Krio language

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Krio
Native to Sierra Leone
Ethnicity Sierra Leone Creole, Aku
Native speakers
500,000  (1993)[1]
L2: 6.3 million total (97% of Sierra Leone's population)[citation needed]
English Creole
  • Atlantic
    • Krio
Dialects
Aku
Language codes
ISO 639-3 kri
Glottolog krio1253[2]
Linguasphere 52-ABB-bb

Sierra Leone Krio is the lingua franca and the de facto national language spoken throughout the West African nation of Sierra Leone. Krio is spoken by 97% of Sierra Leone's population and unites the different ethnic groups in the country, especially in their trade and social interaction with each other. Krio is the primary language of communication among Sierra Leoneans at home and abroad. The language is native to the Sierra Leone Creole people or Krios, (a community of about 300,000 descendants of freed slaves from the West Indies, United States and United Kingdom), and is spoken as a second language by millions of other Sierra Leoneans belonging to the country's indigenous tribes. English is Sierra Leone's official language, while Krio, despite its common use throughout the country, has no official status.

Overview[edit]

The Krio language is an offshoot of the language brought by the Nova Scotian Settlers from North America, Maroons from Jamaica, and the numerous liberated African slaves who settled in Sierra Leone.

All freed slaves—the Jamaican Maroons, African Americans, Nova Scotian Settlers, Sierra Leone Liberated Africans—influenced Krio, but the Jamaican Maroons, Nova Scotian Settlers, Igbo and Yoruba Liberated Africans were the most influential. The basic English structure of Krio is an offshoot of the English spoken by the Nova Scotians and Maroons, while some of the African words in Krio come from the Yoruba and Igbo languages spoken by the liberated Yoruba and Igbo.

Krio is distinct from Pidgin English as it is a language in its own right, with fixed grammatical structures and rules. Krio also draws extensively from other European languages, namely Portuguese and French, e.g. the Krio word gentri/gentree, which means wealth or to acquire wealth, is derived from the Old French word "gentry," and the Krio word pickin, which means child, comes from the Portuguese word "pequeno."

Language origins[edit]

The early roots of Krio are believed to go back to the Atlantic slave trade era in the 17th and 18th centuries when an English-based "pidgin" language (West African Pidgin English, also called Guinea Coast Creole English) arose to facilitate the coastal trade between Europeans and Africans. This early pidgin later became the lingua franca of regional trade among West Africans themselves and likely spread up the river systems to the African interior. After the founding of Freetown, this preexisting pidgin was incorporated into the speech of the various groups of freed slaves landed in Sierra Leone between 1787 and about 1855. The pidgin gradually evolved to become a stable language, the native language of descendants of the freed slaves (which are now a distinct ethnic and cultural group, the Creoles), and the lingua franca of Sierra Leone.[3]

Language usage[edit]

Krio usage in Sierra Leone[edit]

Most ethnic and cultural Creoles live in and around Freetown, the capital of Sierra Leone, and their community accounts for only about 3% or 5.4% of Sierra Leone's total population (Freetown is the province where the return slaves from London and Nova Scotia settled).[4] However, because of their cultural influence in Sierra Leone — especially during the period of colonial rule — their language is used as the lingua franca among all the ethnic groups in Sierra Leone. Many Mendes, Temnes, and Limbas grow up in the interior of the country speaking both their native languages and Krio. Children born in Freetown to parents who are not ethnic Creoles grow up speaking Krio and only Krio as their mother tongue language.

Krio speakers abroad[edit]

The Creole people acted as traders and missionaries in other parts of West Africa during the 19th century, and as a result there are also Krio-speaking communities in The Gambia, Nigeria, Cameroon, and Equatorial Guinea.[5] As a result of Sierra Leone Creole migratory patterns, in the Gambia the Creole or Aku community speak a dialect that is very similar to Krio in Sierra Leone. A small number of liberated Africans returned to the land of their origins, such as the Saros of Nigeria who not only took their Western names with them but also Krio word like sabi which was installed into Nigerian Pidgin English.

