Kryptos

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the sculpture. For other uses, see Kryptos (disambiguation).
Kryptos at CIA headquarters in Langley, Virginia

Kryptos is an encrypted sculpture by American artist Jim Sanborn located on the grounds of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in Langley, Virginia. Since its dedication on November 3, 1990, there has been much speculation about the meaning of the encrypted messages it bears. Of the four messages, three have been solved, with the fourth remaining one of the most famous unsolved codes in the world. The sculpture continues to provide a diversion for cryptanalysts, both amateur and professional, who are attempting to decrypt the final section.

Description[edit]

The main sculpture is located in the northwest corner of the New Headquarters Building courtyard, outside of the Agency cafeteria. The sculpture comprises four large copper plates with other elements made of red and green granite, white quartz, and petrified wood.

The name Kryptos comes from the Greek word for "hidden", and the theme of the sculpture is "intelligence gathering." The most prominent feature is a large vertical S-shaped copper screen resembling a scroll, or piece of paper emerging from a computer printer, covered with characters constituting encrypted text. The characters consist of the 26 letters of the standard Latin alphabet and question marks cut out of the copper. The main sculpture contains four separate enigmatic messages, three of which have been solved.[1]

At the same time as the main sculpture was installed, sculptor Jim Sanborn also placed several other pieces around CIA grounds, such as several large granite slabs with sandwiched copper sheets outside the entrance to the New Headquarters Building. Several morse code messages are engraved in the copper, and one of the slabs has an engraved compass rose and a lodestone. Other elements of Sanborn's installation include a landscaped area, a duck pond, a reflecting pool, and several other seemingly unmarked slabs.

The cost of the sculpture was $250,000.[2]

Encrypted messages[edit]

The ciphertext on one half of the main sculpture contains 869 characters in total—865 letters and 4 question marks. In April 2006, however, Sanborn released information stating that a letter was omitted on the main half of Kryptos "for aesthetic reasons, to keep the sculpture visually balanced."[3] There are also a few incorrect letters in the ciphertext which Sanborn has said were intentional, and a few letters near the beginning of the bottom half have been displaced from their normal positions, apparently intentionally. The other half of the sculpture comprises a keyed Vigenère encryption tableau, consisting of 867 letters. One of the lines of the tableau is one character too long, which Sanborn has indicated was accidental.[citation needed]

EMUFPHZLRFAXYUSDJKZLDKRNSHGNFIVJ
YQTQUXQBQVYUVLLTREVJYQTMKYRDMFD
VFPJUDEEHZWETZYVGWHKKQETGFQJNCE
GGWHKK?DQMCPFQZDQMMIAGPFXHQRLG
TIMVMZJANQLVKQEDAGDVFRPJUNGEUNA
QZGZLECGYUXUEENJTBJLBQCRTBJDFHRR
YIZETKZEMVDUFKSJHKFWHKUWQLSZFTI
HHDDDUVH?DWKBFUFPWNTDFIYCUQZERE
EVLDKFEZMOQQJLTTUGSYQPFEUNLAVIDX
FLGGTEZ?FKZBSFDQVGOGIPUFXHHDRKF
FHQNTGPUAECNUVPDJMQCLQUMUNEDFQ
ELZZVRRGKFFVOEEXBDMVPNFQXEZLGRE
DNQFMPNZGLFLPMRJQYALMGNUVPDXVKP
DQUMEBEDMHDAFMJGZNUPLGEWJLLAETG
 ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZABCD
AKRYPTOSABCDEFGHIJLMNQUVWXZKRYP
BRYPTOSABCDEFGHIJLMNQUVWXZKRYPT
CYPTOSABCDEFGHIJLMNQUVWXZKRYPTO
DPTOSABCDEFGHIJLMNQUVWXZKRYPTOS
ETOSABCDEFGHIJLMNQUVWXZKRYPTOSA
FOSABCDEFGHIJLMNQUVWXZKRYPTOSAB
GSABCDEFGHIJLMNQUVWXZKRYPTOSABC
HABCDEFGHIJLMNQUVWXZKRYPTOSABCD
IBCDEFGHIJLMNQUVWXZKRYPTOSABCDE
JCDEFGHIJLMNQUVWXZKRYPTOSABCDEF
KDEFGHIJLMNQUVWXZKRYPTOSABCDEFG
LEFGHIJLMNQUVWXZKRYPTOSABCDEFGH
MFGHIJLMNQUVWXZKRYPTOSABCDEFGHI
ENDYAHROHNLSRHEOCPTEOIBIDYSHNAIA
CHTNREYULDSLLSLLNOHSNOSMRWXMNE
TPRNGATIHNRARPESLNNELEBLPIIACAE
WMTWNDITEENRAHCTENEUDRETNHAEOE
TFOLSEDTIWENHAEIOYTEYQHEENCTAYCR
EIFTBRSPAMHHEWENATAMATEGYEERLB
TEEFOASFIOTUETUAEOTOARMAEERTNRTI
BSEDDNIAAHTTMSTEWPIEROAGRIEWFEB
AECTDDHILCEIHSITEGOEAOSDDRYDLORIT
RKLMLEHAGTDHARDPNEOHMGFMFEUHE
ECDMRIPFEIMEHNLSSTTRTVDOHW?OBKR
UOXOGHULBSOLIFBBWFLRVQQPRNGKSSO
TWTQSJQSSEKZZWATJKLUDIAWINFBNYP
VTTMZFPKWGDKZXTJCDIGKUHUAUEKCAR
NGHIJLMNQUVWXZKRYPTOSABCDEFGHIJL
OHIJLMNQUVWXZKRYPTOSABCDEFGHIJL
PIJLMNQUVWXZKRYPTOSABCDEFGHIJLM
QJLMNQUVWXZKRYPTOSABCDEFGHIJLMN
RLMNQUVWXZKRYPTOSABCDEFGHIJLMNQ
SMNQUVWXZKRYPTOSABCDEFGHIJLMNQU
TNQUVWXZKRYPTOSABCDEFGHIJLMNQUV
UQUVWXZKRYPTOSABCDEFGHIJLMNQUVW
VUVWXZKRYPTOSABCDEFGHIJLMNQUVWX
WVWXZKRYPTOSABCDEFGHIJLMNQUVWXZ
XWXZKRYPTOSABCDEFGHIJLMNQUVWXZK
YXZKRYPTOSABCDEFGHIJLMNQUVWXZKR
ZZKRYPTOSABCDEFGHIJLMNQUVWXZKRY
 ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZABCD

