Isotopes of krypton

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Krypton-80)
Jump to: navigation, search

There are 33 known isotopes of krypton (Kr) with atomic mass numbers from 69 through 101.[1] Naturally occurring krypton is made of six stable isotopes, two of which might theoretically be slightly radioactive, plus traces of radioisotopes that are produced by cosmic rays in the atmosphere.

The spectral signature of krypton can be observed to have several very sharp lines. When krypton is placed into an electric discharge tube, it emits visible light with a distinctive orange-red color.

Krypton-86 was formerly used to define the meter.

Radioactive krypton-81 is the product of reactions with cosmic rays that strike the atmosphere, along with some of the other isotopes of krypton. Krypton-81 has a half-life of about 229,000 years.

Krypton-81 has been used for dating old (50,000 to 800,000 year-old) groundwater.[2]

Krypton-85 is a radioisotope of krypton that has a half-life of about 10.75 years. This isotope is produced by the nuclear fission of uranium and plutonium in nuclear weapons testing and in nuclear reactors, as well as by cosmic rays. An important goal of the Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty of 1963 was to eliminate the release of such radioisotopes into the atmosphere, and since 1963 much of that krypton-85 has had time to decay. However, it is inevitable that krypton-85 is released during the reprocessing of fuel rods from nuclear reactors.

The atmospheric concentration of krypton-85 around the North Pole is about 30 percent higher than that at the Amundsen-Scott Station at the South Pole because nearly all of the world's nuclear reactors and all of its major nuclear reprocessing plants are located in the Northern Hemisphere, and also well-north of the equator.[3] To be more specific, those nuclear reprocessing plants with significant capacities are located in the United States, the United Kingdom, the French Republic, the Russian Federation, Mainland China (PRC), Japan, India, and Pakistan. See the article on nuclear reprocessing for more information.

All of the other radioisotopes of krypton have half-lives of less than one day, except for krypton-79, which has a half-life of about 35.0 hours. This isotope decays by the emission of positrons and thus becoming bromine.

Table[edit]

nuclide
symbol
Z(p) N(n)  
isotopic mass (u)
 
