List of bog bodies

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This is a list of bog bodies in order of the country in which they were discovered. Bog bodies, or bog people are the naturally preserved corpses of humans and some animals recovered from peat bogs. The bodies have been most commonly found in the Northern European countries of Denmark, Germany, The Netherlands, United Kingdom and Ireland. Reports of bog bodies surfaced during the early 1700s.[1] In 1965, the German scientist Alfred Dieck catalogued more than 1,850 bog bodies, but later scholarship revealed much of Dieck's work was erroneous.[2] Hundreds of bog bodies have been recovered and studied,[3] although it is believed that around 45 bog bodies remain intact today.[1]

How to use this list[edit]

The Nederfrederiksmose Man is also known as "Kraglund Man" or "Frederiksdal Man".
  • There may be more than one name in the "name" category which may also be used to show alternate spellings for names of the bog body.
  • The location category shows the city or state in which the bog body was discovered although some bog bodies are discovered on borders between countries.
  • The Carbon 14 dating is used to determine an age range based on examination of the half lives of carbon isotopes.
  • The "sex" category describes whether the find was male, female or undetermined.
  • The "description" category depicts examination details as well as its physical characteristics. Some sections may contain Little is published about this find; meaning that there is little or no sufficient information published about the bog body.

List[edit]

Germany[edit]

Name Other names Location Age (Carbon-14 Dating) Sex Year discovered Image Description
Girl of the Bareler Moor Lower Saxony 260–395 CE Female 1784 Bareler Moor Girl scheme.svg Due to the over-sampling of the remains, only the skin of the right side of the chest has survived today (marked red on image).
Bentstreek leg Bentstreek foot Lower Saxony 80–210 CE Undetermined 1955 The leg was thought to have been lying above ground for months before it was discovered.[4]
Bernuthsfeld Man Lower Saxony 680–775 CE Male 1907 Front of Bernuthsfeld Man's tunic. Bernuthsfeld Man was discovered on 24 May 1907 when peat workers unearthed his skeleton and clothing. His heavily worn tunic was patched out of 45 single pieces of cloth, out of 20 different fabrics in 9 different weaving patterns.[5]
Bremervörde Gnattenbergswiesen body Lower Saxony 634–689 CE Presumed Female 1934 Bremervörde FStNr98 full.jpg An early medieval and incomplete bog skeleton.
Bunsoh Man Bunsoh body Schleswig-Holstein 560–620 CE Male 1890 Reconstruction The corpse was discovered 100 cm below the surface of the bog on 17 May 1890 by peat workers. Along with a woolen textile (pictured), many birch branches were found over the body. After the body had been moved to storage, it had decomposed severely. It is unknown what the cause of death was, although it is thought by some that the type of textile was used as a garrote or for strangulation.[6]
"Bog Dog" Bog dog from Burlage Lower Saxony 1477–1611 CE Male 1953 The dog's fur remains well preserved, colored reddish after being in the bog for so long. The skeleton remains intact, despite parts of the skull that are missing. The dog was believed to have been from around juvenile to adult when he died.[7]
Damendorf I Damendorf Woman Schleswig-Holstein Pre Roman Iron Age Presumed Female 1884 Only the clothing of this bog body has survived.[8]
Damendorf Man Damendorf II Schleswig-Holstein 300 BCE Male 1900 Damendorf Man.jpg Damendorf Man is currently on display at the Archäologisches Landesmuseum in Schleswig, Germany. The weight of the peat in the bog had flattened his body with only traces of bone left.[9]

Hair, skin, nails, and his few clothes were also preserved.[10] He was found with a leather belt, shoes, and a pair of breeches.[11]

Damendorf Girl[8] Schleswig-Holstein 810 BCE Female 1934 The body of an approximately 14-year-old girl was found along with some clothing.[12]
Dätgen I

