Kryvyi Rih

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Kryvyi Rih
Кривий Ріг
City of regional significance
From upper left: Savior Transfiguration Cathedral, ArcelorMittal, Kryvyi Rih Main Station, Maksyma Hor'koho Square, Saksahan boat station
From upper left: Savior Transfiguration Cathedral, ArcelorMittal, Kryvyi Rih Main Station, Maksyma Hor'koho Square, Saksahan boat station
Flag of Kryvyi Rih
Flag
Coat of Arms of Kryvyi Rih
Coat of arms
Motto: Life-long city
Kryvyi Rih is located in Ukraine
Kryvyi Rih
Kryvyi Rih
Location of Kryvyi Rih in Ukraine
Coordinates: 47°55′0″N 33°15′0″E / 47.91667°N 33.25000°E / 47.91667; 33.25000Coordinates: 47°55′0″N 33°15′0″E / 47.91667°N 33.25000°E / 47.91667; 33.25000
Country  Ukraine
Province  Dnipropetrovsk Oblast
District Flag of Kryvyi Rih Raion.gif Kryvyi Rih Raion
Town charter 1860
City status 1919
Administrative HQ Kryvyi Rih City Hall,
Radianska Square
Raions
Government
 • Type City council, regional
 • Governing body Kryvyi Rih City Council
 • Mayor Yuri Vilkul
 • MPs: Yuri Pavlov
Andriy Halchenko
Konstantin Usov (PPB)
Area
 • Total 410 km2 (160 sq mi)
Elevation[1] 84 m (276 ft)
Population (2014 est.)
 • Total 654,900
 • Rank 8th, UA
 • Density 1,600/km2 (4,100/sq mi)
Demonym Kryvorizhanyn, Kryvorizhanka, Kryvorizhtsi
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Postal code 50000-50479
Area code +380 56(4)
Website kryvyirih.dp.ua

Kryvyi Rih or Krivoi Rog (Ukrainian: Кривий Ріг /krɪvˈrɪx/;[2] Russian: Кривой Рог /krivɒjˈrɒx/, Crooked Horn) is a city in Dnipropetrovsk region, 8th most populous city in Ukraine with over 650 000 inhabitants in 2013.[3] It lies within large urban area, administratively, incorporated with Kryvyi Rih Municipality as a city of region significance. It also serves as the administrative center of the district although it is not part of it. City extends for 126 km from north to south.

Standing on the Saksahan and Inhulets river, Kryvyi Rih has been a major settlement, its history going back to its founding as a postal city in 1775 by the Cossaks. A military settlement till the 1860, part of Kherson, although with areas of Yekaterinoslav, it was incorporated during the 20th century. The township began to expand "at an astonishing rate" around the turn of the 1880s. Kryvyi Rih's unplanned urbanization, French and English investment was brought on by a boom in metallurgy, iron mining and investigation of a rich deposits of iron ore. The building of the Yekateryninska Railway in 1884 built to transport ore to Donbas transformed Kryvyi Rih into a major industry town that culminated in city status in 1919. Nationalizations and investment spurred by soviet authorities led to extensive growth. In 1934 Kryvorizhstal was built and more than 500 other factories later. Was started the foundation of Kryvyi Rih National University. City fortune growth after the nazi occupation due to reforms. Also, investment spurred by Ukrainian Independence, market economy and 2014 revolution led to extensive regeneration, particularly in the city centre.

Today Kryvyi Rih is arguably the main steel industry city of Eastern Europe, being a large globally important centre of an iron-ore mining and metallurgy region. Its oblast economy is the third largest in Ukraine.[4]

History[edit]

Etymology[edit]

The city was founded in the 18th century by Zaporozhian Cossacks. Kryvyi Rih in Ukrainian literally means Crooked Horn. According to local legend, the city was founded by a crooked (Ukrainian slang for one-eyed) Cossack named Rih.[5] However, records pre-dating the existence of the city refer to the area by the same name, due to the shape of the landmass formed by the merging of the river Saksagan into the Inhulets.