Sanborn worked with a retiring CIA employee named Ed Scheidt, Chairman of the CIA Cryptographic Center, to come up with the cryptographic systems used on the sculpture. Sanborn has revealed that the sculpture contains a riddle within a riddle, which will be solvable only after the four encrypted passages have been decrypted. He has given conflicting information about the sculpture's answer, saying at one time that he gave the complete solution to then-CIA director William H. Webster during the dedication ceremony; but later, he also said that he had not given Webster the entire solution. He did, however, confirm that where in part two it says "Who knows the exact location? Only WW," "WW" was intended to refer to William Webster. Sanborn also confirmed that should he die before the entire sculpture becomes deciphered, there will be someone able to confirm the solution.[4]

Solvers[edit]

The first person to publicly announce solving the first three sections, in 1999, was Jim Gillogly, a computer scientist from southern California.[5] After Gillogly's announcement, the CIA revealed that their analyst David Stein had also solved the same sections in 1998, using pencil and paper techniques, though at the time of his solution the information was only disseminated within the intelligence community, and no public announcement was made.[6][7][8] The NSA also claimed at that time that they had solvers, but would not reveal names or dates until 2000, when it was learned that an NSA team led by Ken Miller, along with Dennis McDaniels and two other unnamed individuals, had solved parts 1–3 in late 1992.[9] In 2013, in response to a Freedom of Information Act request by Elonka Dunin, the NSA released documents which show the NSA became involved in attempts to solve the Kryptos puzzle in 1992, following a challenge by Bill Studeman, Deputy Director of the CIA. The documents show that by June 1993, a small group of NSA cryptanalysts had succeeded in solving the first three parts of the sculpture.[10][11] All of these early attempts to solve Kryptos found that K2 ended with WESTIDBYROWS, but in 2005 Monet Friedrich, a computer scientist from Vancouver, British Columbia, determined that another possible plain text was WESTXLAYERTWO.[12] Later, in 2006, Sanborn announced that he had made an error in part 2, which confirmed that the last part of the plaintext was WESTXLAYERTWO, and not WESTIDBYROWS.

Solutions[edit]

The following are the solutions of parts 1–3 of the sculpture.[13] Misspellings present in the code are included as-is. Kryptos K1 and K2 ciphers are polyalphabetic substitution, using a Vigenère tableau similar to the tableau on the other half of the sculpture. K3 is a transposition cipher, and K4 is still unsolved.

