|This article relies on references to primary sources. (October 2008)|
|District of Andhra Pradesh|
Clockwise from Top left: Kanakadurga Temple on Indrakeeladri, Kondapalli Fort, Buddhist Stupa at Ghantasala, Andhra MahaVishnu Temple at Srikakulam Village, Prakasam Barrage at Vijayawada, Machilipatnam Beach
Location in Andhra Pradesh, India (officially from 2nd June 2014)
|• Total||8,727 km2 (3,370 sq mi)|
|• Total||4,517,398 (2,011)|
|• Density||519/km2 (1,340/sq mi)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
Krishna district (Telugu: కృష్ణా జిల్లా) is a district in the Coastal Andhra region of Andhra Pradesh, India. It is named after the Krishna River, the third longest river that flows within India, flows through the district and joins Bay of Bengal near Hamsaladevi village of the district. Machilipatnam is the administrative headquarters for the district. Vijayawada is the biggest city in the district and also the commercial center of the state.
According to 2011 Census, it has a population of 4,529,009, of which 41.00% is urban and a literacy rate of 74.37%. The district is bounded to the north-west and west by Telangana, to the north-east by West Godavari District, to the south-east by the Bay of Bengal, to the southwest by Guntur District.
- 1 History
- 2 Medieval Period
- 3 Geography
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Divisions
- 7 Culture
- 8 Transport
- 9 Education
- 10 Sports
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 External links
This history of this region dates back to 2nd century BCE. The area was ruled by the Satavahanas (230 BC – 227 AD); Pallavas (340 AD – 500 AD), Chalukyas (615 AD – 1070 AD) and later by Cholas, Kakatiyas and Reddy dynasty.
Satavahana period (230 BC – 227 AD): The Satavahanas ruled this region with headquarters at Srikaakulam. Prominent rulers during this period were Srimukha (founder), Gotamiputra Satakarni and Yajnasri Satakarni (last Satavahana king). The Satavahanas imparted more stability and security to the life of the people of the region for more than four centuries.
Pallavas (340 AD – 500 AD): The Pallava kingdom spread over from Krishna river to Tungabhadra, including Amaravati in the East, Bellary in the West and Kancheepuram in the South with capital cities at venginagar near Ellore and Pithapuram, both in Vengidesa.
Bruhitpalayanas: The contemporaries of pallavas who ruled the district with Koduru as their capital.
Eastern chalukyas (615 AD – 1070 AD): The entire Andhra country was under the control of a single ruler under their reign. The Eastern Chalukyas were credited with the excavations of the cave temple at Undavalli and rock cut shrines and Shiva temples.
Reddy dynasty : On the downfall of Pratapa Rudra of Kakatiya, the eldest son of Pulaya Vema Reddi found himself independent and established himself in the hill fort of Kondavedu. He also possessed himself of the fortress of Bellamkonda, Vinukonda and Nagarjuna konda in the Palanad. The Kondavidu Reddi’s were great patrons of Telugu literature. The poet Srinadha and his brother-in –law Bammera Pothana flourished at his court. The ruins of fortresses at Kondavidu, Ballamkonda and Kondapalli are still to be seen.
Gajapathis of Odisha: Kapileswara Gajapathi is preserved by the village Kapileswarapuram now in Pamidimukkala mandal. He was succeeded by Vidyadhara Gajapathi who built Vidyadharapuram (now in Vijayawada) and constructed a reservoir at Kondapalli.
Qutb Shahis: In 1512, the Kingdom of Golconda or Hyderabad was founded by one Sultan Quli Qutub Shah. The Kingdom of Golconda included this district within its limits. Abu-l-Hussain Shah was the last of Qutab Shahi dynasty known as Tanisha. He had two ministers, both Brahmins, named Madanna and Akkanna. Popular tradition attributed this preference of Vijayawada to the devotion of the two ministers to the goddess Kanaka Durga.
Nizams: The Emperor Aurangazeb included this district in the province of Golconda, which remained under Asaf jah who was appointed as Subedar or Viceroy of the Deccan in 1713 with the title of Nizam-ul-Mulk. The province of Golconda comprised five Nawabs’ charges viz. Arcot, Cuddapah, Kurnool, Rajahmundry and Chicacole (Srikakulam). The Nawab of Rajahmundry ruled the country induced in the Krishna district.