Language revival[edit]

During the period of colonial rule, Sierra Leoneans (particularly among the upper class) were discouraged from speaking Krio; but after independence from the United Kingdom in 1961, writers and educators began promoting its use. In the 1960s, Thomas Decker translated some of Shakespeare's plays into Krio, and composed original poetry in the language. In the 1980s the New Testament was translated into Krio.

While English is Sierra Leone's official language, the Ministry of Education began using Krio as the medium of instruction in some primary schools in Freetown in the 1990s. Radio stations now broadcast a wide variety of programs in Krio. Sierra Leonean politicians also routinely give public speeches in the language.

The New York City Public School system recently recognized Krio as a "home language" allowing children to be recognized as speaking Krio rather than other African languages.[citation needed]

Classification[edit]

Krio is an English-based creole from which descend Nigerian Pidgin English and Cameroonian Pidgin English and Pichinglis. It is also similar to English-based creole languages spoken in the Americas, especially the Gullah language, Jamaican Patois (Jamaican Creole), and Belizean Creole but it has its own distinctive character.. It also shares some linguistic similarities with non-English creoles, such as the French-based creole languages in the Caribbean.

Grammar[edit]

There is no grammatical gender in Krio and nouns are marked as genitive by the suffix -im for the singular. The suffix -dèm is used to mark the plural, as well as the genitive plural e.g. 'uman' woman.

singular plural
Oblique uman umandèm
Genitive umanim umandèm

Verbs[edit]

Verbs do not conjugate according to person or number, but reflect their tense. Tense, aspect and mood are marked by one or more tense or aspect markers. The tense markers are -bin- for the past tense and -go- for the future, the absence of either show the present tense. Aspect is shown by -dòn- for perfective and -de- for imperfective. Infinitive is marked by fòr- and conditional by a combination of -bin- and -go-. The verbal paradigm is as follows.

infinitive fòr go
present simple (unmarked) go
present progressive de go
perfect dòn go
perfect progressive dòn de go
future simple go go
future progressive go de go
future perfect go dòn go
future perfect progressive go dòn de go
past simple bin go
past progressive bin de go
past perfect bin dòn go
past perfect progressive bin dòn de go
conditional bin go go
conditional progressive bin go de go
conditional perfect bin go dòn go
conditional perfect progressive bin go dòn de go

Interrogatives[edit]

The following interrogatives can be used:

udat who
wetin what
ustem when
usay where
wetin mek why

In addition, like many other Creoles, a question can be asked simply by intonation. E.g. Yu de go?: 'Are you going' vs yu de go: 'you are going.' Additionally the question particles 'ènti' and 'nòoso' can be used at the start or end of the phrase respectively.

Pronouns[edit]

There is no distinction between masculine and feminine in any person and, unlike Standard English, there is a 2nd person plural form. However, there are the hints of nominative, accusative and genitive cases.

a, mi, mi I, me, my
yu you, you, your
i, am, im he/she/it, him/her/it, his/her/its
wi we, us, our
una you, you, your (plural)
dhèm they, them, theirs

Orthography[edit]

Krio uses the Latin script but without Qq and Xx and with three additional letters from the African reference alphabet, Ɛɛ (open E), Ŋŋ (eng), and Ɔɔ (open O). Three tones can be distinguished in Krio and are sometimes marked with grave (à), acute (á), and circumflex (â) accents over the vowels for low, high, and falling tones respectively but these accents are not employed in normal usage. An alternative orthography with Latin letters only has been devised by Thomas Decker.