half-life decay
mode(s)[4][n 1]
daughter
isotope(s)[n 2]
nuclear
spin
representative
isotopic
composition
(mole fraction)
range of natural
variation
(mole fraction)
excitation energy
69Kr 36 33 68.96518(43)# 32(10) ms β+ 69Br 5/2-#
70Kr 36 34 69.95526(41)# 52(17) ms β+ 70Br 0+
71Kr 36 35 70.94963(70) 100(3) ms β+ (94.8%) 71Br (5/2)-
β+, p (5.2%) 70Se
72Kr 36 36 71.942092(9) 17.16(18) s β+ 72Br 0+
73Kr 36 37 72.939289(7) 28.6(6) s β+ (99.32%) 73Br 3/2-
β+, p (.68%) 72Se
73mKr 433.66(12) keV 107(10) ns (9/2+)
74Kr 36 38 73.9330844(22) 11.50(11) min β+ 74Br 0+
75Kr 36 39 74.930946(9) 4.29(17) min β+ 75Br 5/2+
76Kr 36 40 75.925910(4) 14.8(1) h β+ 76Br 0+
77Kr 36 41 76.9246700(21) 74.4(6) min β+ 77Br 5/2+
78Kr 36 42 77.9203648(12) Observationally Stable[n 3] 0+ 0.00355(3)
79Kr 36 43 78.920082(4) 35.04(10) h β+ 79Br 1/2-
79mKr 129.77(5) keV 50(3) s 7/2+
80Kr 36 44 79.9163790(16) Stable 0+ 0.02286(10)
81Kr[n 4] 36 45 80.9165920(21) 2.29(11)×105 a EC 81Br 7/2+ trace
81mKr 190.62(4) keV 13.10(3) s IT (99.975%) 81Kr 1/2-
EC (.025%) 81Br
82Kr 36 46 81.9134836(19) Stable 0+ 0.11593(31)
83Kr[n 5] 36 47 82.914136(3) Stable 9/2+ 0.11500(19)
83m1Kr 9.4053(8) keV 154.4(11) ns 7/2+
83m2Kr 41.5569(10) keV 1.83(2) h IT 83Kr 1/2-
84Kr[n 5] 36 48 83.911507(3) Stable 0+ 0.56987(15)
84mKr 3236.02(18) keV 1.89(4) µs 8+
85Kr[n 5] 36 49 84.9125273(21) 10.776(3) a β- 85Rb 9/2+ trace
85m1Kr 304.871(20) keV 4.480(8) h β- (78.6%) 85Rb 1/2-
IT (21.4%) 85Kr
85m2Kr 1991.8(13) keV 1.6(7) µs
[1.2(+10-4) µs]
(17/2+)
86Kr[n 6][n 5] 36 50 85.91061073(11) Observationally Stable[n 7] 0+ 0.17279(41)
87Kr 36 51 86.91335486(29) 76.3(5) min β- 87Rb 5/2+
88Kr 36 52 87.914447(14) 2.84(3) h β- 88Rb 0+
89Kr 36 53 88.91763(6) 3.15(4) min β- 89Rb 3/2(+#)
90Kr 36 54 89.919517(20) 32.32(9) s β- 90mRb 0+
91Kr 36 55 90.92345(6) 8.57(4) s β- 91Rb 5/2(+)
92Kr 36 56 91.926156(13) 1.840(8) s β- (99.96%) 92Rb 0+
β-, n (.033%) 91Rb
93Kr 36 57 92.93127(11) 1.286(10) s β- (98.05%) 93Rb 1/2+
β-, n (1.95%) 92Rb
94Kr 36 58 93.93436(32)# 210(4) ms β- (94.3%) 94Rb 0+
β-, n (5.7%) 93Rb
95Kr 36 59 94.93984(43)# 114(3) ms β- 95Rb 1/2(+)
96Kr 36 60 95.94307(54)# 80(7) ms β- 96Rb 0+
97Kr 36 61 96.94856(54)# 63(4) ms β- 97Rb 3/2+#
β-, n 96Rb
98Kr 36 62 97.95191(64)# 46(8) ms 0+
99Kr 36 63 98.95760(64)# 40(11) ms (3/2+)#
100Kr 36 64 99.96114(54)# 10# ms
[>300 ns]
0+
101Kr [n 8] 36 65 unknown >635 ns β-, 2n 99Rb unknown
β-, n 100Rb
β- 101Rb
  1. ^ Abbreviations:
    EC: Electron capture
    IT: Isomeric transition
  2. ^ Bold for stable isotopes, bold italics for nearly-stable isotopes (half-life longer than the age of the universe)
  3. ^ Believed to decay by β+β+ to 78Se with a half-life of more than >1.1×1020 years
  4. ^ Used to date groundwater
  5. ^ a b c d Fission product
  6. ^ Formerly used to define the meter
  7. ^ Believed to decay by β-β- to 86Sr
  8. ^ New isotope.

Notes[edit]

  • The isotopic composition refers to that in air.
  • Geologically exceptional samples are known in which the isotopic composition lies outside the reported range. The uncertainty in the atomic mass may exceed the stated value for such specimens.
  • Commercially available materials may have been subjected to an undisclosed or inadvertent isotopic fractionation. Substantial deviations from the given mass and composition can occur.
  • Values marked # are not purely derived from experimental data, but at least partly from systematic trends. Spins with weak assignment arguments are enclosed in parentheses.
  • Uncertainties are given in concise form in parentheses after the corresponding last digits. Uncertainty values denote one standard deviation, except isotopic composition and standard atomic mass from IUPAC which use expanded uncertainties.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Brookhaven National Laboratory: Meet krypton's newest isotope, 101Kr, discover info about krypton's newest isotope, 101Kr, discovered in late 2011.
  2. ^ N. Thonnard, L. D. MeKay, T. C. Labotka (2001). "Development of Laser-Based Resonance Ionization Techniques for 81-Kr and 85-Kr Measurements in the Geosciences". University of Tennessee, Institute for Rare Isotope Measurements. pp. 4–7. 
  3. ^ "Resources on Isotopes". U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2007-03-20. 
  4. ^ http://www.nucleonica.net/unc.aspx

External links[edit]


Isotopes of bromine Isotopes of krypton Isotopes of rubidium
Table of nuclides