||This article may require copy editing for poor English. (November 2013)|
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (November 2013)|
|This article is a rough translation from another language. It may have been generated by a computer or by a translator without dual proficiency.|
Capital of Southern Norway
|• Mayor (2011)||Arvid Grundekjøn (H)|
|• Total||277 km2 (107 sq mi)|
|• Land||259 km2 (100 sq mi)|
|Area rank||287 in Norway|
|• Rank||5 in Norway|
|• Density||291/km2 (750/sq mi)|
|• Change (10 years)||10.9 %|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|ISO 3166 code||NO-1001|
|Official language form||Bokmål|
Kristiansand (help·info)  is a city, municipality and the county capital of Vest-Agder county in Southern Norway. Kristiansand municipality is the 5th largest in Norway with a population of 90,476 as of 1 January 2013. The Kristiansand urban area, entirely located in the municipality, had a population of 154,346 on 1 January 2013, and is thus the 5th largest urban area in Norway. In addition, the Statistics Norway (no:Statistisk Sentralbyrå) counts that there are 4 other densely populated areas in the municipality: Skålevik (Flekkerøy) with a population of 3,026, Strai with a population of 1,636, Justvik with a population of 1,803 and Tveit with a population of 1,396 citizens (as of January 2012).
The name was written "Christian(s)sand" (for "Christians sand" – meaning en:[King] "Christian's Sand") until 1877 – then, according to an official spelling reform (that changed ch to k), the form was changed to "Kristianssand". (See also the names Kristiansund and Kristiania that were affected by the same reform.) The name was again changed to its present form Kristiansand in 1889.
In 2012, the city's mayor, Arvid Grundekjøn, proposed that the city be renamed Christianssand, arguing that "Kristiansand" is grammatically meaningless and that Christianssand stands for tradition.
The Kristiansand area has been inhabited since ancient times. In 1996 it was found a well-preserved skeleton of a woman from approx. 6500 f.Kr in the neighboring municipality of Søgne. This proves a very early habitation in the archipelago . Place Porridge caves Grathelleren on Fidjane is a supposed Stone Age settlement . In 2010, for the first time in Norway found a so-called Sarupanlegg from younger Stone Age, ca. 3400 BC, at the Hamresanden. East of Oddernes church is carried out excavations of village settlements from the centuries just before and after the year 0 These, together with similar findings by Rogaland, unique in the Norwegian context. Simple Farms was the dominant pattern in Norway in earlier times, but here it is found village formations. Second, archaeological finds in graves around Oddernes church at Lund testify settlements from approx . 400 e.Kr and it was in 1907 found 25 cooking pits just outside the wall of the church which is probably even older. South and west of the church were previously one of the largest burial ground Sørlandets from pre-Christian times . It is believed that there was a royal on Oddernes even before 800, and Oddernes church was built around 1040.
Before the stone church was built, it is believed that one or maybe two post three churches have stood on the same spot . Excavations in and around rune stone one a few years ago, when it was moved into the porch, the basis of grave finds evidence that the cemetery must have been unusually large already in the Middle Ages. This means that the area had a large population in the period before Black Death.
Already in the 1300-1400's it was a busy port and a small village at the Otra at the bottom of the Lund (Lahelle) . Another important element in developing the harbor at Flekkeroy, which was the main Skagerrak from the 1500s and got his first fortifications with the in 1555 in Christian III . Lens Men Palle Rosenkrantz had in 1635 ordered to move from Nedenes and building a Oddernes by Flekkeroy. For construction of Kiel Canal between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea, the city had very great strategic importance.
King Christian IV visited the place at least in 1630 and 1635, and the 5th July 1641 he founded formally town Christian in the Sand " sand " on the other side of Torridalselva (Otra) . Founded in Renaissance style with regular urban (quadrature), and Trade citizens throughout the College was ordered to move to the new town. In return, they receive various trading privileges and a 10 -year tax exemption . In 1666, Christian Sand garrison sby, and in 1682, the king decided that bishop it was moved from Stavanger to Kristiansand . The diocese changed its name to Christian Sands staple.
In 1734 the city experienced its first and very devastating town fire . Later in the 1700s, after the American Revolutionary War, the city experienced shipbuilders great growth. The boom lasted until Napoleonic Wars, whose blockade and naval warfare was a hard blow for the trade. Denmark- Norway supported France and was subjected to relentless, British attack. The story of Terje Vigen testify . First, in 1830 the economy began to pick up, and the growth in the Norwegian shipping industry was important to the Christian Sand.