Early history[edit]

Ingulets Palanka was established in 1734 and list of villages and winterings mentioned Kryvyi Rih. In 1770[6] was founded camp of Zaporizhian Sich,[7] four years later Johann Anton Güldenstädt visited the area and made its first scientific description. On May 8, 1775, after end of the Russian-Turkish War, authorities opened postal station and trakt witch linked Kremenchuk, Kinburn foreland and Ochakov - locations of the Imperial Russian Army. Waitstaff was 5 cossacks. Kryvyi Rih entered XIX century as village,[8] among large industrial enterprises of the town there were 3 water mills. The first original stone houses were built in 1828,[9] the highest building at the end of XIX century was Central Synagogue, was taken down in 1947. Village was moved to the category of township in 1860.[10]

Industrial growth[edit]

Olexander Paul discovered and initiated iron ore investegation and production,[11][12] formed the notion of Mine district.[13] In 1874 Alexander II signed the founding project of railway,[14] running 505 km. This enabled transportation right into the nearest factories and speed-up the development. In 1880 Paul founded the "French Society of Kryvyi Rih Ores" (5 million francs of capital). In 1882 in the outskirts were extracted 16,4 thousand tons of ore by 150 workers. A centre of capitalism, Basin took the first place in ore extraction in Russia, first underground mine of the basin began to function in 1886.[15] A new branch of industry - metallurgical - was founded in 1892, when the first blast furnace of Hdantsivka Ironworks was started.

Olexander Paul studied in detail the iron ore and proved its commercial value 
Ore quarry in 1899 
Joltaia Reka Iron Mining Company share, 1899 
Poshtovaya Street about 1900 
Krivoy Rog Mutual Credit Society 
Region map in 1914 

Soon began the export of ore in Silesia. In the town was founded 5[16] schools and aerial cableway. The development of the city has attracted new people looking for a quick profit.[17] Demand was less than the number of mined ore. Many mines completely suspended their work, while others have reduced them more than half. Workers did not have the proper conditions, social security and contract. Miners were prone to lung cancer, tuberculosis and asthma. Each worker had several diseases. Thousands of people who worked in mines and the factory as workers, drivers and various employees were left without employment. At the same time city began to develop the ideas of socialism and democracy. There have been several terrorist attacks and strikes, 1905 brought the anti-Jewish pogroms and repressions.[18]

The First World War interrupted access to the export markets, a lot of workers were called to the front. The city survived Soldier and Worker's Deputies in 1917, the Soviet Power was established on January 1918.[19][20] The Donetsk–Krivoy Rog Soviet Republic[21] became a self-declared republic of the Russian SFSR founded on 12 February 1918 and sought independence from Ukraine. On 29 March 1918 it became a republic within Ukraine until the last was fully occupied by the German forces in support of the Central Rada. It was disbanded on 20 March 1918[22] when was announced the independence of the Soviet Ukraine.[23]

Kryvyi Rih got city status. Was founded Uyezd as part of Yekaterinoslav Governorate. It included 30 volosts. Late 1919 followed by short Volunteer Army's ruling.[19]

Soviet era[edit]

On January 17, 1920 the Red Army finally took Kryvyi Rih. City's population totaled 22 571. The city did not have a drinking water system until 1924, when a 55.3 km (34.4 mi) system was laid underground. Foreign investments were stopped, mines renewed. The first Mining Institute started to work in 1929, studies in Medical and Pedagogical Institutes began.[24] In 1931 the foundation of metallurgical works was laid ,[25] the first blast furnace of the metallurgical works gave metal 3 years later. The city grew rapidly, there are 160 industrial enterprises and 947 shops.[26]

Nazi occupation[edit]

During World War II, Kryvyi Rih was occupied by the German Army as part of the Reichskommissariat Ukraine from August 15, 1941 to February 22, 1944. Being evacuated from 20 September 1941 to August 1944, Government, factories and Kryvyi Rih Institute worked in Nizhny Tagil. Germans immediately began to build up local government - executive, gendarmerie, police. Ukrainian national liberation movement in Krivoy Rog was organized by marching groups OUN. The answer came in the ethnic cleansing of Ukrainians as well as large-scale holocaust. On October 13, 1941 700 people were executed,[27] from October 1941 to April 1942 - 6293 persons, in August 1943 - 13 people.[26]

Hitler has repeatedly stressed the crucial importance of this area "As Nikopol manganese, its importance to us all can not be expressed in words. Loss of Nikopol (on the Dnieper, the south-west of Zaporozhye) would mean the end of war.[28]" In addition, the bridgehead on the left bank of the Dnieper left the German command a strike in order to restore the land connection with the group of forces locked in the Crimea.[29] During the first half of January,[30] Soviet troops made repeated attempts to eliminate the Nikopol-Krivoy Rog enemy group, but because of the stubborn resistance of German troops did not achieve success. Kryvyi Rih was almost totally destroyed by the fleeing Red Army during Nikopol–Krivoy Rog Offensive.