 (i) listen Deːtgɛn

Schleswig-Holstein Iron Age Undetermined 1906 Only the clothing of the body has survived. Little is published about this find.
Dätgen Man Schleswig-Holstein 135–385 CE Male 1959 Remains of Dätgen Man on display
His Suebian knot hairstyle
The Dätgen Man was found in 1959 near Dätgen, Germany. He had been decapitated, stabbed and beaten. His severed head was found 10 feet from his body. He is not believed to have been sacrificed, but to have been killed and then mutilated, perhaps to prevent him from be coming a "wiedergänger", similar to a zombie.[13] His severed head displayed a Suebian knot.
Esterweger Dose Child Lower Saxony 1164 CE Undetermined 1939 Esterweger Dose Child scheme.svg This completely skeletonized bog body of undetermined sex was either oversampled, lacked preservation or sustained damage during World War II. Surviving bones are marked red on image.
Hogenseth Man Lower Saxony Undetermined Male 1920 The Hogenseth Man was around 40–60 years old when he died. Because the body was left uncovered over night, the remains had been destroyed by townsfolk. Because of this, no carbon-14 dating could have been done.[14]
Hunteburg Foot Lower Saxony 1215–1300 CE Undetermined 1938 The Hunteburg foot was found with a long shafted boot.
Hunteburg Men (Hunteburg I + II) Grossenmoor Men Lower Saxony 245–450 CE Male 1949 Two men were found buried in the same grave and wrapped in cloaks. Their bodies were lost during conservation.
Hunteburg III Lower Saxony 40 BCE – 70 CE Male 1949 Little is published about this find.
Husbäke I

 (i) listen Huːsbeːkɛ

Lower Saxony 1000–300 BCE Male 1931 This specimen had deteriorated so severely that it was destroyed during the 1950s.
Husbake Man Husbake II Lower Saxony 57–420 CE Male 1936 Husbäke Man 1936.jpg
Reconstruction
The man was found in 1936, lying face down in a bog in Ammerland, Germany. He had eaten fish before his death (in the Roman period) according to analysis of his intestines. He was around 20 to 25 years old at the time of his death.[15] His face was reconstructed to show what he may have looked like when he was alive.[16]
Johann Spieker Lower Saxony 1828 CE Male 1978 The preserved body of Johann Spieker was found in the Goldenstedter moor. Spieker was a hawker who had disappeared in the bog. The body was later reburied.[17]
Jührdenerfeld Man

 (i) listen Jyːdɛnɛrfɛld

Bockhornerfeld Man Lower Saxony 400 BCE-0 CE Male 1934 Mann aus Jührdenerfeld.jpg The body was discovered lying on its right side. Like the Windeby bodies, Dätgen man, and other bog bodies, some sticks were on top of him, probably to hold his body down. A piece of wool fabric and an animal skin cape were found on top of his body. He is currently on display at the Landesmuseum Natur und Mensch with the Husbäke man in Oldenburg,Germany.[18]
Kayhausen Boy

 (i) listen Kɑhaʊsɛn

Lower Saxony 300–400 BCE Male 1922 Kayhausen boy.jpg The boy is believed to have died between the ages of seven to ten years of age.[19] The boy had been bound and stabbed several times, on his throat and arm.[20][21] The child had an infected socket at the top of his femur and would not have been able to walk without assistance.[22] The boy's body is preserved in a formalin solution and is not displayed.
Kreepen Man Brammer Man [8] Kreepen-Brammer Man Lower Saxony 1440–1625 CE Male 1903 KreepenMan.jpg The body of a bearded man was found lying face down on 9 or 10 June 1903. No clothing was found on the body, although stones and twigs were nearby.[23] The remains were destroyed during World War II, but was dated after a piece of his hair was found.
Neu England Man Lower Saxony 140–320 CE Male 1941 Upper body of Neu England Man This man was believed to be from 40 to 50 years old when he died.[24]
Neu Versen Man "Roter Franz" Lower Saxony 220–430 CE Male 1900 Roter Franz Hannover.jpg The Neu Versen Man, also known as Roter Franz (meaning Red Franz in English), was discovered in 1900 in the Bourtanger Moor on the border of Germany and the Netherlands. The body dates to 220–430 CE of the Roman Iron Age.[25] The nickname of Red Franz derived from his red hair and beard. It was discovered that he was killed by having his throat slit, along with an arrow wound and a broken shoulder.[26][27]
Obenaltendorf Man

