Krishna River

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Coordinates: 15°57′N 80°59′E / 15.950°N 80.983°E / 15.950; 80.983
Krishna
Soutěska řeky Kršny u Šríšajlamu.jpg
Krishna river gorge by Srisailam, Andhra Pradesh, India
Country India
States Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh
Tributaries
 - left Bhima, Dindi, Peddavagu, Halia, Musi, Paleru, Munneru
 - right Venna, Koyna, Panchganga, Dudhganga, Ghataprabha, Malaprabha, Tungabhadra
Source Mahabaleswar
 - elevation 1,337 m (4,386 ft)
 - coordinates 17°55′28″N 73°39′36″E / 17.92444°N 73.66000°E / 17.92444; 73.66000
Mouth Bay Of Bengal
 - elevation 0 m (0 ft)
 - coordinates 15°57′N 80°59′E / 15.950°N 80.983°E / 15.950; 80.983 [1]
Length 1,400 km (870 mi) approx.
Basin 258,948 km2 (99,980 sq mi)
Discharge
 - average 2,213 m3/s (78,151 cu ft/s) [2]
Discharge elsewhere (average)
 - Vijaywada (1901–1979 average),
max (2009), min (1997)
1,641.74 m3/s (57,978 cu ft/s)
The main rivers of India
Prakasam Barrage on the Krishna in Vijayawada in 2007
Krishna river near Vijayawada

The Krishna River is one of the most important peninsular Rivers in central-southern India. The Krishna River is the third longest river in India after the Ganges and the Godavari. The river is almost 1,300 km (810 miles) long.[3] On certain occasions, the Krishna River is denoted as Krishnaveni. It is also referred to as Krishnaveni in its original nomenclature. The river functions as a source of irrigation for Karnataka, Maharashtra, and Andhra Pradesh.

Course[edit]

Krishna river originates at Mahabaleswar near the Jor village in the extreme north of Wai Taluka, Satara District, Maharashtra in the west and pours into the Bay of Bengal at Hamasaladeevi (near Avanigadda) in Andhra Pradesh, on the east coast. It flows through the state of Karnataka before entering Andhra Pradesh. The delta of this river is one of the most fertile regions in India and was the home to ancient Satavahana and Ikshvaku Sun Dynasty kings. Vijayawada is the largest city on the River Krishna. Sangli is the biggest city on the river Krishna in Maharashtra state.

Ecologically, this is one of the disastrous rivers in the world, in that it causes heavy soil erosion during the monsoon season. During this time, Krishna takes fertile soil from Maharashtra, Karnataka and western Andhra Pradesh towards the delta region. It flows fast and furious, often reaching depths of over 75 feet (23 m). Ironically, there is a saying in Marathi (language of Maharashtra) "Santh vaahate Krishnamaai" which means "quiet flows Krishna". This term is used to describe that a person should be as quiet as Krishna. But, in reality, Krishna causes a high degree of erosion.

Tributaries[edit]

The largest tributary of the Krishna River is the Tungabhadra River,[citation needed] a stream formed by the Tunga River and Bhadra River downstream of their sources in the Western Ghats of Karnataka. However, though the Tungabhadra is its largest tributary, the Krishna has many other tributaries, including the Kudali River, the Venna River, the Koyna River, the Bhima River, the Malaprabha River, the Ghataprabha River, the Yerla River, the Warna River, the Dindi River, the Paleru River, the Musi River, the Urmodi River, the Tarli River, and the Dudhganga River.

The rivers Venna, Koyna, Vasna, Panchganga, Dudhagana, Ghataprabha, Malaprabha and Tungabhadra join the Krishna on its the right bank, while the Yerla River, the Musi River, the Munneru River, and the Bhima River join the Krishna on its left bank.

There are four rivers that join the Krishna at a confluence known as Preeti Sangam, or "Lover's Meeting Point" in the Satara District.

  • Venna river is the first river joining Krishna river at Sangam Mahuli, Satara.
  • Urmodi River (उरमोडी नदी) is second river joining Krishna river at Kashil (काशीळ), Satara.
  • Tarli River (तारळी नदी) is third river joining Krishna river at at Umbraj (उंब्रज) Satara.
  • And then Koyna river joining Krishna river at Karad (कराड)Satara.