AEG power station built in 1930 
Wehrmacht soldiers operating 10.5 cm leFH 18. Svobody st., 1942 
Soldiers arresting people, 1942 

Post-Second World War and Post-Soviet[edit]

After the war, people lived among the ruins while housing stocks were rebuilt. The housing shortage was met by innovative technological solutions, which meant temporary barracks and houses could be built quickly. The two kinds of cheap new materials [clarification needed] were used later for years afterwards.

Regeneration began in the late 1940s with initiatives such as Stakhanovite movement,[31] Khrushchyovkas, new mines, shoe and wool spinning-factory, Central Iron Ore Enrichment Works, Northern Iron Ore Enrichment Works, City Circus. Trolleybuses in Kryvyi Rih were launched in 1985,[32] Kryvyi Rih Airport became International. In 1990 Kryvbas produced 42% of USSR and 80% of Ukrainian ore extraction volume .[33]

Large sections of the city dating from the 1960s have been either demolished and re-developed or modernised with the use of beton and steel.[34] Old flats have been converted into modern apartments, 9 microdistricts of 17 ans 9-floor panelák apartments have since been developed. Kryvyi Rih TV Mast is a 185m tall guyed tubular steel mast built in 1960, which carries in 2 levels 3 crossbars, which run from the mast structure to the guys. All three crossbars are equipped with gangways that carry additional smaller antennas.[35]

The city itself is laid out with broad avenues lined by wide sidewalks. Tram lines run down the centre of the major streets. Beside the sidewalks there are usually several rows of trees such as lindens and horse chestnuts. Many people live in rows of 5 to 9 story apartment buildings that are wrapped around large inner courtyards. Many of these courtyards are also filled with trees giving the overall impression that the entire city is built in a park.

The proclamation of the independence of Ukraine in 1991 brought about radical changes in every sphere of city life .[36] In the 1990s the city was known for its banditry,[37] which was successfully destroyed. Spurred by the investment after the 2005 Kryvorizhstal privatization by ArcelorMittal, and aided by Metinvest ,[38] Kryvyi Rih's city centre has undergone extensive regeneration.[39] City has of the biggest flower clocks in Europe.[40] New and renovated complexes such as Auchan and The Union have become popular shopping and entertainment destinations. Kryvyi Rih is among 30[41] most comfortable cities for living in Ukraine.

Government[edit]

The City of Kryvyi Rih and 7 raions
  1. Terny Raion
  2. Zhovtnevy Raion
  3. Saksahan Raion
  4. Central City Raion
  5. Dovhuntsevsky Raion
  6. Dzerzhinsky Raion
  7. Ingulets Raion
Kr Rig mapa.svg

    The City of Kryvyi Rih is governed by the Kryvyi Rih City Council. it is a city municipality that is designated as a separate district within its oblast.

    Administratively, the city is divided into "raions" ("districts"). Presently, there are 7 raions: Dzerzhinskiy, Central City, Terny, Saksahan, Ingulets, Zhovtnevy and Dovhuntsevsky. Small townships, Avanhard, Horniatske, Ternovaty Kut, Kolomoitsevo and Nowoivanovka were added to the City[42]

    Originally Ingulets povit of Novorossiysk Governorate was established on lands of Ingulets palanca in 1775 after the destruction of the Zaporozhian Sich. In 1775 - 1776 it was part of Kherson Governorate. In 1783, the povit centre became Kryvyi Rih, and it was renamed to Kryvyi Rih povit. In 1860 Kryvyi Rih got the status of township in Kherson Governorate. In 1919 township was granted city status in Yekaterinoslav Governorate and, later, Dnipropetrovsk Oblast. As a result of the administrative reform in 1923 Kryvyi Rih povit converted to Kryvyi Rih okruga, which in 1930 became an independent administrative unit of Ukraine.[43][44]

    Kryvyi Rih has three single-mandate parliamentary constituencies entirely within the city, through which members of parliament (MPs) are elected to represent the city in Rada. At the last general election, were won by PPB and independent candidates with representation being from Yuri Pavlov, Andriy Halchenko, Konstantin Usov respectively.[45] In multimember districts city voted for Opposition Bloc, union of all political forces that did not endorse Euromaidan.