 (i) listen Oːbɛnaltendoːrf

Lower Saxony 380 CE Male 1895 Clothing of the Obenaltendorf Man
Head of the Obenaltendorf Man
Little remains of the body, but the clothing was preserved fairly well. Apart from clothing, a pair of silver burlocks were found.[28]
Osterby Man Schleswig-Holstein 70-220 CE[11] Male 1948 Osterby Man.jpg Osterby Man was discovered in a bog near Osterby, Germany, when two peat cutters were working. They unearthed the head two feet below the surface, wrapped in a roedeer skin cape. Scientists from the Archäologisches Landesmuseum Schleswig-Holstein estimated the man to have been around 50–60 years of age when he was killed. The man was decapitated; no other part of his body was ever found. His hair had probably been a light blond or gray color, but immersion in the bog had turned it red.[29] It is tied in the Suebian knot hairstyle, which the Roman historian Tacitus described as typical of free men of the Suebi tribe.[30] The head is mainly a skull, but there is still a small amount of skin on it.[31] The cause of the man's death was a blow to the left temple.[30] A 2007 re-examination showed that the jawbone did not belong on the skull.[29]
Pangerfilze Man Bavaria 1700-1800 CE Male 1927 No remains of the body have survived. This is because the body had possibly been destroyed during WWII. Little is published about this find.
Peiting Woman "Rosalinde" Bavaria 1380–1440 CE Female 1957 The corpse was found in a wooden coffin.[32]
Rendswühren Man

 (i) listen Rɛndsvyːrɛn

Schleswig-Holstein 50 CE Male 1871 Face of Rendswühren Man. The Rendswühren Man was discovered in 1871, at the Heidmoor Fen, near Kiel in Germany. He was examined by autopsy, which at the time was the only way of examination.[33]

Professor P.V. Glob wrote that Rendswühren Man was estimated to have been 40–50 years of age when he was battered to death, which left a triangular hole in his head. He was found naked, with a piece of leather on his left leg. A cape was found near him. After discovery, his corpse was smoked for preservation.[34] His skull had deteriorated, which required reconstruction.[35] Textile typologically the clothing found with the body has been dated into the Roman Iron Age of the 1st or 2nd century CE which has been confirmed by a carbon-14 dating of parts of the remains.[25]

Rieper Moor body Lower Saxony 253–348 CE Undetermined 1751 The bog body is no longer in existence, however, its clothing was successfully dated.[36]
Röst Girl Schleswig-Holstein 200 BCE – 80 CE Female 1926 Röst Girl.jpg The young girl was around three years old when she died with the initial cause of death was unknown. The corpse was destroyed during the Second World War, which left only the cloak to scientifically date.[37]
Sedelsberger boy Sedelsberger Dose Man Lower Saxony 1040–1210 CE Male 1939 The Sedelsberger Dose boy had been completely skeletonized. Prior to reexamination, the body was thought to be a woman from the age of 20–40 years old, but was later found to be a male under the age of sixteen.[9]
Girl of the Uchter Moor "Moora" Lower Saxony 764–515 BCE Female 2000 Skeleton of the Girl of the Uchter Moor
One of four facial reconstructions
The girl's preserved hand was discovered five years after her skeleton. Her skull was reconstructed from clay and digitally to show how she may have appeared in life. She was around 17–19 when she was deposited in the bog. Examination shows that she had been malnourished, had a curved spine, and had two skull fractures that had healed.[38]
Uphuser Klumoor Woman Lower Saxony 27 BCE - 393 CE Presumed Female 1759 The body wore a skirt and top holding bronze decorations, which were believed to be brooches, and without shoes. Her hair was plaited and a pot was found in her hand. In 1789, a similar find was discovered in the same bog. The Uphuser Klumoor Woman no longer remains.[39]
Windeby I Windeby Girl Schleswig-Holstein 41–118 CE Male 1952 Upper body of Windeby II One of the best preserved German bog bodies. Studies by Professor Heather Gill-Robinson show that the body was male, instead

female. His reconstructed head is currently on display.[40]

Windeby II Windeby Man Schleswig-Holstein 380–185 BCE Male 1952 Found soon after Windeby I. The bones were decalcified and the clothes he may have worn had dissolved from being in the peat for so long. He had been strangled with a hazel rod which was wrapped around his neck.[41]

Denmark[edit]

