Krešimir III of Croatia

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Krešimir III
King of Croatia
Reign 1000–1030
Coronation 1000
Died 1030
Buried Church of St. Stephen, Solin
Predecessor Svetoslav Suronja of Croatia
Successor Stjepan I of Croatia
Royal house House of Trpimirović,
founder of House of Krešimirović
Father Stjepan Držislav of Croatia
Croatian Kingdom c. 1000, during the reign of king Krešimir III of Croatia

Krešimir III (Latin: Cresimir) (died 1030) was a King of Croatia in 1000–1030 from the House of Trpimirović and founder of its cadet line House of Krešimirović. He was the middle son of former King Stjepan Držislav. Until 1020, he co-ruled with his brother Gojslav.

Biography[edit]

Reign[edit]

After Croatia's King Stjepan Držislav died in 997, his brother Svetoslav Suronja had become King of Croatia. Together with brother Gojslav, Krešimir revolted against him, and probably used his alliance with the Byzantine Empire to ask Bulgaria for help. During that time, a Bulgarian invasion was taking place in which the Bulgarian monarch Samuil pillaged the Dalmatian cities and great parts of Bosnia.[1] During last two years (999–1000) of the Croatian civil war, this two revolters had managed to expel Svetoslav Suronja probably with some Bulgarian help, who went to exile in Venice in year 1000. Answering that political change, the Venetian Doge Pietro II Orseolo has started military intervention in Dalmatia in which he will emerge victorious.

In Trogir, which was at the time under Venetian control, there was a meeting between Doge Pietro Orseolo II and Krešimir III, in which his son Stephen was to be taken hostage and marry the Doge's daughter, Joscella (Hicela) Orseolo,[2][3] as part of the agreement made at their meeting.

The war between Venice and Croatia was renewed in Summer 1018, when Otto Orseolo instigated a campaign on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea and took few settlements from Croatia, also conquering the islands Krk and Rab that were previously under Croatian control.[4]

Krešimir III and Gojslav have spent their reign attempting to restore control over the Dalmatian cities that were now under Venetian rule. After the defeat and absorption of the First Bulgarian Empire, the two monarchs were forced to recognize the supremacy of Basil II, thus becoming Byzantine vassals for a period of time.

End of reign[edit]

On 1 September 1024, Vasil Bojoan, a captain serving under the Byzantines invaded Croatia and captured the wife of Krešimir, who was first taken to Bar, and then to Constantinople.[5] This proves that Croatia was in bad relations with the Byzantine Empire at that time, and once the emperor Basil II had died in 1025, Krešimir stopped paying tribute to the empire.[6]

In c. 1027, he collaborated with Stephen I of Hungary against Venice in an attempt to regain the cities of Dalmatia. The Hungarian king previously took his nephew Peter Urseolo, who was forced to flee from the republic when his father was deposed in a 1026 revolt.[4] According to a chronicle, Stephen I might've betrothed his son Emeric to one of Krešimir's daughters, however records show that the preparations were cancelled due to Emeric's sudden death.[6]

Krešimir was succeeded by his son Stjepan around 1030, when he returned from Venice back to Croatia. It is possible that he co-ruled with his father from 1028.

See also[edit]

Sources[edit]

  • Intervju - ДИНАСТИЈЕ и владари јужнословенских народа. Special Edition 12, 16 June 1989.

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja
  2. ^ Cawley, Charles, VENICE, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy, retrieved August 2012 ,[better source needed]
  3. ^ Marek, Miroslav. "genealogy of Orseolo family". Genealogy.EU. [self-published source][better source needed]
  4. ^ a b Ferdo Šišić, Povijest Hrvata u vrijeme narodnih vladara, 1925, Zagreb ISBN 86-401-0080-2
  5. ^ Rački doc. 434
  6. ^ a b http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CROATIA.htm#_ftn102
Krešimir III of Croatia
Died: c. 1030
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Svetoslav Suronja
King of Croatia
with Gojislav

1000–1030
Succeeded by
Stephen I