Another important event was instituted byI Sindssygeasyl in 1881, the other main psychiatric institution in Norway, after Gaustad. The psychiatric hospital drew highly specialized doctors to the city and also gave many female jobs.
With the development of hydropower in southern Norway was gradually established industry, especially with Kristiansand Nickel Refining Works AS (later Falconbridge Nickel, now Xstrata Nickel) in 1910 . First World War was, in economic terms, a good period for Kristiansand, which neutral shipping city . The crisis that followed the parity one in 1920 and the world crisis of the 1930s felt good in a market that Kristiansand.[clarification needed]
The labor movement had important pioneers in the city, Leon Trotsky stayed about a year in the archipelago of Kristiansand in exile . It was Arnulf Øverland that took him from Randesund of Ny Hellersund in Søgne in 1936. in the interwar period Kristiansand was a center for intellectuals, especially after the architect Thilo Schoder settled in 1932.
Kristiansand was attacked 9 April 1940 by German naval forces and occupied by an army of 800 men . During construction after the war, town Lund built further out, and the 1960 - and 70 - century Vågsbygd in the west developed into a town with 20 000 inhabitants . In the 1980s, the city's industry and business down . But from the second half of the 1990s hit business momentum with the development of enterprises for marine and offshore equipment, security technology and drilling .
The older municipal archival sources for the municipality (and the former municipalities) are currently at Inter-municipal archives in Vest-Agder ( IKAVA) . This includes protocols such as local council chairmanship, poor control, school board and archives including personal information in the form of client records, tax records, but also school records.
The arms were granted on 8 December 1909 and are based on the oldest seal of the city, dating from 1643. In 1643 King Christian IV (of Denmark and Norway) granted the young city the right to use a seal with the Norwegian lion and the Royal crown. The crown indicates that the city was founded by the king. As the species of tree is not properly described, there are several images known with differently shaped trees. A second seal, from 1658, shows a tree with leaves and what looks like pine cones.
The river Otra runs through Kristiansand
Kristiansand and the Agder counties at the Coast of Skagerrak usually have a lot of summer sunshine compared to most of Norway. There may be heavy snowfall in winter with south-southeasterly winds (snow record at Kjevik is 170 cm), but the snow rarely stays long at the coast; see climate.
In the summer most locals go to the Fish Market, the Archipelago and Hamresanden Beach which is located near Kjevik airport (about 10 minutes from the city centre). People from Denmark, Sweden, Germany, the UK and other European countries also visit this beach in the summer during their travels.
Kristiansand is strategically located at the Skagerrak, and before the opening of the Kiel Canal area was very important militarily and geopolitically . This meant that for centuries it served as a military stronghold, Harald Fairhair royal residence to Denmark - Norway's fortifications and later as garrison. Kristiansand is a gateway to and from continent, with ferry service to Denmark and domestic point of railway line along the bottom of Sørlandsgrabenen.
This part of the College belong to the svekonorvegiske Basement Shield a and consists of two main geological formations of Proterozoic rocks that are formed during the Gothic 'and later' svekonorvegiske mountain range, with significant metamorphosis in the latter. A surface of 1 600-1 450 million years old slate, quartz, marble and amphibolite with any hornblendegneis, and upon this acidic surface structures of both granite and granodiorite (respectively 1250 - 1000 million years old, and in some places 1 550-1 480 million years old). East of the municipality starts Bamble field and stretching east to Grenland.
The youngest svekonorvegiske formations witnessed by large formations of granite. There are also times of gabbro and diorite, less eclogite. The Caledonian mountain one did not reach down here. The faults is northwest -southeast direction. Outside Flekkeroy was in ancient times one volcano who has left volcanic rocks Vesuvian by I north of downtown.
Kristiansand has temperate climate with warm summers and cool winters . Snowfall is only in the end of December and the start of January. Gulf Stream and local heating through surface currents along the Norwegian Trench.
Korsvik industrial area on the east side of the Kristiansandsfjord has been established to develop drilling technology, cranes, winches and other equipment oljeindustien worldwide . Among these are the National Oilwell Varco and Aker MH.
Orkla-owned Elkem has operated a refining plant for ferrosilicon and microsilica on Fiskå in Vågsbygd for many years. There being built a new factory for the manufacture of polykristallinsk silicon solar industry. The plant is planned with a capacity of 5000 tons annually.
Christianssands Bryggeri is the city's traditional producer of beer and soft drinks. The brewery was established in 1859, and all CB products brewed in spring water from the brewery's own well, Christian IV source.
