Kristian Birkeland

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Kristian Olaf Bernhard Birkeland
Asta Norregaard Kristian Birkeland 1900.jpg
Kristian Birkeland, 1900
Born (1867-12-13)13 December 1867
Christiania, United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway
Died 15 June 1917(1917-06-15) (aged 49)
Tokyo, Japan
Residence Norway
Citizenship Kingdom of Norway (1867–1917)
Fields Physics
Institutions The Royal Frederick University
Known for Birkeland current
Birkeland-Eyde process
Research on Aurora borealis
Coilgun
Spouse Ida Charlotte Hammer

Kristian Olaf Birkeland (13 December 1867 – 15 June 1917) was a Norwegian scientist. He is best remembered as the person who first elucidated the nature of the Aurora borealis. In order to fund his research on the aurorae, he invented the electromagnetic cannon and the Birkeland-Eyde process of fixing nitrogen from the air. Birkeland was nominated for the Nobel Prize seven times.[1][2]

Life and death[edit]

Birkeland was born in Christiania (Oslo today) to Reinart Birkeland and Ingeborg (née Ege)[3] and wrote his first scientific paper at the age of 18. Birkeland married Ida Charlotte Hammer in May 1905. They had no children and, due to Birkeland's preoccupation with his work, they divorced in 1911.[4]

Suffering from severe paranoia due to his use of Veronal as a sleeping aid, he died under mysterious circumstances in his room in the Hotel Seiyoken in Tokyo while visiting colleagues at the University of Tokyo. A post-mortem revealed that Birkeland had taken 10g of veronal the night he died, instead of the 0.5g recommended. The time of death was estimated at 7am on 15 June 1917.[1] Some authors have claimed that he committed suicide.[5]

Research[edit]

Birkeland organized several expeditions to Norway's high-latitude regions where he established a network of observatories under the auroral regions to collect magnetic field data. The results of the Norwegian Polar Expedition conducted from 1899 to 1900 contained the first determination of the global pattern of electric currents in the polar region from ground magnetic field measurements. The discovery of X-rays inspired Birkeland to develop vacuum chambers to study the influence of magnets on cathode rays. Birkeland noticed that an electron beam directed toward a magnetised terrella was guided toward the magnetic poles and produced rings of light around the poles and concluded that the aurora could be produced in a similar way. He developed a theory in which energetic electrons were ejected from sunspots on the solar surface, directed to the Earth, and guided to the Earth's polar regions by the geomagnetic field where they produced the visible aurora. This is essentially the theory of the aurora today.

Birkeland proposed in 1908 in his book The Norwegian Aurora Polaris Expedition 1902-1903[6] that polar electric currents, today referred to as auroral electrojets, were connected to a system of currents that flowed along geomagnetic field lines into and away from the polar region. Such field-aligned currents are known today as Birkeland currents in his honour. He provided a diagram of field-aligned currents in the book, and this diagram is reproduced on the back of the Norwegian 200 kroner banknote in the lower right corner, and his terrella experiment is shown on the front at the left with a portrait of Birkeland on the right. The book on the 1902-1903 expedition contains chapters on magnetic storms on the Earth and their relationship to the Sun, the origin of the Sun itself, Halley's comet, and the rings of Saturn.

Birkeland's vision of what are now known as Birkeland currents became the source of a controversy that continued for over half a century, because their existence could not be confirmed from ground-based measurements alone. His theory was disputed and ridiculed at the time as a fringe theory by mainstream scientists,[1][7] most notoriously by the eminent British geophysicist and mathematician Sydney Chapman who argued the mainstream view that currents could not cross the vacuum of space and therefore the currents had to be generated by the Earth. Birkeland's theory of the aurora continued to be dismissed by mainstream astrophysicists after his death in 1917. It was notably championed by the Swedish plasma scientist Hannes Alfvén,[8] but Alfvén's work in turn was also disputed by Chapman.[9]

Proof of Birkeland's theory of the aurora only came in 1967 after a probe was sent into space. The crucial results were obtained from U.S. Navy satellite 1963-38C, launched in 1963 and carrying a magnetometer above the ionosphere.[10] Magnetic disturbances were observed on nearly every pass over the high-latitude regions of the Earth. These were originally interpreted as hydromagnetic waves, but on later analysis it was realized that they were due to field-aligned or Birkeland currents.