The English: In the year 1611 the English founded their settlement at Masulipatnam which was their headquarters until they finally moved to Madras in 1641. The Dutch and French also had settlements at Masulipatnam. Upon the death of the old Nizam-ul-Mulk in June 1748 his heirs strove for the succession with the support of the English and the French. When Nizam Ali Khan was proclaimed ruler of Golconda in 1761 the British secured at first the divisions of Masulipatnam, Nizampatnam and part of Kondaveedu and later the entire Circars. At first the district was administered by a chief and council at Masulipatnam but in 1794 Collectors, directly responsible to the Board of Revenue, were appointed at Masulipatnam.
Krishna district with its district headquarters at Machilipatnam was formerly called Machlipatnam District. Later it was renamed as Krishna district after the holy river Krishna, by adding certain Taluks of the abolished Guntur District in 1859 with Machilipatnam with its head. Guntur district was separated from Krishna in 1904. Again in 1925 Krishna district was further divided into Krishna and West Godavari districts. There were no significant further changes in its jurisdiction except some minor changes (in Divi Taluk and Munagala paragana).
The Krishna District is in the eastern coast of the state bordering West Godavari district in the East, Bay of Bengal in the South, Guntur and Nalgonda districts in the West and Khammam district in the North directions. The Krishna district occupies an area of 8,727 square kilometres (3,370 sq mi), comparatively equivalent to Corsica. The district is divided into upland and delta area.
The climatic conditions of the district consist of extremely hot summers and moderately hot winters and may be classified as tropical. The period starting from April to June is the hottest. The annual rainfall in the region is about 1028 mm and is contributed to by the Southwest monsoon. Three types of soils viz., Black Cotton (57.6%), Sand clay loams (22.3%) and Red loams (19.4%).
|Climate data for Vijayawada (1951-1980)|
|Average high °C (°F)||30.0
|Average low °C (°F)||18.7
|Precipitation mm (inches)||0.9
|Avg. precipitation days||0.1||0.4||0.5||1.0||3.1||7.6||12.6||11.5||8.8||7.1||2.8||0.6||56.1|
|Source: India Meteorological Department.|
The main hill range of the district known as Kondapalli runs between Nandigama and Vijayawada with a length of about 24 km. The other important hills are Jammalavoidurgam, Mogalrajapuram and Indrakiladri hills. On the Indrakiladri hills at Vijayawada stands the famous temple of Kanakadurga.
The chief rivers of the district are the Krishna (length 1,280 km), Muniyeru (Muneru), the Tammileru and Budameru. Krishna river debouches into the Bay of Bengal at Hamsala Divi and Nachugunta in this district. The district contains small hillstreams viz., Jayanthi, Kattaleru, Ippalavagu, Upputeru, Telleru, Ballaleru, Nadimeyeru. Kolleru, is the large freshwater lake in India. It spans into two districts - Krishna and West Godavari. The lake serves as a natural flood-balancing reservoir for these two rivers.
Flora and fauna
The district has no forests worth mentioning. The forest occupies only 9% of the total district area. However, it contains Reserved Forest areas in Nandigama, Vijayawada, Tiruvuru, Nuzvid, Gannavaram, Bandar and Divi Taluks. A type of light wood known as ‘Ponuku’ (Gyrocapus Jacquini) is found in the Kondapalli hills. The wood is used for the manufacture of the well known Kondpalli toys. The most noticeable trees are pterocarpus, Terminalia, Anogeissus and Logustroeinai and Casuarina.
Panthers, hyenas, jungle cats, foxes, bears and other carnivorous mammalian fauna are found here. Deer, spotted deer sambar, blackbuck and other herbivorous animals are found in the inland forests. A migrant gray billed pelican is a protected bird in the Kollair lake bordering the Krishna district. The district has a large number of Murrah buffaloes and cows.