Name Other names Location Age (Carbon-14 Dating) Sex Year discovered Image Description
Arden Woman Bredmose Woman Himmerland 1400 BCE Female 1942 Hair of the Arden Woman The Arden Woman was found in the Bredmose bog in the Parish of Store Arden, Hindsted, Denmark. Police said the corpse was found in a 'question mark' shape. After the remains were completely unearthed they were moved into a nearby barn. Her hair was dark blond and was drawn into two pigtails and coiled around the top of her head. Over the hair was a bonnet, which was made using a sprang technique. Unlike some bog bodies, she was found with other garments. She was around the age of 20–25 years old. No signs of violence were found on her body.[42] The body remains at the National Museum of Copenhagen.[43]
Auning Woman Midtjylland 0 CE Female 1886 She was found with several wool and skin garments. Because she was found with several sticks on top of the body, it may have been possible that she had been pinned down in the bog to keep her remains from surfacing.[42]
Borremose Man Borre Fen Man Himmerland 700 BCE Male 1946 The man was violently killed by having his skull crushed and his leg broken. A rope was also found around his neck, indicating death by hanging or strangulation.[44][45] Examination of bog bodies such as Cashel Man, scientists have speculated that wounds such as broken bones may have occurred after death by the weight of the peat.[46] The body is in storage at the National Museum of Copenhagen.[44]
Borremose II Himmerland 400 BCE Presumed Female 1947 The bog body was lying face down in two feet deep on a base of birch bark. In the immediate vicinity were birch branches, directly on the body of three approximately 10 centimeters long birch poles of the same thickness. The skull was fractured and the brain was visible. The right leg was 10 inches below the knee broken, which was because of the weight of peat on the body.[47] The body was naked, but the lower body and legs were covered with a cloak made of a four layered twill fabric and a fringed shawl. These two articles of clothing are now on display at the National Museum of Denmark in Copenhagen. It is uncertain if the body had been clothed at the time it had been deposited, because the clothing from plant materials such as flax fibers can be passed in the acidic peat. In addition, there were other objects found with her: half a clay pot on the knees of the corpse, and half a humerus and a half radius of a human infant beside her. Around the neck of the bog body was a leather belt with an amber bead and a brass disk 22-23 millimeters in diameter.[45]
Borremose III Borremose Woman Himmerland 750 BCE Female 1948 The Borremose Woman was discovered lying face down with the scalp separated from the body. The woman was described to be obese, and was wrapped in a woolen cloak. Borremose Woman is not currently on display, but is stored at the National Museum of Denmark in Copenhagen. The age of the woman at the time of her death was approximately 20–35 years old.[47] Like the other Borremose discoveries, the woman appeared to have violent injuries.[45] She was previously thought to have been scalped as well as having her skull crushed as the cause of death, but studies show these happened after death due to movement of the peat in the bog.[45][47] Studies of the woman's face and neck showed no signs of bleeding, meaning that the injuries to the face had occurred after death.[48]
Elling Woman Silkeborg 280 BCE Female 1938 Remains of the Elling Woman The body was wrapped in a sheepskin cape with a leather cloak tied around the woman's legs.[45][49] The face of the woman was poorly preserved as well as no traces of organs inside of the body.[50] The woman was hanged like the Tollund Man, who was found in the same bog twelve years later. This body is often recognized by its 90 centimeter braid, which was tied into an elaborate knot.[45][50] Elling Woman is believed to have been a human sacrifice.[51]
Frær Mose Woman Frærmose Woman Denmark Undetermined Female 1842 The woman's foot was unearthed four feet under the surface of the bog. A well preserved wool garment and a shoe were found with the human remains.[52]
Gadevang Man Zealand 480–60 BCE[53] Male 1940 This bog body was completely skeletonized when he was unearthed from the peat. Examination revealed that he was approximately 35–50 years of age at the time of his death. A hole in his skull shows evidence of primitive surgery.[54]
Grauballe Man Jutland 290 BCE Male 1952 Grauballemannen1.jpg Studies show Grauballe Man was most likely a ritual sacrifice victim. His fingers had been so perfectly preserved in the bog, that his finger prints had been taken, the same with Old Croghan Man. The man's face had been reconstructed to show what he had looked like when he was alive.[45][55]
Haraldskær Woman Haraldskjaer Woman Jutland 500–401 BCE Female 1835 Gunhild.jpg For some time, The Haraldskær Woman was thought to have been the Norwegian Queen Gunnhild, until carbon-14 dating proved she was much older. Studies show she was around 50 years old and in good health when she died. Her clothing were placed on top of her naked body.[56][57]
Huldremose Woman Huldre Fen Woman, Huldre Woman Ramten, Midtjylland 160 BCE-340 CE Female 1879 Huldremosekvinnan.jpg Huldremose Woman is the name of the bog body of an elderly Iron Age woman discovered in 1879 near Ramten, Jutland, Denmark. The body, found clothed in a wool skirt and two skin capes, dated between 160 BCE and 340 CE. At the time of death, the woman was more than 40 years old—considered elderly for people of that time period.[58] Her right arm was severed, but the injury probably occurred by shovels during the unearthing of the body. A wool cord tied her hair and enveloped her neck, but forensic analysis found no indication of death by strangulation.[59]

According to recent isotope analysis, parts of her clothing's wool had been imported from northern Norway or Sweden.[60]