The scale of Birkeland's research enterprises was such that funding became an overwhelming obstacle. Recognizing that technological invention could bring wealth, he developed an electromagnetic cannon and, with some investors, formed a firearms company. The coil-gun worked, except the high muzzle velocities he predicted (600 m/s) were not produced. The most he could get from his largest machine was 100 m/s, corresponding to a disappointing projectile range of only 1 km. So he renamed the device an aerial torpedo and arranged a demonstration with the express aim of selling the company. At the demonstration, one of the coils shorted and produced a sensational inductive arc complete with noise, flame, and smoke. This was the first failure of any of the launchers that Birkeland had built. It could easily have been repaired and another demonstration organized.

However, fate intervened in the form of an engineer named Sam Eyde. At a dinner party only one week later, Eyde told Birkeland that there was an industrial need for the biggest flash of lightning that can be brought down to Earth in order to make artificial fertilizer. Birkeland's reply was, "I have it!" There were no more attempts to sell the firearms company, and he worked with Eyde only long enough to build a plasma arc device for the nitrogen fixation process. The pair worked to develop the prototype furnace into a design that was economically viable for large-scale manufacture. The resulting company, Norsk Hydro, hugely enriched Norway, and Birkeland then enjoyed adequate funding for research, his only real interest.

The Birkeland–Eyde process is relatively inefficient in terms of energy consumption. Therefore, in the 1910s and 1920s, it was gradually replaced in Norway by a combination of the Haber process and the Ostwald process.

The fact that Birkeland joined with Eyde as a business partner appears to have been one of the reasons why Birkeland was unsuccessful in being awarded the Nobel Prize for his idea. Eyde wanted to be nominated along with Birkeland; however, the Nobel Prize is designed to recognise the original idea, not any commercial applications. This resulted in a possibly contentious nomination, and this combined with the fact that at that time relations between Sweden and Norway were delicate, meant that he wasn't nominated by the committee.

In 1913, Birkeland may have been the first to predict that plasma was ubiquitous in space. He wrote: "It seems to be a natural consequence of our points of view to assume that the whole of space is filled with electrons and flying electric ions of all kinds. We have assumed that each stellar system in evolutions throws off electric corpuscles into space. It does not seem unreasonable therefore to think that the greater part of the material masses in the universe is found, not in the solar systems or nebulae, but in 'empty' space."[6]

In 1916, Birkeland was probably the first person to successfully predict that the solar wind behaves as do all charged particles in an electric field: "From a physical point of view it is most probable that solar rays are neither exclusively negative nor positive rays, but of both kinds".[11] In other words, the Solar Wind consists of both negative electrons and positive ions.

Kristian Birkeland and his terrella experiment

The first complete map of the statistical location of Birkeland currents in the Earth's polar region was developed in 1974 by A.J. Zmuda and J.C. Armstrong and refined in 1976 by T. Iijima[12] and T.A. Potemra[13][14][15]

As a scholar with wide interests, Birkeland joined the control commission of NSFPS (= Norwegian Society For Psychic Research). The 299 members of the society included, by 1922, people like prime minister Gunnar Knudsen, as well as a wide range of doctors, professors and shipowners. The society arranged circles experimenting with dancing tables and automatic writing, but attracted more attention arranging controlled experiments with invited foreign mediums. In 1912 it was the medium Etta Wriedt from Detroit, famous for her "spirit trumpet", who was exposed as a fraud. Mrs Wriedt's "trumpet" should have been speaking with the "spirit voice" of, among others, Hypatia,[16] but in Norway the "trumpet blows" were exposed as explosions produced by potassium and water. Professor Birkeland exclaimed on that occasion, "I'm supposedly against all witch burnings, but a teeny weeny one in honour of Mrs Wriedt would not have been in the way." [17]

Legacy[edit]

Birkeland's theory of the aurora was eventually confirmed, a classic example of a fringe theory, ridiculed by scientists supporting the then mainstream, that has come to be accepted as a mainstream theory.

An example of one of his experiments is depicted on the left front of the Norwegian 200 kroner note; it shows a magnetized terrella, simulating the Earth, suspended in an evacuated chamber. Birkeland's face appears a second time in a watermark in the blank space above the drawing of the Terrella, and his rudimentary magnetosphere appears on the back, but is only visible under ultraviolet light. The ring encircling the magnetic pole depicted on the back of the bank note is similar to the patterns predicted by Birkeland and shown more recently by satellites. His drawing of what became known as Birkeland currents from his book, The Norwegian Aurora Polaris Expedition 1902-1903,[6] is shown on the back of the banknote at the right.

