4][5] Recovering unexploded ordnance and de-mining has been a major recent initiative.[4]

On December 30, 1978, Vietnamese forces captured Kratié.[6]

Geography[edit]

Sunset along the river

The Mekong River flows from the north to the south of the province; approximately 140 km of the river is located in Kratié.[7] The river is home to Irrawaddy dolphins, fish, and birds.[7] The flow of the Mekong River at Kratié town varies greatly.[8][9] There are hundreds of seasonally flooded islands in the river.[7][10] As of 2007, the Cambodian government planned to build a dam on the Mekong River near Kratié town.[11] The province also contains many forests, the Phnom Pram Poan mountain range, Phnom Prech, and rubber plantations.[7] Eastern Kratié is an important bird area.[12]

The province is mostly covered in dense forest.[13] Craters from Operation Menu bombings during the Vietnam War, some of which are filled with water, are still visible in the countryside.[13] Some land in Kratié is used for agriculture, though a smaller percentage than elsewhere in Cambodia.[13]

The province has a monsoonal climate, with a cool season from November to March, a hot season from March to May, and a rainy season from May to October.[14] Flooding is frequent in Kratié; the Mekong may overflow by as much as 4 m during the rainy season.[15]

Kratié is known for its attractive riverside scenery and its green villages and paddies.[16]

Kratié's fisheries are part of the Upper Mekong River Zone, which is important support for migratory species and subsistence fishing but does not play a major role in commercial fishing.[17]

Forests in Kratié tend to be open and less dense than elsewhere in Cambodia; they are generally made up of deciduous trees that lose their leaves during the dry season.[17]

Government[edit]

Kham Phoeun is the governor of Kratié Province and[18] Venn Sokhoy is the deputy governor.[10] In the 2007 commune council elections, the vast majority of seats went to members of the Cambodian People's Party.[19] Women make up 17.4% of commune council members.[20] In 2005, Kratié received 1.69 billion riel from the commune/sangkat fund, of which development funds were 1.20 billion riel and funds for administration were 0.49 billion riel.[21]

Cham woman weaving baskets

Economy and transportation[edit]

Rice cropping plays an important role in the provincial economy

Most Kratié residents are subsistence farmers or fishers.[22] 78% of residents are employed in agriculture.[23] Thirty percent of Kratié households live on less than US$1 per day; the province's poverty rate of 32% is somewhat lower than the national average of 39%.[22][24] Some gold mining occurs in Kratié.[25][26] Most soil in Kratié is poor; the province primarily grows perennial industrial crops like rubber.[27] Illegal logging supervised by provincial officials is a problem.[28] Kratié has the potential to be an ecotourism destination.[29] Kratié's road system is poorly developed.[22] As of 1998, the average household possessed 0.48 hectares of agricultural land, and 37% were landless.[23]

Social issues[edit]

Land concessions often cover land customarily owned or used by people in Kratié Province.[30][31] In 2004, community land organizers were threatened by the military after they confiscated chainsaws used for illegal logging.[32] An indigenous people's organization is active in Kratié Province.[33]

Health, education, and development[edit]

Schistosomiasis is a problem in Kratié province.[34] The incidence of malaria and dengue fever rose sharply in the mid-2000s; this increase has been attributed to changes in climate.[35]

Malaria is hyperendemic in Kratié's forests.[22] The provincial infant mortality rate of 97/1,000 and child mortality rate of 80/1,000 are significantly higher than the national average (68/1,000 and 53/1,000, respectively).[22]

Demography[edit]

Sunset over houses on the outskirts of Kratié

There is a substantial Vietnamese minority in Kratié Province.[36] Kratié is home to seven indigenous groups: Phnorng, Kouy, Mil, Khonh, Kraol, Steang, and Thamoun.[7][37] Approximately 70% of the province's residents live along the Mekong River;[7] the area beyond the river is sparsely populated.[38] Approximately 8% of Kratié's population is indigenous; it is one of four provinces with a substantial indigenous population.[37] 70% of the population is rural.[23]

Districts[edit]

It is subdivided into 1 krong and 5 districts.