Nederfrederiksmose body Kraglund Man, Frederiksdal Man Nordjylland Undetermined Presumed male 1898 Nederfrederiksmose Man 1898 (crop).jpg The first bog body to be photographed before being moved from where it was discovered.[26][61]
Koelbjerg Woman Syddanmark 8000 BCE Female 1941 Thought to be the oldest bog body to date,[62] she was around 25 years of age when she died. There were no traces of violence found on her skeletal remains.
Porsmose Man Zealand 2600 BCE Male 1946 Porsmose-Man.jpg This skeletonized bog body was that of a 35–40 year old man [63] that was found in 1946. The skeleton is most famous for the arrow head which pierced the man's nose, but he was not killed by this wound; but rather by an arrow that pierced his aorta. The arrows are presumed to have been fired from a close distance and from above.[63]
Rappendam Woman Frederiksborg 160 BCE Female 1941-1942 The skeletonized remains were discovered along with birch hazel sticks with wooden wheels.[64]
Roum Man Roum Woman Himmerland Iron Age Male [65][66] 1942 Roum Head.jpg
Only the severed head of the body was found. The young man was around 20 years old at the time he died. The find was originally titled as "Roum Woman" until traces of beard stubble were found on the face.[65] The sheepskin that the head was wrapped in dates to the early Iron Age.[42]
Sigersdal Skeletons Zealand 3650–3140 BCE Presumed male[67] 1949 These two people were around 16 and 19 when they died. One skull had a very large trauma wound on its left side.[68]
Søgårds Man Jutland 360 BCE – 240 CE Male 1944 Only the feet and legs of the body were preserved.[69]
Sorø Skeletons Lolland 3500 BCE Male 1942 The collective name for two skeletons with deformities and evidence of surgery.[70]
Stidsholt Woman Stidsholtmose Woman Jutland Undetermined Female 1859 The Stidsholt Woman is the severed head of a woman discovered in 1859.[21][71] She was decapitated by a blow to the third and fourth vertebrae. Her hair is a dark red, which comes from the chemicals in peat bogs. Her hair had been tied into a knot, and fastened with a woven band, which was destroyed.[21][71] Her head was never scientifically dated, and the rest of her body was never found.[21] Her hair was 20 inches long. She is also known as the Stidsholt Fen Woman and the Stidsholtmose Woman.[71] Her head is on display in the Copenhagen Museum in Denmark.[72]
Tollund Man Silkeborg 400 BCE Male 1950 Moorleiche von Tollund Jütland um 100 n Chr hingerichtet.jpg The Tollund Man has been noted for the excellent preservation of his facial features. The corpse was found in early May 1950 when a family had been harvesting peat from a bog, near the town of Silkeborg. With the body, a sheepskin cap and a belt were found, although no additional article of clothing was preserved, probably because they had decomposed. He also had a noose around his neck, indicating that he was hanged. Only his head remains original in his museum display due to lack of preservation knowledge at the time of discovery. It is believed that the Tollund Man was a ritual sacrifice victim.[73]

The Elling Woman had been discovered twelve years earlier, hanged as well, 80 meters from his discovery site.[51]

Valmose bodies Jutland 380 BCE and 225-230 BCE Female Unknown Two adult skeletons of women were found with fragments of pottery and two other incomplete human skeletons of undetermined genders. A vast amount of animal remains were also found, including horses and oxen.[74]
Vester Thorsted Man Vejle 145 - 95 BCE Male 1913 The man's body was discovered wearing a leather cloak, two feet below the surface of the bog.[75]

Netherlands[edit]