The complete alphabet with digraphs follows with Decker's orthography in parentheses:

Krio letter or digraph Example word English meaning
A,a wata water
Aw, aw naw (nau) now
Ay, ay nayn (nain) that's him
B, b bɔku (bohku) many, very much (< French beaucoup)
Ch, ch cham chew
D, d dia(dya) expensive (< dear)
E, e let (leyt) late
Ɛ, ɛ ɛp (ep) help
F, f fɔs (fohs) first
G, g got(goat) goat
Gb, gb gbana/tranga difficult (from Temne)
H, h argyu/argyument (agyu/agyument) argument
I, i titi girl
J, j jomp jump
K, k kɔntri (kohntri) country
Kp, kp kpatakpata completely
L, l liv live
M, m muv/muf move
N, n nak knock
Ny, ny nyu new
Ŋ, ŋ siŋ (sing) sing
O, o wok work
Ɔ, ɔ bɔn (bohn) born, give birth, conceive
Ɔy, ɔy ɔyl (ohyl) oil
P, p padi friend
R, r ren (reyn) rain
S, s saf soft
Sh, sh shap sharp
T, t tif steal (< thief)
U, u uman woman
V, v vot vote
W, w waka walk
Y, y yala yellow
Z, z ziro zero
Zh, zh plɛzhɔ (plehzhoh) pleasure

Language samples[edit]

Below is a sample of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Krio:

Krio English
Artikul Wan

Òll mòrtalandèm bòrn fri èn ekwal na dhèm dignitas èn raytdèm. Dhèm òll gèt ratio èn insaisabi èn ebul fòr think èn fènòt whethin rayt èn ròng, pantap dhat dhèm fòr akt with dhèm kòmpin na bròdharhudim spirit.

Article 1

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Below are some sample sentences in Krio:

Kushe. - "Hello."
Kushe-o. - "Hello."
Wetin na yu nem? - "What is your name?"
Mi nem Jemz. - "My name is James."
Usai yu kɔmɔt? - "Where do you come from?"
A kɔmɔt Estinz. - "I come from Hastings."
Us wok yu de du? - "What work do you do?"
Mi na ticha. - "I am a teacher."
Na us skul yu de tich? - "At what school do you teach?"
I de tich na Prins ɔv Welz. - "I teach at Prince of Wales."
Mi gladi fɔ mit yu. - "I am happy to meet you."
Misɛf gladi fɔ mit yu. - "I myself am happy to meet you."
OK, a de go naw. - "OK, I am going now."
Ɔrayt, wi go tok bak. - "Alright, we will talk again."
Krio word English meaning
Salone Sierra Leone
Kusheh Hello, Hi
Pady Friend
Titi Girl
Bobo Boy
Pickin Child
Wowoh Ugly
Plabah Conflict
bohku Many, Too much
Uman Woman
Leff Stop
Wetin What
Usay Where
Wetin Meck Why
Ustem When
Vex Angry
Dia Expensive
Wakka Walk
Cham Chew
Motocar Car
Sabi Know
Fett Fight
Wef Wife
Lef Stop
Mama Mother
Papa Father
Granny Grandmother
Grandpa Grandfather
tif Steal
Jomp Jump

Films[edit]

Krio is used (incorrectly) early in the 2006 film Blood Diamond between Danny Archer (played by Leonardo DiCaprio) and a character named Commander Zero.

It can also be heard in the music video for "Diamonds from Sierra Leone", a song by American rapper Kanye West.

In 2007, work was completed on an unsanctioned, dubbed Krio version of Franco Zeffirelli's 1977 film Jesus of Nazareth The dubs were recorded by a team of over 14 native Krio speakers, over a period of 9 months in the Lungi region of Sierra Leone. The film aired on ABC-TV and a limited run of 300 copies were produced, which were mostly sold in Lungi and Freetown.[6]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Krio at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Krio". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ Fourah Bay College, Freetown: Guide to Krio, (held at SOAS Univ. of London Library, 195?
  4. ^ Simon Schama: Rough Crossings, London, 2007
  5. ^ A. Wyse: Krios of Sierra Leone, London (1989)
  6. ^ video clip of Krio-dubbed version of Zefirelli's Jesus of Nazareth.

External links[edit]