    In the last decades, Kryvyi Rih has generally supported candidates belonging to the Party of Regions and (in 1990s) Communist Party of Ukraine in national and local elections. Same situation was with presidential elections, strong support had Leonid Kuchma and Viktor Yanukovych. After 2014 events of Euromaidan, mass demonstrations and clashes in central city,[46] Regions lost its influence, and Kryvyi Rih supported Petro Poroshenko.

    Culture[edit]

    Shevchenko Theatre

    Kryvyi Rih has a thriving theatre, circus and dance scene, and is home to a number of large performance venues. First theater was Coliseum in 1908, also the New Theatre of Vyzenberh and Hrushevskyy (1911, corner of Lenina and Kalynychenko st.). Kryvbas Theatre began its activities in, 1931, three years later incorporated with Shevchenko Theater. Another ones are Doll Theatre and Movement Theatre. Kryvyi Rih is famous as the birthplace Eugenie Gershoy, an American sculptor and watercolorist who emigrated with her family in 1903. Gershoy's work is in the collections of the Whitney Museum of American Art, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, and the Smithsonian American Art Museum. Her papers are held at Syracuse University.[47] Folk musician Eduard Drach, actress Helena Makowska and dancer Vladimir Malakhov also originated in the city.

    The first screenings were conducted in the early 1920s. In 1934 Lenin Cinema was built, there are three of them - Olympus, Odessa and Multiplex[48] now open. Kryvyi Rih Circus feature large-scale exhibition space where fairs are held.[49] Soviet heritage are Palaces of Culture in every district of the city.

    Local historical museum celebrate Cossaks history, rich industrial heritage and its role in the Soviet State. The municipally owned Art Gallery houses a collection of local painting.[50]

    The night-time economy of city has expanded significantly since 2000s. Big clubs such as Hollywood[51] and Sky, many tours of famous djs, pop and rap performers were based there. Another major scene of the city - Palace of Youth and Students of the KNU University.[52] The city is home to the annual electronic music Turbofly festival.[53] Rock band music, a tradition in the Ukraine, is an important part city's life and hosted in few small pubs.

    Landmarks[edit]

    Kryvyi Rih's buildings display a variety of architectural styles, ranging from eclecticism to contemporary architecture. The widespread use of red brick and block apartments character the city. Much of the architecture in the city harks back to its days as a centre for the ore trade. Just outside the immediate city centre is a large number of former factories, some of which have totally destroyed and in despare need of restavration.

    Stalinist architecture is wide with neoclassical mass lowcoast apartments. City Hall is the best example of The decree On liquidation of excesses.[54] Khrushchyovka is a type of low-cost, concrete-paneled or brick three- to five-storied apartment building which was developed in the USSR during the early 1960s, during the time its namesake Nikita Khrushchev directed the Soviet government, dozens of such units are now past their design lifetime all over the city. There are 6 microdistricts.

    The city has many Christian churches, the most notable being the Savior Transfiguration Cathedral. It is the main centre of Kryvyi Rih Eparchy founded on July 27, 1996.[55] Roman Catholic chapel located in old town. Pokrova church, Mykhailivska church and Christmass church were destroyed in 1930s during the Great Purge, never to be used as a church again.[56]

    In Kryvyi Rih judaism served by synagogue, reopened after World War II only in 2010.[57][58]

    Large parks hold many of Kryvyi Rih's public monuments. City has mostly socialist realism style monuments to Cossaks, Olexander Paul, Taras Shevchenko (2), Bohdan Khmelnytsky (3, since 1954), Vasili Marguelov, Alexander Pushkin, Fyodor Sergeyev, Mikhail Lermontov and Maxim Gorky. Few Lenin monuments were destroyed during euromaidan events in 2014.[59] There are dozenz of cenotaphs and memorials to Second World War soldiers. A Sukhoi Su-15 is on display near Aviator Club, Yakovlev Yak-40 at National Aviation University, Vyzvolennia Square hold IS3 tank. Russian locomotive class Ye placed near Railway station.