Hennig-Olsen is an ice cream factory with headquarters and manufacturing facilities in Kristiansand. The factory was started in 1960, but Hennig-Olsen family has produced ice cream in Kristiansand since 1924, when Sven Hennig -Olsen started the ice cream in the back of his tobacco store.
|Source: Statistics Norway. * merged with suburban municipalities in 1964.|
The Quart festival was an annual music festival held in Kristiansand every year at the beginning of July, and ran from 1991 until it went bankrupt in 2008. Originally named Qvadradurmusivalen, its name was changed to the more catchy Quart Festival the following year. For several years Quart was the largest music festival in Norway, but struggled in recent years due to tough competition from the Hovefestivalen in Tromøya, Arendal and some Oslo based festivals. The rock music event usually lasted for five days and had concerts on a large stage on Odderøya, as well as on smaller stages around the town. The Quart Festival was known for attracting famous international artists to Kristiansand each year as well as finding new young talents, for whom performing in the Quart Festival meant a fast and steady track to fame. Many of today’s big stars first appeared at the Quart Festival.
Kristiansand is a home to many other festivals as well. A noteworthy example is the Protestfestival. It was launched in 2000 and takes place every September. Protestfestival aims to address apathy and indifference in politics, and is often referred to as "the small festival that asks the big questions". Debates, concerts and lectures are held at the festival combined with performance art and documentaries. Protestfestival claims to attract anarchists, communists, hippies as well as conservative Christians and capitalists and encourage communication among these radically different groups.
Festivals run throughout the year in Kristiansand. Some of these include the Bragdøya Blues Festival in June, the Dark Season Festival in October, Cultural Night and the International Children Film Festival in April. Kristiansand has an active music scene as well. The Kristiansand Symphonic Orchestra as well as Chamber Orchestra and Wind Ensemble are now well known after their merging in 2003. The new Kilden Performing Arts Centre opened 6 January 2012. So far concerts take place in Agder Theatre, which is also a venue for most of the other big events. Sørlandets Art Museum is also in the centre of Kristiansand. It was established in 1995 and is the second-biggest regional art museum in Norway.
The museum runs an extensive programme, which includes exhibitions of the permanent collection, temporary contemporary art-exhibitions and touring exhibitions to schools and child-care initiatives. The museum is working to generate interest, engagement, knowledge and understanding of the arts, crafts and other visual arts.
Cultiva, which is a local government foundation, was established to ensure a portion of the profits made from selling shares in Agder Energy Ltd have lasting benefits to the community, with some of the money invested in cultural projects in Kristiansand. In addition, in 2007 Kristiansand won cultural funding from “Norges kulturkommune”, which was established by the Norwegian Culture Forum and is awarded every other year. Fiskebrygga, in Kristiansand, is very popular in summer, where you will find a fishmarket offering fishes and shellfishes alive. In the 1990s the area was refurbished transforming the traditional landing area for boats with restaurants and shops.
The City’s famous football team, IK Start, had their final home game at Kristiansand Stadium in 2006. As of 2007 the team has been moved to its newer facilities in Sør Arena. Kristiansand is also known for its handball teams (KIF and Kristiansand Vipers), basketball (Kristiansand Pirates), volleyball club (Grim VBK) and baseball team (Kristiansand Suns). Kristiansand Suns is commonly known as the morale winners of the NM 2010.
The zoological garden, Kristiansand Dyrepark (Kristiansand Zoo and Amusement Park) just east of the city, has a wide selection of animals in, for the most part, natural habitats. This includes animals such as wolves, tigers, lions and the lynx. The Dyreparken draws many tourists and is the second most visited in Norway. The zoo is open 365 days a year, while the amusement park is open during the summer season only.
Agderforskning (Agder Research) is an interdisciplinary social science research institute based in Kristiansand. As well as broad involvement in festivals, Agderforskning is also working on projects connected to value creation in coastal culture, cultural heritage, film and travel and tourism production, cultural experience surveys, cultural activities financing, interaction and innovation processes connected to art in the workplace, cooperation in the tourism industry, experiential tourism, entrepreneurship in the music industry, and dialogue-based innovation where art, culture and commerce meet. Although strongly based in the Kristiansand and the surrounding area, their studies are far reaching; nationally, throughout Scandinavia and in Europe in the development of international research projects.