The Kolleru Lake was an important habitat for an estimated 20 million resident and migratory birds, including the Grey or Spot-billed Pelican (Pelecanus philippensis). The lake was notified as a wildlife sanctuary in November 1999 under India's Wildlife Protection Act of 1972, and designated a wetland of international importance in November 2002 under the international Ramsar Convention. The wildlife sanctuary covers an area of 308 km².
According to the 2011 census, the Krishna district has a population of 4,529,009, roughly equal to the nation of Croatia or the US state of Louisiana. This gives it a ranking of 34th in India (out of a total of 640) and 4th in its state. The district has a population density of 519 inhabitants per square kilometre (1,340 /sq mi) . Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 8.15%. Krishna has a sex ratio of 997 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 74.37%.
Household indicators In 2007–2008 the International Institute for Population Sciences interviewed 1229 households in 34 villages across the district. They found that 94.7% had access to electricity, 93.4% had drinking water, 60.3% toilet facilities, and 45.5% lived in a pucca (permanent) home. 20.6% of girls wed before the legal age of 18 and 76.9% of interviewees carried a BPL card.
The majority of the people in urban areas of Krishna district are engaged in trade and commerce. Agriculture is the main occupation of the district. There are many large scale industries like sugar, cement and many small scale include musical instruments making, gold-plated ornaments and Kondapalli toys.
The district has rich variety of soils and agriculture is the most important occupation with Paddy as the main food crop produced.
Natural Gas and Crude Oil is found extensively offshore and on the coastal belt of the district Small deposits of Diamonds are available. Limestone is a major mineral extracted in the district. Sand quarrying for construction is extracted from Krishna and Munneru rivers.
- Chromite: Kondapalli hills and adjoining areas
- Diamonds: Paritala, Ustepalls, Kondavatikallu, Ramannapet, Suryavaram, Kothapet, Nemalipuram, Mugaluru, Putrela (Famous in rajasthan) etc.
- Iron Ore: Jaggayyapet area
- Lime Stone: Jaggayyapet area
- Mica: Tiruvuru area
The District is divided into four revenue divisions namely Vijayawada, Nuzvid, Machilipatnam, and Gudivada revenue divisions each headed by a sub collector. There are fifty mandals in the district and six municipalities. The municipalities are: Gudivada (CT), Jaggaiahpeta (NP), Machilipatnam (M), Nuzivid (M), Pedana (NP), and Vijayawada (MC).
There are a total of 50 mandals in Krishna district.
Krishna district has two parliamentary constituencies Vijayawada and Machilipatnam. In Andhra pradesh assembly Krishna district has 16 constituencies namely Tiruvuru (SC), Nandigama (SC), Mylavaram, Jaggayyapeta, Vijayawada (West), Vijayawada (Central), Vijayawada (East), Penamaluru, Nuzvid, Gannavaram, Pedana, Gudivada, Kaikaluru, Machilipatnam, Avanigadda, Pamarru (SC).
The culture of Krishna district is mostly traditional in rural places and moderately modern in Vijayawada. It is also famous as the birthplace for Indian classical dance named kuchipudi and the culture with the dialect of Telugu spoken in Krishna is widely considered to be the standard form of Telugu.
Vijayawada, the major city in Krishna district has an important railway junction in the country. The largest bus terminus in the state is also located in Vijayawada, named as Pandit Nehru Bus station. Airport located at Gannavaram, 16 km north east of Vijayawada is one of the three domestic airport in the state. A new deep water port is under construction in Machilipatnam.
Four national highways pass through the district namely NH 5 from Chennai to Kolkata, NH 9 from Pune to Machilipatnam, NH 221 from Vijayawada to Jagdalpur, NH 214 Kathipudi to Pamarru, NH 214A Digamarru to Ongole.
Vijayawada is one of the main education centers in Andhra Pradesh. NTR University of Health Sciences is located in Vijayawada. Krishna University is located in Machilipatnam. Rajiv Gandhi University of Knowledge Technologies popularly known as International Institute of Information Technology is situated in Nuzvid. School of Planning and Architecture, South Indian Chapter is present in Vijayawada.
It boasts Headquarters of numerous residential colleges and schools like Sri Chaitanya, Nalanda, Gowtham, Sri Krishnaveni, American Medical Education for USMLE Coaching which are amongst the biggest/largest of the Corporate Educational Institutes in India.
