|Place of origin||Southeast Asia
(Indonesia[note 1] and Malaysia[note 2])
|Serving temperature||Room temperature|
|Main ingredients||Deep fried dried starch and other ingredients, the most popular is prawn and fish|
|Variations||Different variations according to ingredients|
Krupuk or kerupuk (Indonesian), keropok (Malaysian) or kroepoek (Dutch) are deep fried crackers made from starch and other ingredients that serve as flavouring. They are a popular snack in parts of Southeast Asia, but most closely associated with Indonesia and Malaysia. Kroepoek also can be found in the Netherlands, through their historic colonial ties with Indonesia.
In Indonesia, the term krupuk refers to the type of relatively large crackers, while the term kripik or keripik refers to smaller bite-size crackers; the counterpart of chips (or crisps) in western cuisine. For example potato chips are called kripik kentang in Indonesia. Both terms; krupuk and kripik sound like the breaking or crumbling of this crispy snack to denote its crispiness.
Usually krupuk is made from the dried paste from the mixture of starch with other ingredients, while kripik is usually made entirely from thinly sliced, sun-dried, and fried products without any mixture of starch.
Preparation and consumption
To achieve maximum crunchiness, most of this pre-packed raw krupuk must be sun-dried first before being deep fried at home. To cook krupuk, a wok and plenty of very hot cooking oil is needed. Raw krupuk is quite small, hard, and darker in color than cooked one.
Krupuk and kripik can be consumed solely as a snack, or cracked and sprinkled on top of certain food as a complement to add crispy texture. Certain Indonesian dishes such as gado-gado, karedok, rujak, asinan, bubur ayam and certain kinds of soto were known to require certain type of krupuk for toppings.
Indonesia has perhaps the largest variety of krupuk. There are many variations on krupuk, many of which are made from starch with seafood (shrimp, fish, or squid), but occasionally with rice, fruits, nuts or vegetables; these variations are more usual in Southeast Asia.
- Krupuk udang, shrimp cracker or prawn cracker probably is the most internationally well-kown variant of krupuk. The examples of popular krupuk udang brands in Indonesia is Finna and Komodo brand whereas the popular krupuk udang household brands in Malaysia are Rota Prawn Crackers and myReal Pulau Pangkor Prawn Crackers.
- Krupuk amplang, refer to pingpong balls-sized fish krupuk from Kalimantan.
- Krupuk bawang, onion cracker
- Krupuk kampung, cassava starch cracker is ubiquitous in Indonesia
- Krupuk gendar, ground rice cracker
- Krupuk kemplang, a type of flat fish cracker is particularly popular in Southern Sumatran city of Palembang
- Krupuk ikan, fish cracker, commonly found in Indonesia, especially seafood industry production centers, such as Palembang, Bangka, Cirebon and Sidoarjo. Wahoo is the most popular fish used to make krupuk ikan, however a more expensive variant uses belida fish.
- Krupuk kuku macan, another name of amplang with distinct "tiger nail" nugget-shaped brown-colored fish cracker, popularly associated with Samarinda and the island of Bangka.
- Krupuk kulit (most parts of Indonesia), Krupuk jangek (Minangkabau), or Rambak (Java), refer to cracker made from dried cattle skin, particularly popular in Minangkabau area West Sumatra.
- Krupuk mie (noodle cracker) is yellowish krupuk made from noodle-like paste usually used for asinan topping, particularly popular in Jakarta and most of markets in Java.
In Malaysia, it is called as keropok and mostly associated with fish. The most popular keropok in Malaysia is the Lekor, originated from Terengganu and Amplang from the coastal towns of Semporna and Tawau in Sabah which is also can be found in Kalimantan. Mukah town in Sarawak also historically known as a fishing town for the making of Keropok.
Other similar crackers
These are similar crackers, however commonly not considered as krupuk.
- Emping is a type of cracker made from melinjo (Gnetum gnemon) nuts.
- Rempeyek is another flour-based cracker with brittle of peanuts, anchovies or shrimp bound by crispy flour cracker.
- Rengginang or intip (Javanese) ia rice cracker made from sun-dried and deep fried leftover rice.
- Kripik or keripik refers to smaller bite-size crackers; the counterpart of chips (or crisps).
In Indonesia, major producing centers of krupuk usually are coastal fishing towns. Sidoarjo in East Java, Cirebon and Garut in West Java, Padang, Palembang and Medan in Sumatra, Bangka island, Samarinda and Pontianak in Kalimantan, and Makassar in Sulawesi are major producers of krupuk, and many recipes originate from there.
- Adrian Vickers (3 November 2005). A History of Modern Indonesia. Cambridge University Press. pp. 190–. ISBN 978-1-139-44761-4.
- Information Malaysia. Berita Publ. Sdn. Bhd. 1989.
- Pat Foh Chang (1999). Legends and history of Sarawak. Chang Pat Foh. ISBN 978-983-9475-07-4.
- Yohan Handoyo. "Christmas Crackers". Jakarta Java kini. Retrieved 4 April 2014.
- "A Guide to Dutch Indonesian Cuisine". Awesome Amsterdam. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- Indonesian Regional Food and Cookery: Prawn cracker
- Krupuk Udang Finna
- "myReal Pulau Pangkor Prawn Crackers by Lumut Crackers Sdn. Bhd.". http://www.lumutcrackers.com.my/.
- Su-Lyn Tan; Mark Tay (2003). Malaysia & Singapore. Lonely Planet. pp. 149–. ISBN 978-1-74059-370-0.
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