ISO Code District Romanization
1001 ស្រុកឆ្លូង Chhloung
1002 ក្រុងក្រចេះ Kratié*
1003 ស្រុកព្រែកប្រសព្វ Praek Prasab
1004 ស្រុកសម្បូណ៏ Sambour
1005 ស្រុកស្នួល Snuol
1006 ស្រុកចិត្របុរី Chet Borei

* - Krong (municipality)

References[edit]

  1. ^ "General Population Census of Cambodia 2008 - Provisional population totals" (PDF). National Institute of Statistics, Ministry of Planning. 3 September 2008. 
  2. ^ Chandler, David (2007). A History of Cambodia. Westview Press. p. 33. ISBN 0-8133-4363-1. 
  3. ^ Jessup, John E. (1998). An Encyclopedic Dictionary of Conflict and Conflict Resolution, 1945-1996. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 434. ISBN 0-313-28112-2. 
  4. ^ a b c "Kampi Village Project". MiVAC Trust. Retrieved June 30, 2008. 
  5. ^ "5" (PDF), Cam Region Prelim Edit, adb.org 
  6. ^ Brune, Lester H.; Richard Dean Burns (2002). Chronological History of U.S. Foreign Relations. Routledge. p. 867. ISBN 0-415-93916-X. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f "Geography". Government of Kratié Province. Retrieved June 18, 2008. 
  8. ^ Murdiyarso, D. "Water resources management policy responses to land cover change in South East Asian river basins". Forests, Water and People in the Humid Tropics: Past, Present and Future (M. Bonell & L.A. Bruijnzeel, editors). Cambridge University Press (2005), p. 124. ISBN 0-521-82953-4.
  9. ^ Dudgeon, David (1999). Tropical Asian Streams: Zoobenthos, Ecology and Conservation. Hong Kong University Press. p. 26. ISBN 962-209-469-4. 
  10. ^ a b "Report on World Wetlands Day" (PDF). Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. February 6, 2007. Retrieved June 30, 2008. [dead link]
  11. ^ http://www.terraper.org/articles/Sambor-TERRA%20Sept07.pdf
  12. ^ "Mondulkiri / Kratie Lowlands (Important Birds Areas of Cambodia)". birdlife.org. 
  13. ^ a b c "Geography". Tourism of Cambodia. 2007. Retrieved June 18, 2008. 
  14. ^ "Climate". Tourism of Cambodia. 2007. Retrieved June 18, 2008. 
  15. ^ "SEA-USER News". 
  16. ^ "Kratie Province". Travelfish. Retrieved June 18, 2008. 
  17. ^ a b http://www.cdri.org.kh/webdata/download/wp/wp23e.pdf
  18. ^ [1][dead link]
  19. ^ "Official Results of the 2007 Commune Councils Election" (PDF). Cambodia National Election Committee. April 24, 2007. Retrieved 2008-05-04. 
  20. ^ "Number of Women elected as Communes Councils’ Members for the 2007 Commune Council elections Nationwide" (PDF). Cambodia National Election Committee. May 4, 2007. Retrieved 2008-05-04. 
  21. ^ "Microsoft Word - Flash Report- Feb 06.doc" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-05-19. 
  22. ^ a b c d e "Kratie Spien Sokhapheap baseline survey final report" (PDF). 
  23. ^ a b c http://www.cdri.org.kh/webdata/download/wp/wp21e.pdf
  24. ^ "UPDATE - December 2007". MekongTourism.org. 
  25. ^ "The Mineral Industries of Cambodia and Laos in 2000". 
  26. ^ http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/1997/9307097.pdf
  27. ^ "Introduction". mekonginfo.org. 
  28. ^ "Laundering of illegal timber undermines forestry reform in Cambodia". Global Witness. 
  29. ^ p. 70
  30. ^ Stidsen, Stille (editor). The Indigenous World 2007. International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (2007), p. 347. ISBN 87-91563-23-2.
  31. ^ Stidsen, The Indigenous World 2007, p. 349.
  32. ^ Human Rights Watch World Report 2005. Human Rights Watch (2005), p. 259. ISBN 1-56432-331-5.
  33. ^ Stidsen, The Indigenous World 2007, p. 353.
  34. ^ "Welcome". cnm.gov.kh. 
  35. ^ "Cambodia: Changing Climate Leads to Increase in Malaria and Other Diseases". Oxfam America. 
  36. ^ Jordens, Jay. "Persecution of Cambodia's ethnic Vietnamese communities during and since the UNTAC period". Propaganda, Politics, and Violence in Cambodia (Steve Heder & Judy Ledgerwood, editors). M.E. Sharpe (1995), p. 136. ISBN 1-56324-665-1.
  37. ^ a b http://www.adb.org/Documents/Reports/Indigenous_Peoples/CAM/chapter_2.pdf
  38. ^ "Welcome to Kratie, Cambodia". Tourism of Cambodia. 2007. Retrieved June 18, 2008. 

External links[edit]