Quotes[edit]

It seems to be a natural consequence of our points of view to assume that the whole of space is filled with electrons and flying electric ions of all kinds. — Kristian Birkeland 1913[6][note 1]
A very few lonely pioneers make their way to high places never before visited . . . they create the living conditions of mankind and the majority are living on their work. — Kristian Birkeland[1][note 2]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ p. 720
  2. ^ p. 285 (Penguin 2002 edition)

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Lucy Jago (2001). The Northern Lights. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-375-40980-7. 
  2. ^ Potemra, T. A. (1997). "The contributions of Kristian Birkeland to space physics". Geomagnetism and Aeronomy with Special Historical Case Studies. IAGA Newsletters. 29/1997: 107. Bibcode:1997gash.conf..107P. 
  3. ^ Hockey, Thomas (2009). The Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers. Springer Publishing. ISBN 978-0-387-31022-0. Retrieved 22 August 2012. 
  4. ^ Professor Alf Egeland. "Olav Christian Bernhard Birkeland". Research group for Plasma and Space Physics, University of Oslo. 
  5. ^ Murdin, P. (2001). "Birkeland, Kristian (1868-1917)". In Murdin, P. Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Astrophysics. p. 5443. ISBN 0-333-75088-8. 
  6. ^ a b c d Birkeland, Kristian (1908 (section 1), 1913 (section 2)). The Norwegian Aurora Polaris Expedition 1902-1903. New York and Christiania (now Oslo): H. Aschehoug & Co.  out-of-print, full text online
  7. ^ Schuster, Arthur (March 1912). "The Origin of Magnetic Storms". Proceedings of the Royal Society A 85 (575): 44–50. Bibcode:1911RSPSA..85...44S. doi:10.1098/rspa.1911.0019. 
  8. ^ Alfvén, Hannes (1939), "Theory of Magnetic Storms and of the Aurorae", K. Sven. Vetenskapsakad. Handl., ser. 3, vol. 18, no. 3, p. 1, 1939. Reprinted in part, with comments by A. J. Dessler and J. Wilcox, in Eos, Trans. Am. Geophys. Un., vol. 51, p. 180, 1970.
  9. ^ S. Chapman and J. Bartels, ‘’Geomagnetism,’’ Vol. 1 and 2, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1940.
  10. ^ Peratt, A. L., Peter, W., & Snell, C. M. (19–23 June 1989). "3-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of spiral galaxies". Proceedings of the 140th Symposium of IAU. Galactic and intergalactic magnetic fields. Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany: Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 143–150. Bibcode:1990IAUS..140..143P. Retrieved 16 May 2012. 
  11. ^ "Are the Solar Corpuscular Rays that penetrate the Earth's Atmosphere Negative or Positive Rays?". Videnskapsselskapets Skrifter, I Mat -- Naturv. Klasse No.1. Christiania, 1916. 
  12. ^ Sato, T.; Iijima, T. (1979). "Primary sources of large-scale Birkeland currents". Space Science Reviews 24 (3): 347–366. Bibcode:1979SSRv...24..347S. doi:10.1007/BF00212423. 
  13. ^ Potemra, T. A. (1978). "Observation of Birkeland currents with the TRIAD satellite". Astrophysics and Space Science 58 (1): 207–226. Bibcode:1978Ap&SS..58..207P. doi:10.1007/BF00645387. 
  14. ^ Potemra, T. A. (1985). "Field-aligned (Birkeland) currents". Space Science Reviews 42 (3–4): 295–311. Bibcode:1985SSRv...42..295P. doi:10.1007/BF00214990. 
  15. ^ Potemra, T. A. (1988). "Birkeland currents in the earth's magnetosphere". Astrophysics and Space Science 144 (1–2): 155–169. Bibcode:1988Ap&SS.144..155P. doi:10.1007/BF00793179 (inactive 2010-03-16). 
  16. ^ http://www.thegreatquestion.com/books/Dawn%20of%20the%20Awakened%20Mind.pdf
  17. ^ Terje Emberland/Arnfinn Pettersen: "Religion for en ny tid", Åpent sinn eller høl i hue? (p. 257-8), edited by Humanist, Oslo 2006, ISBN 82-92622-16-0

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