Name Other names Location Age (Carbon-14 Dating) Sex Year discovered Image Description
Aschbroeken Man Drenthe 900 BCE Male 1931 Aschbroeken Man.jpg The Aschbroeken Man's skull was lost soon after being unearthed. The remains consist of a skeleton, with an arm which healed abnormally. This may be the reason for his death, some other bog bodies from the Netherlands appear to have been killed for physical deformities.[76]
Emmer-Erfscheidenveen Man Drenthe 1200 BCE Male 1938 The Emmer-Erfschidenveen Man was a bog body recovered in Drenthe, Netherlands in 1938. The remains of the body itself were dated to approximately 1200 BCE, were poorly preserved.[77] although the body remains famous for the extent of preserved clothing which included a wool cap, deer skin shoes, a cow hide cape, and woolen undergarments.[78][79] Very little remains of this bog body, however, the clothing is exceptionally preserved.
Exloërmond Man Drenthe 365–150 BCE Male 1914 The naked body of the Exloërmond Man was discovered on 15 May 1914 under 1.9 feet of the peat. There were no items found near the body at the location of discovery. Most of the right arm and left foot did not survive the 2000-some years in the bog. The front of the remains were not as well preserved as the back, which caused it to be hard to tell which sex the corpse was. After examination, remains of beard stubble was found on his face, which showed the body to be male. The reason and cause of his death are unknown.[80]
Kibbelgaarn body Drenthe Male 1791 The body was discovered in the Bourtanger Moor, as well as the Neu-Versen Man and the Weerdinge Men. The skeletal remains were ground and used for Mumia, which was a substance used for medicine in earlier times. No remains have survived today.
Weerdinge Men Nieuw-Weerdinge Men, "Weerdinge Couple" Drenthe 160 BCE – 220 CE Male 1904 Two naked bog bodies were unearthed in the Bourtanger Moor. One of the two men is known to have had a large wound on his abdomen, with his intestines exposed. The two corpses were known as Weerdinge Couple and "Mr. & Mrs. Veenstra", because they were originally thought to be a man and a woman.[81]
Wijster bodies "Wijster Four" Drenthe 1435–1625 CE Male 1901 Four males were found. Examination showed that all four men had died before reaching the age of 25, one of whom was around 16 years old. They were found with clothing and other artifacts, such as coins. Only a partial skull fragment and one hand remain out of all four people.[76]
Yde Girl

 (i) listen ɪdə

Drenthe 54 BCE – 128 CE Female 1897 DrentseBody.jpg The girl was around 16 years old when she died. She is famous for being only 4 feet 7 inches tall when she was alive as well as having a curvature in her spine, which was caused by scoliosis. Her face was reconstructed in 1992 by forensic facial reconstruction artist Richard Neave.[82]
Zweeloo Woman Drenthe 500 CE Female 1951 Zweeloo Woman scheme.svg The body consists of the bones, internal organs and skin.[83] The woman had been placed into a large pit in the bog. She had lived with dyschondrosteosis, causing short forearms and legs. Other signs of sickness found were round worms and whipworm, although the cause of death is unknown. It is thought that she was around 35 years old when she died.[84]

United Kingdom[edit]

Name Other names Location Age (Carbon-14 Dating) Sex Year discovered Image Description
Amcotts Moor Woman Lincolnshire, England 200–400 CE Female 1747 The Amcotts Moor Woman was discovered when the discoverer had dug six feet into the bog, his shovel struck a shoe. The man began to uncover a human foot, and he fled the scene. The body was later completely uncovered by George Stovin, who was a doctor, and his assistants.[85] Most of the foot had gone through skeletonization; however the heel had been preserved. Some skin of the lower body and arms were unearthed, along with hair and fingernails. Today, only her left shoe has survived.[86][87]
Grewelthorphe remains Yorkshire, England Undetermined Undetermined 1850 This bog body was described to have been wearing brightly coloured clothing when it was unearthed. The body was then taken to a church graveyard and was buried. However, fragments of the shoes had been removed from the corpse by a police man and are all that remain of the body.[88]
Gunnister Man Gunnister, Scotland 18th century Male 1951 This bog body was found accompanied by a complete set of garments, containing the earliest examples of knitted fabric in Shetland. The remains are held at National Museum of Scotland in Edinburgh.[89]
Lindow Woman Lindow I Cheshire, England 250 CE Female 1983 The skull fragment was originally thought to be the deceased wife of Peter Reyn-Bardt, who confessed to her murder after the discovery. But after the skull was dated, it was proven to be much older than Mrs. Reyn-Bardt. Peter Reyn-Bardt was convicted for his wife's murder anyway.
Lindow Man Lindow II Cheshire, England 2 BCE-119 CE Male 1984 Lindow Man, British Museum.jpg Examination revealed that the man was in his mid twenties. His official name is Lindow II, though he was nicknamed "Pete Marsh" by journalists. The man's injuries were a blunt force trauma wound to the head which left a small hole, a stab wound to the chest as well as a possible stab to his neck. There was also a cord found around his neck, thought to be a garrote or a necklace.[90] The skull was reconstructed by Richard Neave, who is also known for his work on Yde Girl. A theory states that the partial remains of Lindow IV found in 1988 are part of Lindow Man.[91]
Lindow III Cheshire, England Early Iron Age Male 1987 The body was severed into over seventy pieces by the turf cutting machine.[92] The tissue, however, was in good condition.[92]
Prestatyn Child Clwyd, Wales 90 CE Undetermined 1984 The corpse was believed to be that of an infant. Little is published about this find.[93]
Worsley Man Manchester, England 120 CE Male 1958 The Worsley man had been garroted and beheaded. He was around 20–30 years of age when he was killed, most likely by ritual sacrifice. The garrote was found still around the man's neck.Pain, Stephanie (23 September 2003), "The Head from Worsley Moss", New Scientist (2414), ISSN 0262-4079 
Cladh Hallan Skeletons South Uist, Scotland 1600–1120 BCE[94] Males and Females 1988–2002 Cladh-Hallan Man.svg Remains of several prehistoric human skeletons are described in Parker Pearson, Michael; et al. (2004). South Uist: Archaeology and History of a Hebridean Island. Stroud: Tempus. ISBN 0-7524-2905-1.  The image shows a diagram of a skeleton containing the bones of three different people. Some of the skeletons were compiled of six different people.[95]