Solution of passage 1[edit]

Keywords: Kryptos, Palimpsest

BETWEEN SUBTLE SHADING AND THE ABSENCE OF LIGHT LIES THE NUANCE OF IQLUSION

Solution of passage 2[edit]

Keywords: Kryptos, Abscissa

IT WAS TOTALLY INVISIBLE HOWS THAT POSSIBLE ? THEY USED THE EARTHS MAGNETIC FIELD X THE INFORMATION WAS GATHERED AND TRANSMITTED UNDERGRUUND TO AN UNKNOWN LOCATION X DOES LANGLEY KNOW ABOUT THIS ? THEY SHOULD ITS BURIED OUT THERE SOMEWHERE X WHO KNOWS THE EXACT LOCATION ? ONLY WW THIS WAS HIS LAST MESSAGE X THIRTY EIGHT DEGREES FIFTY SEVEN MINUTES SIX POINT FIVE SECONDS NORTH SEVENTY SEVEN DEGREES EIGHT MINUTES FORTY FOUR SECONDS WEST X LAYER TWO

On April 19, 2006, Sanborn contacted an online community dedicated to the Kryptos puzzle to inform them that the accepted solution to part 2 was wrong. He said that he made an error in the sculpture by omitting an "X" used to indicate a break for aesthetic reasons, and that the decrypted text which ended "...FOUR SECONDS WEST ID BY ROWS" should actually be "...FOUR SECONDS WEST X LAYER TWO".[14]

Note: The coordinates mentioned in the plaintext: 38°57′6.5″N 77°8′44″W / 38.951806°N 77.14556°W / 38.951806; -77.14556. The point is about 150 feet southeast of the sculpture itself.[1]

Solution of passage 3[edit]

SLOWLY DESPARATLY SLOWLY THE REMAINS OF PASSAGE DEBRIS THAT ENCUMBERED THE LOWER PART OF THE DOORWAY WAS REMOVED WITH TREMBLING HANDS I MADE A TINY BREACH IN THE UPPER LEFT HAND CORNER AND THEN WIDENING THE HOLE A LITTLE I INSERTED THE CANDLE AND PEERED IN THE HOT AIR ESCAPING FROM THE CHAMBER CAUSED THE FLAME TO FLICKER BUT PRESENTLY DETAILS OF THE ROOM WITHIN EMERGED FROM THE MIST X CAN YOU SEE ANYTHING Q ?

This is a paraphrased quotation from Howard Carter's account of the opening of the tomb of Tutankhamun on November 26, 1922, as described in his 1923 book The Tomb of Tutankhamun. The question with which it ends is that posed by Lord Carnarvon, to which Carter (in the book) famously replied "wonderful things". In the actual November 26, 1922 field notes, his reply was, "Yes, it is wonderful."[15]

Solution of passage 4[edit]

Part 4 remains unsolved, though there was an active Yahoo! Group[16] (formed in 2003) that coordinated the work of over 2000 members toward decryption of the code.

When commenting in 2006 about his error in section 2, Sanborn said that the answers to the first sections contain clues to the last section.[17] In November 2010, Sanborn released another clue: Letters 64-69 NYPVTT in part 4 encode the text BERLIN.[18][19]

Related sculptures[edit]

Kryptos is the first cryptographic sculpture made by Sanborn. After Kryptos he went on to make several other sculptures with codes and other types of writing, including one called Antipodes which is at the Hirshhorn Museum in Washington, D.C., an "Untitled Kryptos Piece" which was sold to a private collector, and a Cyrillic Projector with encrypted Russian Cyrillic text, which included an extract from a classified KGB document. The cipher on one side of Antipodes repeats the text from CIA's Kryptos. Much of the cipher on its Russian side is duplicated on the Cyrillic Projector. The Russian portion of the cipher on the Cyrillic Projector and Antipodes was solved in 2003 after Elonka Dunin "led the charge",[20] with the ciphertext independently decrypted by Frank Corr and Mike Bales, and plaintext translation from Russian provided by Dunin.[21]

Some additional sculptures by Sanborn include Native American Texts: Rippowam.[22] was installed at the University of Connecticut, Stamford, CT in 1999, while Lux was installed in 2001 at an old US Post Office building in Fort Myers, Florida.[23] Indian Run Park is located next to the US Federal Courthouse in Beltsville, MD was designed by Sanborn and contains a bronze cylinder perforated with the text of the Iroquois Book of the Great Law. This document includes the indigenous peoples' contribution to the United States legal system.[24] The text itself is written in Onondaga and was transcribed from the ancient oral tradition of five Iroquois nations.[25]

A Comma, A appeared at the Plaza in front of the new library at the University of Houston, in Houston, TX in 2004. And Radiance was installed at the Department of Energy, Coast, and Environment, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA in 2008.[23]

Pop culture references[edit]