    Modern cityview 
    Dimitrova Street like many streets in the city centre is lined with dozens of stalinist buildings 
    City Hall 
    One of the biggest flower clocks in Europe[60] 
    Nativity of the Theotokos Church, 1886[61] 
    Kryvyi Rih Botanical Gardens of NAS 

    Kryvyi Rih has few[62] designated natural monuments the old pear near Karnavatka, another pear of 1789,[63] Vizyrka landscape reserve, Northern and Southern Red Beam, Amphibolite, Arkose and Skelevatski Outputs, Mopr Rocks, Slate rocks, Sandstone rock.[64] Park named after the newspaper Pravda is very famous by its ampir boat station.[65] Kryvyi Rih Botanical Gardens of NAS est. in 1980.[66]

    Education[edit]

    Major Kryvyi Rih National University was originally formed as college and Mining Institute in 1929. It gained university status in 1982. Kryvyi Rih Pedagogical Institute it was founded in 1930 as an Institute of Vocational Training, is the oldest pedagogical institution in Kryvyi Rih, reorganized in Pedagogical Institute. In 2011 Cabinet of Ukraine founded Kryvyi Rih National University by uniting Mining Institute, Pedagogical University, Economic Institute of Kyiv National Economic University and Department of the National Metallurgical Academy of Ukraine.

    Another institutions are local Department of Dnepropetrovsk State University of Internal Affairs, campuses of Zaporizhzhya National University, National University Odesa Law Academy and Interregional Academy of Personnel Management, college of National Aviation University

    In 2014 Donetsk Tugan-Baranovsky National University of Economics and Trade was evacuated to Kryvyi Rih after a long War in Donbass. Its future is uncertain.[67]

    According to Frances Cairncross (in April 2010) “There are too many small universities, the majority of which are ineffectively governed and mired in corruption. They are not able to withstand existing global challenges.”[68] According to Anders Åslund (in October 2012) the quality of doctoral education is bad, particularly in management training, economics, law and languages.[69] He also signaled that the greatest problem in the Ukrainian education system is corruption.[69]

    There are 149 general secondary schools and 150 nursery schools and kindergartens in Kryvyi Rih.[70] Additionally, there are evening schools for adults, musical, art, sports and specialist technical schools.

    Sport[edit]

    Kryvyi Rih is well known for being a city of sport. The city has two football clubs. FC Hirnyk Kryvyi Rih is a club based in Hirnyk Stadium. The club currently competes in the Ukrainian First League. It is part of the Sports Club Hirnyk which combines several other sections. The club's owner is the Kryvyi Rih Iron Ore Combine (KZRK), the biggest subterranean mining public company in Ukraine.

    Kryvyi Rih was home to the football team Kryvbas Kryvyi Rih. The team was founded as FC Kryvyi Rih in 1959. The next year it was part of the republican sport society Avanhard. After a couple of years it changed to Hirnyk, before obtaining current its name in 1966. Kryvbas debuted in the Ukrainian Premier League in the 1992–1993 season. They have been in the top league since their debut. Their best finish was in third place in the 1998–99 and 1999–2000 seasons. At the end of the UPL 2012-2013 season the team finished in 7th place, however, due to financial difficulties the club declared itself bankrupt in June 2013. FC Kryvbas-2 Kryvyi Rih was the reserve team of Kryvbas. In 1998 the club entered into the professional leagues to compete in the Second League. In 3 seasons the club moved to the Amateur Level before competing one last time in Second League.

    SC Kryvbas is a professional basketball club. Achievements of the team are winning the Ukrainian Basketball League in 2009, and winning the Higher League in 2003 and 2004. Since 2010 the team is active in the Ukrainian Basketball SuperLeague.

    City is famous for it annual autorally. It was also the birthplace of the Ukrainian tennis players Valeria Bondarenko, Alona Bondarenko and Kateryna Bondarenko.

    Geography[edit]

    Mopr rocks
    Pushkin park in winter

    At 47°55′0″N 33°15′0″E / 47.91667°N 33.25000°E / 47.91667; 33.25000, 415 kilometres (260 mi) south of Kyiv, the city extends for 126 km from north to south,[71][72] paralleling the ore deposits. The city centre is on the east bank of the Inhulets River, near its confluences with the River Saksahan. Kryvyi Rih's geographic features were highly influential in its early development industrial city.