University of Agder located in modern premises at Gimlemoen east of downtown]] University College was established in 2007, based on the college, which was formed in 1994 as a merger of the previous six colleges: Kristiansand Teacher Training College, Agder Regional College, Kristiansand College of Nursing, Arendal College of Nursing, College engineering and regional College (Grimstad) and the college Conservatory of Music. The university has about 10,000 students. 7,500 of these are in Kristiansand, the remaining 2,500 in Grimstad. All university courses in Kristiansand is located in a campus on the former parade ground Gimlemoen on Gimle east of Otra, between Spicheren and Gimle Vang. The University offers a wide range of studies at all levels, organized into five faculties: Faculty of Humanities and Education, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Faculty of Health and Sport, Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences and the Faculty of Fine Arts . On Gimlemoen is also Southern Knowledge Park, built with funds from sources such as Cultiva Fund (sale of Agder Energi) . In Southern Knowledge Park are a number of companies with a certain professional affiliation to the university, such as Agderforskning, part of Cappelen Damm publishers, etc.
Kristiansand was garrison s and Kirkeby from 1664 and got Cathedral School in 1684 and grammar school in 1734. Public high schools today Kristiansand Cathedral School Gimle, Vågsbygd high school, Quadrature high school and Tangen high school.
Private high schools include Noroff High School and Sonans education. Private school Sørlandets maritime high school also based in Kristiansand. This school offers two lines, TIP and maritime subjects. The school is a boarding school, where students live and receive training aboard the training ship MS "Sjøkurs».
People from Kristiansand
From the city centre, the ferry harbour has routes to Hirtshals (Denmark) and Hanstholm (Denmark). Road connections goes via E18  east to Arendal and Oslo, via E39 west to Mandal and Stavanger, and National Road 9 north to Vennesla, Setesdal, Hovden and Haukeli. The Sørlandsbanen railway has station in downtown Kristiansand which is a terminus station, where trains have to change direction. Trains go east to Oslo and west to Stavanger.
Kristiansand is connected to continental Europe by air and sea. The local airport, Kjevik, is located 12 km (7.5 mi) east of the city and has routes to European and Norwegian cities.
Twin towns – Sister cities
Kristiansand is twinned with:
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kristiansand.|
|Look up Kristiansand in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- Municipal fact sheet from Statistics Norway
- Vest-Agder travel guide from Wikivoyage
- Kristiansand travel guide from Wikivoyage
- Kristiansand Virtual Tour, 360* Panoramic Pictures (QTVR)
- Visit Kristiansand website
- The Official Website of the Kristiansand Region
- Winter in the Kristiansand Region
- Explore the Kristiansand Region
- What to do in the Kristiansand region
- Regional tourist information
- Kristiansand – a flourishing city
- Kristiansand, summer VIDEO
- Port of Kristiansand
- Only Ski field in Kristiansand – also in English
- Tall Ships Races 2010
- "Personnemningar til stadnamn i Noreg" (in Norwegian). Språkrådet.
- Even though the names are different, Kristiansand is often noted as Kristiansand S (S for South) to distinguish it from Kristiansund, also in Norway, in such cases noted as Kristiansund N. The practice originated before postal codes were introduced, as mail sometimes was sent to the wrong city. Occasional mix-ups with the Swedish city of Kristianstad have also been known to happen."EUROPE | Soldiers' map mix-up". BBC News. 26 May 2000. Retrieved 2013-05-14.
- "Justvik - landsby i kommunen Kristiansand. Befolkningen - hvor mange mennesker Justvik". Befolkningen.com. Retrieved 2013-05-14.
- "Kristiansand eller Christianssand? - Sørlandet - NRK Nyheter". Nrk.no. Retrieved 2013-05-14.
- See page 80 of Jan G. LANGFELD book : Langefeldt genus and New Hell 's history , (published in 2004)
- Norske Kommunevåpen (1990). "Nye kommunevåbener i Norden". Retrieved 27 September 2008.
- Ivar B. Ramberg et al, the country becomes - geology, Norwegian geological Society, 2006 (2007), page 71
- Bedrock map of Norway , NGU 2006. (map)
- Velkommen til Glencore Nikkelverk AS XtrataNickel.no. Retrieved 20 November 2013
- Harald Berglihn (31 May 2011) Rasmussengruppen reddet av aksjer og finans DN. Retrieved 20 November 2013 (Norwegian)
- Protestfestivalen (English)
- Kilden Performing Arts Centre
- Sørlandets Kunstmuseum, Homepage in English
- Kristiansand Port
- Statens Vegvesen (English)
- NSB Homepage
- "Portrait of Münster: Die Partnerstädte". Stadt Münster. Archived from the original on 2013-05-09. Retrieved 2013-08-07.