Three tributaries meet Krishna river near Sangli. Warana river meets Krishna river near Sangli at Haripur. This spot is also known as Sangameshwar. Panchganga river meets Krishna river at Narsobawadi near Sangli. These places are very holy. It is said that Lord Dattatreya spent some of his days at Audumber on the banks of river Krishna. Sangameswaram of Kurnool district in Andhra Pradesh is a famous pilgrim center for Hindus where Tungabhadra and Bhavanasi rivers join krishna. Sangameswaram temple is now drowned in the Srisailam reservoir, and visible for devotees only during summer when the reservoir's water level comes down[4]

The main tributaries of Krishna river are

Bridges[edit]

The Krishna River is spanned by several bridges along its course, some of which are listed below.

  • Krishna Bridge, Wai, Maharashtra - This bridge, which is located in the Dharmpuri Peth area of the town of Wai, is one of the oldest bridges that were built by the British in all of India. It spans the Krishna over nine kamans (arches) and is made of black rock. The bridge serves as a flood mark (when the water rises to the level of the road on the bridge) for the "Waikar" people.
  • Irwin Bridge, Sangli - This is one of the oldest, historic and largest bridges over the Krishna that were built by the British. The Irwin Bridge, which is built of reddish stone, has two passages where one can climb down to the river in the middle of its span to view the water. Shri Vasantdada Patil, an ex-Chief Minister of Mahashrata and an independence fighter in Western Maharashtra committed suicide by jumping off of this bridge after being chased by the British Army.[citation needed]
  • B. Soundatti Bridge, Raibag - This is also one of the oldest bridges built during the British rule. This bridge connects Maharashtra to Karnataka state.

Places and temples[edit]

Pre Historic sites of Middle Krishna-Tungabhadra Valley in Andhra Pradesh

The first holy place on the river Krishna is "Dakshin Kashi Wai", known for the Mahaganpati Mandir and Kashivishweshwar temple. It has seven ghats along the river. Temples like Dattadeva temple, which is revered by the people of Maharashtra, is located on the banks of Krishna at Nrusinha Waadi and Audumbar near Sangli. Also, located on the banks of the river Krishna is the Sangameshwar Shiva temple at Haripur and Ramling temple near Sangli, as well as, villages such as Jihe.

Dams[edit]

There are many dams constructed across the Krishna river.

Krishna Basin[edit]

Krishna Basin extends over an area of 258,948 square kilometres (99,980 sq mi) which is nearly 8% of the total geographical area of the country. This large basin lies in the states of Karnataka (113,271 km2), Andhra Pradesh (76,252 km2) and Maharashtra (69,425 km2).

The Krishna river rises in the Western Ghats, at an elevation of about 1337 m just north of Mahabaleshwar, about 64 km from the Arabian Sea. It flows for about 1400 km and outfalls into the Bay of Bengal. The principal tributaries joining Krishna are the Ghataprabha, the Malaprabha, the Bhima, the Tungabhadra and the Musi.

Most of this basin comprises rolling and undulating country, except for the western border, which is formed by an unbroken line of the Western Ghats. The important soil types found in the basin are black soils, red soils, laterite and lateritic soils, alluvium, mixed soils, red and black soils and saline and alkaline soils.

An average annual surface water potential of 78.1 km³ has been assessed in this basin. Out of this, 58.0 km³ is utilisable water. Culturable area in the basin is about 203,000 km2, which is 10.4% of the total culturable area of the country.

Mullayanagiri peak, in Karnataka, is the highest point (1,930 m) of the Krishna basin.

Floods[edit]

In 2009 October heavy floods occurred, isolating 350 villages and leaving millions homeless,[5] which is believed to be first occurrence in 1000 years. The flood resulted in heavy damage to Kurnool, Mahabubnagar, Guntur, Krishna and Nalagonda Districts. The entire city of Kurnool was immersed in approximately 10 feet (3.0 m) water for nearly 3 days.

Water inflow of 1,110,000 cu ft/s (31,000 m3/s)st was recorded at the Prakasam Barriage, which surpassed the previous record of 1,080,000 cu ft/s (31,000 m3/s)recorded in the year 1903.

Religious significance[edit]

This river is revered by Hindus as sacred. The river is also believed to remove all sins of people by taking a bath in this river. There are many pilgrimage places in Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh on the course of this river.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Krishna at GEOnet Names Server
  2. ^ Kumar, Rakesh; Singh, R.D.; Sharma, K.D. (2005-09-10). "Water Resources of India". Current Science (Bangalore: Current Science Association) 89 (5): 794–811. Retrieved 2013-10-13. 
  3. ^ http://www.mapsofindia.com/maps/rivers/krishna.html
  4. ^ Srisailam project manual
  5. ^ "Flooding along the Krishna River: Natural Hazards". earthobservatory.nasa.gov. Retrieved 11 October 2009.