Ireland[edit]

Name Other names Location Age (Carbon-14 Dating) Sex Year discovered Image Description
Ballgudden Woman Northern Ireland Undetermined Female 1831 Examination showed that Ballgudden Woman had blond hair when she was alive. Near her body, an infant of an undetermined sex was found. The remains of the baby were completely skeletonized. Both of these bog bodies no longer remain.[88]
Ballygroll Child Northern Ireland Undetermined Undetermined 1835 The child was discovered completely inside of a coffin, which is very uncommon for bog bodies. However, the body was either reburied, over sampled, or destroyed.[88]
Baronstown West Man County Kildare [96] 242–388 CE[97] Male 1953 Baronstown West Man.jpg This bog body is currently on display at the National Museum of Ireland. Hazel or birch branches were found with the body.[98] A textile and leather cloak were found on the body.[96]
Camnish Woman Northern Ireland Undetermined Female 1834 This bog body no longer remains.
Cashel Man Portlaoise body County Laois 2000 BCE [46][99] Male 2011 Because the body was in a crouched position, the body was believed to have dated from the Bronze Age. Radiocarbon dating supported this theory.[46] The body was later moved to the National Museum of Ireland for examination.[100][101][102][103][104] The man had a broken arm, along with having his back broken in two places and cut.[46][96] His skull and left arm were missing, being severed by the peat cutting machine, parts of them were later found.[105] Examination showed he was around 20-25 when he died.[46] A 2014 documentary suggested he may have been a former king.[46]
Clonycavan Man

 (i) listen Klɵnjkɑːvɑːn

County Meath 392–201 BCE Male 2003 Clonycavan Man.jpg Clonycavan Man was discovered three months before Old Croghan Man and was found in the same bog. Nothing remains below the waist of the man, either due to the turf cutting machine or when he had been brutally murdered. The body is famous for having a primitive form of gel found in his hair, which may have been imported from western Europe.[46] Like Cashel Man and Old Croughan Man, he was possibly once a king. His nipples were cut. This is of ritual significance.[46]
Clonshannagh Woman County Dublin 645–680 CE Female 2005 This bog body was found to be completely skeletonized. The body and its clothing had been partally dismembered by the peat cutting tools that had unearthed it.[106]
Derrycashel Woman [96] County Roscommon 1431–1291 BCE Female 2005 The nearly skeletonized and complete remains of a young woman were unearthed.[106] It is believed that the cause of her death was not ritual sacrifice and that she was buried formally.[96]
Derrymaquirk Woman County Roscommon 750-200 BCE Female 1959 The skeletonized woman was found lying on her back with bone fragments from an infant near her body. Examination showed that the age of the woman at the time of death was approximately 25. Pieces of wood and animal bones were also found in the grave.[107] It is thought that she had not been sacrificed but buried formally.[96]
Derryvarroge Man

 (i) listen Dˠɛrˠrˠiːvˠarˠrˠaːg

County Kildare 228–343 CE Male 2006 The only parts of the man that remain preserved were the buttocks and leg of the body.[96][106]
Drumkeeragh body County Down Undetermined Presumed Female 1780 The remains, consisting of a skeleton, clothing, and some hair, was found by near Drumkeeragh Mountain by surveyors. A braided lock of hair from the body was given to Elizabeth Rawdon (or Lady Moira) in 1781, who soon found interest in the body and eventually published an article about the find in the Journal of Archaeologia. To this day, only the lock of hair and some cloth fragments remain.[108]
Gallagh Man

 (i) listen Gælɑː'