    The city is set in the rolling steppe land surrounded by fields of sunflowers and grain. A short distance east of the city centre, there is an area along a small lake where glacial boulders were deposited. As a result, this area was never cultivated and contains one of the few remaining patches of wild steppe vegetation in the area. The city's environmental and construction safety is a growing problem due to abandoned mines and polluted ore-processing waste. According to the Scientific Hygienic Centre of Ukraine, the city is one of the most unfavourable places to live because of these problems.[73]

    Climate[edit]

    Kryvyi Rih experiences a dry continental climate (Dfb/Dfa) according to the Köppen climate classification system, like much of Ukraine. This tends to generate warm summers and cold winters with relatively low precipitation. Snowfalls are not common in the city, due to the urban warming effect. However,[74] districts that surround the city receive more snow and roads leading out of the city can be closed[75] due to snow.

    Climate data for Kryvyi Rih
    Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
    Record high °C (°F) 13.0
    (55.4)
    18.9
    (66)
    23.5
    (74.3)
    28.9
    (84)
    35.8
    (96.4)
    36.4
    (97.5)
    38.6
    (101.5)
    39.6
    (103.3)
    32.2
    (90)
    31.7
    (89.1)
    21.7
    (71.1)
    15.3
    (59.5)
    39.6
    (103.3)
    Average high °C (°F) −0.9
    (30.4)
    0.1
    (32.2)
    6.1
    (43)
    15.0
    (59)
    21.8
    (71.2)
    25.2
    (77.4)
    27.8
    (82)
    27.5
    (81.5)
    21.4
    (70.5)
    14.0
    (57.2)
    5.5
    (41.9)
    0.4
    (32.7)
    13.7
    (56.7)
    Daily mean °C (°F) −3.5
    (25.7)
    −3.1
    (26.4)
    1.9
    (35.4)
    9.6
    (49.3)
    15.9
    (60.6)
    19.5
    (67.1)
    21.8
    (71.2)
    21.2
    (70.2)
    15.6
    (60.1)
    9.1
    (48.4)
    2.3
    (36.1)
    −2.1
    (28.2)
    9.0
    (48.2)
    Average low °C (°F) −6.3
    (20.7)
    −6.2
    (20.8)
    −1.8
    (28.8)
    4.4
    (39.9)
    9.8
    (49.6)
    13.7
    (56.7)
    15.7
    (60.3)
    15.0
    (59)
    10.1
    (50.2)
    4.7
    (40.5)
    −0.6
    (30.9)
    −4.7
    (23.5)
    4.5
    (40.1)
    Record low °C (°F) −27.2
    (−17)
    −27.3
    (−17.1)
    −21.0
    (−5.8)
    −8.9
    (16)
    −1.6
    (29.1)
    2.8
    (37)
    7.3
    (45.1)
    5.0
    (41)
    −3.7
    (25.3)
    −10.0
    (14)
    −18.6
    (−1.5)
    −24.5
    (−12.1)
    −27.3
    (−17.1)
    Precipitation mm (inches) 30
    (1.18)
    29
    (1.14)
    24
    (0.94)
    28
    (1.1)
    45
    (1.77)
    62
    (2.44)
    58
    (2.28)
    32
    (1.26)
    38
    (1.5)
    37
    (1.46)
    31
    (1.22)
    28
    (1.1)
    442
    (17.4)
    Source: Pogoda.ru.net[76]

    Demographics[edit]

    National communities
    Russia Russian
    Armenia Armenian
    Moldova Moldovan
    Poland Polish
    Israel Jewish
    Romani people Romani
    Georgia (country) Georgian

    Historically the population of Kryvyi Rih began to increase rapidly during the Interwar period, peaking at 197 000 in 1939.[77] From than the population began to decrease rapidly, due to foreign workers and increased building of social housing overspill estates by Kryvyi Rih City Council after the Second World War such as Sotshorod and Sonyachny.[78]

    The 2014 Estimate for the population of Kryvyi Rih was 654,900 (8th in Ukraine). This was a decrease of 4 348 since the 2013 E. Since 2001, the population has grown by 48 001. In 2013, deaths exceeded births by 3589. Net migration rate is 234 (negative).[77][79]

    According to the UNHCR and City Council, 7000 people of Donetsk and Luhansk have fled to Kryvyi Rih since the beginning of 2014 War in Donbass, not including those who did not register as asylum seekers.[80][81][82][83][84][85]

