The county was formed in 1887 from parts of the Kreis Birnbaum. After the First World War Kreis Schwerin and few more counties belonged to the truncated rest of the Province of Posen remaining with the Free State of Prussia, Germany. Together with Kreis Bomst and Kreis Meseritz the Kreis Schwerin formed a western territorial exclave of Posen-West Prussia. The county's capital Schwerin in Posen (now Skwierzyna), thus distinguished from Schwerin in Mecklenburg, started being rather distinguished as Schwerin upon Warthe by the river it is located on, which is why also the county was referred to as Kreis Schwerin (Warthe). When Posen-West Prussia province was dissolved in 1938 the bulk of its territory, anyway neighbouring Pomerania, was annexed to that province, whereas its western exclave became part of the Province of Brandenburg.
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