District has numerous engineering colleges including Prasad V. Potluri Siddhartha Institute of Technology, Velagapudi Ramakrishna Siddhartha Engineering College, Lakireddy Balireddy Engineering College, Gudlavalleru Engineering College, DMS SVH College of Engineering, Govt Polytechnic Vijayawada (one of the oldest Polytechnic colleges in India), Andhra Loyola College, AANM & VVRSR (Gudlavalleru) Polytechnic College, Mary Stella college, Sidhartha Degree College are few of the many famous arts and science colleges in the district.
Kabbadi is the most popular sport followed by cricket, volleyball, badminton, basketball and tennis. Indira Gandhi Municipal Stadium in Vijayawada hosts One Day Internationals Cricket matches of India. Famous Hockey player Balram belongs to this District.
Krishna district is reputed for its affiliation with many illuminate of various fields of work. Many well-known personalities are associated with this place either directly (because they were born here) or indirectly (because they work here). Some of them are:
Fine arts and literature:
- Siddhendra Yogi (సిద్ధేంద్ర యోగి) (Architect of Kuchipudi)
- Mahakavi Kshetrayya (మహాకవి క్షేత్రయ్య)
- Viswanatha Satyanarayana (విశ్వనాథ సత్యనారాయణ)
- Gudipati Venkatachalam (గుడిపాటి వేంకటచలం)
- Nanduri Venkata Subba Rao (నండూరి వేంకట సుబ్బారావు) (Yenki paatalu)
- Dr. Mangalampalli Balamuralikrishna (డా. మంగళంపల్లి బాలమురళీకృష్ణ)
- Jalasoothram RukmiNinatHasasthry (జలసూత్రం రుక్మిణీనాథశాస్త్రి)
- Satyam Sankaramanchi (శంకరమంచి సత్యం) (Amaravati Kathalu)
- Veturi Sundararama Murthy (వేటూరి సుందరరామమూర్తి)
- Vempati Chinna Satyam (వెంపటి చినసత్యం) Promoter of Kuchipudi Dance
- Jaladi Raja Rao (జాలాది రాజారావు) (Lyricist)
- Dr. Yarlagadda Lakshmi Prasad (డా. యార్లగడ్డ లక్ష్మీ ప్రసాద్)
- Pingali Venkayya (పింగళి వెంకయ్య) Designer of Indian National Flag
- Kasinadhuni Nageswara Rao (కాశీనాథుని నాగేశ్వరరావు) (Andhra Patrika)
- Mutnuri Krishna Rao (ముట్నూరి కృష్ణారావు పంతులు) (Krishna Patrika)
- Ayyadevara Kaleswararao (అయ్యదేవర కాళేశ్వరరావు)
- Puchalapalli Sundaraiah (పుచ్చలపల్లి సుందరయ్య)
- Vasireddy Balarama KrishNa Mahehswara Prasad (వాసిరెడ్డి బలరామకృష్ణ మహేశ్వర ప్రసాద్) (Activist, fought for Nagarjuna sagar Project)
- Dr. Bhogaraju Pattabhi Sitaramayya (డా. భోగరాజు పట్టాభి శీతారామయ్య) (Founder of Andhra Bank)
- Dr. Jayaprakash Narayan - JP (Lok Satta) (డా. జయప్రకాశ్ నారాయణ) President of Loksatta Party
- Goparaju Ramachandhra Rao (GORA) (గోపరాజు రామచంద్రరావు)
- Duggirala Gopalakrishnayya (దుగ్గిరాల గోపాలకృష్ణ) Andhra Ratna
- Annapragada Lakshminarayana (అన్నాప్రగడ లక్ష్మీనారాయణ) (Educationalist)
- Dr. Ghattamaneni Babu Rao, a renowned philanthropist (డా. ఘట్టమనేని బాబూరావు)
Science and technology:
- Prof. C. R. Rao F. R. S (కల్యంపూడి రాధాక్రిష్ణారావు) (Distinguished Statistician)
- Prof. Suri Bhagavantham (ఆచార్య సూరి భగవంతం) (Distinguished Physicist)
- Prof. Kanuri Lakshmana Rao (డా. కానూరి లక్ష్మణరావు) (Distinguished Engineer)
- Veluri Venkata Krishna Sastry (వేలూరి వేంకట కృష్ణ శాస్త్రి) (Distinguished archaeologist and historian)