    Kryvyi Rih has traditionally been Christian, and has a large number of churches, particularly in the central city. The well-known Savior Transfiguration Cathedral in Saksahan Raion is Ortodox administrative centr, bishop of the Kryvyi Rih Eparchy has his main residence here. The town has a school of icon painting. Patron saint of the city is Saint Nicholas as well as bishops Onufry and Porphyry.[86] The majority of regions Jews live here, with significant Jewish community. Beis Shtern Shtulman Synagogue[87] in the Central City was open in 2010. In the early twentieth century, the city had two synagogues, located on the Kaunas street. As part of Roman Catholic Diocese of Kharkiv-Zaporizhia city has Kosel of Mary mother of Jesus. Kryvyi Rih is also home to Evangeliums-Christen, CEF and Vedas communities.

    LGBT activity in city is not eligible, people may experience different social attitudes and public policies.

    In terms of ethnic composition, there is no official statistics but history showed that Jews, make up the single largest ethnic minority[88] of 15 000, followed by Russians[citation needed] and Armenians. Other large immigrant groups are people from Korea, Poland, Moldova, Azerbaijan and Roms.[89] The area also attracts large numbers of African students to the city who attending the local universities.[90] Central city and Dovhuntsevsky Raion are centres of population for ethnic minorities.

    The Kryvyi Rih Metropolitan Region has a population of 900 000 in 2013. In addition to Kryvyi Rih itself, the KMR includes the 5 raions of the Dnipropetrovsk Oblast. The KMR is the sixth largest within the Ukraine.

    Economy[edit]

    Headframe of Zaria Mine

    In mid-2014 Kryvyi Rih had a IPI of ₴41.6bn[70][91] (about $3bn[92]) with 17.9% growth whitch is 41.8% of Dnipropetrovsk Oblast IPI. Export reached $2.520m (4.9% decreese), Import - $276m. City got $4.899m of foreign Investmentments, mainly from Germany, Cyprus, Netherlands, and the UK.

    Official unemployment throughout 2014 averaged 0.63%. Average wage is ₴4.022 ($266,[92] 19.4% more than average Ukraine).[70][91]

    Processing and mining industry - the two largest sectors of Kryvyi Rih. Rest fraction is about 50%. City has over 53[93] plants, mines and factories. ArcelorMittal Kryvyi Rih, owned by ArcelorMittal since 2005 is the largest private company by revenue in Ukraine,[94] producing over 7 million tonnes of crude steel, and mined over 17 million tonnes of iron or. As of 2011, the company employed about 37 000 people. 4 Iron Ore Enrichment Works of Metinvest are a large contributors to the UA's balance of payments. The third giant of city - Evraz mining company.[70][91]

    Transport[edit]

    Local public transportation in Kryvyi Rih includes the Metrotram (underground), buses[70][91] and minibuses line, trolleybuses (in operation since 1957, the system presently comprises 23 routes), trams (one of world's largest tram networks, operating on 105.8 kilometres of total route. As of 2014, it was composed of 13 lines) and, taxi.

    The publicly owned and operated Kryvyi Rih Metrotram is the fastest, the most convenient and affordable network that covers most, but not all, of the city. The Metrotram is continuously expanding towards the city limits to meet growing demand, currently having three lines with a total length of 18.7 kilometres (11.6 miles) and 16 stations. Despite its designation as a "metro tram" and its use of tram cars as rolling stock, the Kryvyi Rih Metrotram is a complete rapid transit system with enclosed stations and tracks separated both from roads and from the city's conventional tram lines. City public transport provided servises for 66m persons in first part of 2014.[70][91]

    Commuter rail train at the Kryvyi Rih Main Station. City has a long railroads history. 

    The Kryvyi Rih public transport system, except for taxi, uses a simple flat rate tariff system regardless of distance traveled: tickets or tokens must be purchased each time a vehicle is boarded. Discount passes are available for grade school and higher education students. Pensioners use public transportation free. Ticket prices are regulated by the city government, and the cost of one ride is far lower than in Western Europe.

    The historic tram system,[32] once a well maintained and widely used method of transport, is now gradually being phased out in favor of buses and trolleybuses.

    City has no cycling lines. The taxi market is expansive but not regulated. In particular, the taxi fare per kilometer is not regulated. There is a fierce competition between private taxi companies.

    Twin cities[edit]

    Kryvyi Rih has two historic sister cities:[95][96]

    See also[edit]

    References[edit]

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    External links[edit]