Kringles are found throughout the blood clotting and fibrinolytic proteins. Kringle domains are believed to play a role in binding mediators (e.g., membranes, other proteins or phospholipids), and in the regulation of proteolytic activity. Kringle domains are characterised by a triple loop, 3-disulfide bridge structure, whose conformation is defined by a number of hydrogen bonds and small pieces of anti-parallel beta-sheet. They are found in a varying number of copies in some plasma proteins including prothrombin and urokinase-type plasminogen activator, which are serine proteases belonging to MEROPS peptidase family S1A.
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