- Dr. Samaram (డా. సమరం)
- Dr. Nori Dhattatreyudu (డా. నోరి దత్తాత్రేయుడు) (Reputed Cancer Surgeon)
- Kakarla Subba Rao (కాకర్ల సుబ్బారావు)
- C.K Naidu (సి. కె. నాయుడు) cricket
- Dandamudi Rajagopal (దండమూరి రాజగోపాలరావు) Wrestling
- Koneru Humpy (కోనేరు హంపి) Chess
- Chetan Anand (చేతన్ ఆనంద్) Badminton
- Raghupathi Venkaiah Naidu (రఘుపతి వెంకయ్య నాయుడు)
- Nandamuri Taraka Rama Rao (నందమూరి తారకరామారావు) (NTR)
- Akkineni Nageswara Rao (అక్కినేని నాగేశ్వరరావు) (ANR)
- S. V. Ranga Rao (ఎస్. వి. రంగారావు) (SVR)
- Savitri (actress) (మహానటి సావిత్రి)
- Nirmalamma (నిర్మలమ్మ)
- Ghantasala Venkateswara Rao (ఘంటసాల వేంకటేశ్వరరావు)
- Kaasinathuni Viswanath (కాశీనాథుని విశ్వనాధ్)
- Jandhyala Subramanya Sastry (జంధ్యాల సుబ్రహ్మణ్య శాస్త్రి)
- Veturi Sundararama Murthy (వేటూరి సుందరరామమూర్తి)
- Sobhan Babu (శోభన్ బాబు)
- Gadde Rajendra Prasad (రాజేంద్రప్రసాద్)
- Chandra Mohan (చంద్రమోహన్)
- Suthivelu (సుత్తివేలు)
- Suthi Veerabhadra Rao (సుత్తి వీరభద్రరావు)
- Nutan Prasad (నూతన్ ప్రసాద్)
- Kota Srinivasa Rao (కోట శ్రీనివాసరావు)
- Kovelamudi Surya Prakash Rao (కె. సూర్యప్రకాశరావు)
- Ramoji Rao Cherukuri (రామోజీరావు చెరుకూరి)
- Kaikala Satyanarayana (కైకాల సత్యనారాయణ)
- Sainath Thotapalli (శాయినాథ్ తోటపల్లి)
- Mani Sharma (మణిశర్మ)
- "Krishna district demographics" (pdf). ap.gov.in.
- "District History". Retrieved 2007-01-03.
- Srivastava, Dayawanti et al. (ed.) (2010). "States and Union Territories: Andhra Pradesh: Government". India 2010: A Reference Annual (54th ed.). New Delhi, India: Additional Director General, Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (India), Government of India. pp. 1111–1112. ISBN 978-81-230-1617-7.
- "Island Directory Tables: Islands by Land Area". United Nations Environment Program. 1998-02-18. Retrieved 2011-10-11. "Corsica 8,741"
- "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
- US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 2011-10-01. "Croatia 4,483,804 July 2011 est."
- "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-09-30. "Louisiana 4,533,372"
- "District Level Household and Facility Survey (DLHS-3), 2007-08: India. Andhra Prades" (PDF). International Institute for Population Sciences and Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. 2010. Retrieved 2011-10-03.
- "How Do I? : Obtain Marriage Certificate". National Portal Content Management Team, National Informatics Centre. 2005. Retrieved 2011-10-03. "To be eligible for marriage, the minimum age limit is 21 for males and 18 for females."
- "Andhra Pradesh Municipal Uniform Budget and Accounts Code". Hyderabad: Center for Good Governance (CGG). February 2008. p. 17. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013.
- "District profile". Krishna District. National Informatics Centre. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Krishna district.|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Kistna (district).|
||Nalgonda district, Telangana||Khammam district, Telangana||West Godavari district|
|Guntur district||West Godavari district|
|Guntur district||Bay of Bengal||Bay of Bengal|