County Galway 400–200 BCE Male 1821 Galagh Man.jpg The Galagh Man was discovered lying on his side 9 feet below the surface of an Irish bog in 1821. A willow rod was found wrapped around his neck which was most likely used to strangle him. A cape was found around one of his lower legs.[96] The body was pinned to the bottom of the bog by two wooden pegs likely to keep it from surfacing. Analysis concluded that he was a young man at the approximate age of 25.[109] The body is on display in the National Museum of Ireland.[110]
Kinakinelly Man County Galway 200-100 BCE Male 1952 The man was found buried with bones of red deer.[96]
Meenybradden Woman

 (i) listen Miːnibræddɛn

County Donegal 1050–1410 CE Female 1978 The woman was believed to be around 25–30 years old at her time of death. The Meenybradden woman's cloak has brought in a bit of controversy. The body was found to be around 500 years older than the cloak that her remains were wrapped in.[111] Her body was buried about one meter deep into the bog. She was examined by Dr. John Harbison.[112] Her cloak has been dated by textile typology to 16th–17th century, a 14C-dating has not yet been performed on the garment.
Mulkeeragh Man County Cork Undetermined Male 1753 This bog body was found wearing a military uniform and a cloak. The body was later reburied.
Old Croghan Man

 (i) listen Oʊld Krɑː'ɛn

Croghan Man County Offaly 362–175 BCE Male 2003 Old Croghan Man.jpg The Old Croughan Man was found in the same year as Clonycavan Man. Only the torso was discovered, lacking a head and abdomen. He was believed to have been 6'6'' tall, and to have been a wealthy individual, since his hands lacked evidence of any hard labour.[46] Examination revealed that both Old Croughan Man and Clonycavan Man were in their twenties when they were killed and were of a high rank. Like Clonycavan Man, his nipples were also cut.[46][113]
Stoneyisland Man Stony Island Man County Galway 3320–3220 BCE Male 1929 Stoneyisland Man Scheme.svg The skeletonized body was found by peat diggers and was originally believed to be the remains of a missing man. After examination the body was found to be over 5,000 years older. The cause of the man's death was probably drowning. He is known to be Ireland's oldest bog body.[114]

Sweden[edit]

Name Other names Location Age (Carbon-14 Dating) Sex Year discovered Image Description
Bocksten Man Boxten Man Varberg, Hallands län 1290–1430 CE Male 1936 The Bocksten Bog Man 1.jpg
Bocksten Man was violently beaten to death[115] at the approximate age of 35–60 years of age. The corpse is famous for having one of the most complete surviving set of garments from the 14th century. A theory suggests that the identity of the Bocksten Man have been the dean of the Diocese of Linköping when he was alive.[116]
Luttra Woman "Hallonflickan"
Raspberry Girl
Västra Götalands län 3105–2935 BCE Female 1943 Skeleton of Luttra Woman Because there were very many raspberry seeds found around the stomach area, the body was dubbed "Hallonflickan" (meaning "Raspberry Girl" in English). She was 20–25 years old when she had died. The cause of the her death remains a mystery; however, a flint arrowhead was found near to where the body was discovered three years before. She was probably buried in open water, due to the evidence of aquatic snails. The soft tissues of the body had not survived, resulting in skeletonization.[117][118]

Elsewhere[edit]

Name Location Age (Carbon-14 Dating) Sex Year discovered Image Description
Bleivik Man Rogaland, Norway 6110–5890 BCE Male 1952 The man was discovered by a farmer who had discovered a bone 70 centimeters deep inside of a drainage ditch. Examination revealed that the man was approximately 55–60 at the time of his death. The cause of the man's demise remains a mystery because of the few body parts that were found, which include the skull, teeth, one rib bone and two vertebra.[119][120]
Dröbnitz Girl Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Poland 650 BCE Female 1939 Dröbnitz Girl Excavation.jpg Examination of the intestines and stomach contents showed that the girl had eaten foods such as gruel and several types of vegetables before her death. Further pollen analysis indicates that she had died in the months of spring. A cloak and wooden comb were found with the body. This body, as well as her grave goods, no longer remain after they were destroyed during World War II.[107][121]
Windover Skeletons Florida, United States 6000–5000 BCE Males and females 1982 168 skeletons found, ages range from infants to elderly. Some skeletons bore wounds that may have caused death.[122][123][124] DNA was extracted from preserved brain tissue.[125]
Little Salt Spring skeletons Florida, United States 3200–4800 BCE Males and females Before 1979 Several hundred burials found, one skull contained brain matter.[126]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

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