The dust jacket of the US version of Dan Brown's novel The Da Vinci Code contains two references to Kryptos: One on the back cover (coordinates printed light red on dark red, vertically next to the blurbs) is a reference to the coordinates mentioned in the plaintext of part 2 (see above), except the degrees digit is off by one. When Brown and his publisher were asked about this, they both gave the same reply: "The discrepancy is intentional"; the coordinates were part of the first clue of the second Da Vinci Code WebQuest, the first answer being Kryptos. The other reference is hidden in the brown "tear" artwork—upside-down words which say "Only WW knows" which is another reference to Kryptos Part 2.[2][26]

Kryptos is one of the themes in Dan Brown's 2009 novel, The Lost Symbol.[1]

A small version of Kryptos appears in the season 5 episode of Alias, "S.O.S.". In it, Marshall Flinkman, in a small moment of comic relief, says he has cracked the code just by looking at it during a tour visit to the CIA office. The solution he describes sounds like the solution to the first two parts.

A picture of Kryptos appears in the season 2 episode of The King of Queens, "Meet By-Product". A framed pictured of Kryptos hangs on the wall by the door. Much of the dialog is centered around it.

The musical group Between the Buried and Me has a reference to Kryptos in their song "Obfuscation" from the 2009 album, The Great Misdirect.

A very similar sculpture is seen during a scene in the season 2 episode of Homeland, "New Car Smell". In it, Carrie Mathison and Nicholas Brody run into each other in front of the CIA office and various shots place the sculpture between them as they converse.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Secrets of the Lost Symbol, pp.319–326
  2. ^ a b "FAQ About Kryptos". Elonka.com. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  3. ^ Zetter, Kim. "Typo Confounds Kryptos Sleuths" Wired April 20, 2006
  4. ^ Zetter, Kim. "Questions for Kryptos' Creator," Wired (January 20, 2005).
  5. ^ Markoff, John (June 16, 1999). "CIA's Artistic Enigma Reveals All but Final Clues". New York Times. Retrieved December 11, 2011. 
  6. ^ Stein, David D. (1999). "The Puzzle at CIA Headquarters: Cracking the Courtyard Crypto" (pdf). "Studies in Intelligence" 43 (1). 
  7. ^ Zetter, Kim. "CIA Releases Analyst’s Fascinating Tale of Cracking the Kryptos Sculpture". Wired.com. Retrieved 5 June 2013. 
  8. ^ "Cracking the Code of a CIA Sculpture". Washington Post. July 19, 1999. Retrieved December 11, 2011. 
  9. ^ Bowman, Tom (March 17, 2000). "Unlocking the secret of 'Kryptos'". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved December 11, 2011. 
  10. ^ Zetter, Kim (July 10, 2013). "Documents Reveal How the NSA Cracked the Kryptos Sculpture Years Before the CIA". wired.com. 
  11. ^ Sadowski, Jathan (July 11, 2013). "NSA Cracked Kryptos Before the CIA. What Other Mysteries Has It Solved?". slate.com. 
  12. ^ "From a radio interview on BellCoreRadio, season 1, episode 32, Barcode Brothers". Sites.google.com. 2005-10-11. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  13. ^ Corey Lindsly. "Kryptos: The Sanborn Sculpture at CIA Headquarters". Elonka.com. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  14. ^ "The Kryptos Group announces a corrected answer to Kryptos Part 2". Elonka.com. 2006-04-19. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  15. ^ Tutankhamun: Anatomy of an Excavation[dead link]
  16. ^ "Kryptos Yahoo! Group". Tech.groups.yahoo.com. 2003-05-14. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  17. ^ Zetter, Kim (April 20, 2006). "Typo Confounds Kryptos Sleuths". Wired.com. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  18. ^ Schwartz, John (2010-11-20). "Artist releases clue to Kryptos". Nytimes.com. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  19. ^ All Things Considered. "'Kryptos' Sculptor Drops New Clue In 20-Year Mystery". NPR. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  20. ^ "Woman sets sights on code on CIA sculpture". Elonka.com. 2003-10-08. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  21. ^ Cyrillic Riddle Solved Science, vol 302, 10 Oct. 2003, page 224
  22. ^ http://www.ctmuseumquest.com/?page_id=5425
  23. ^ a b http://jimsanborn.net/main.html#publicartwork
  24. ^ "H. Con. Res. 331, October 21, 1988". United States Senate. Retrieved 2008-11-23. 
  25. ^ http://elonka.com/kryptos/sanborn/IndianRunPark.html
  26. ^ McKinnon, John D. (May 27, 2005). "CIA sculpture 'kryptos' draws mystery lovers". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved December 11, 2011. 

References[edit]

Books[edit]

  • Jonathan Binstock and Jim Sanborn (2003). Atomic Time: Pure Science and Seduction. ISBN 0-88675-072-5.  (contains 1–2 pages about Kryptos)
  • Dunin, Elonka (2006). The Mammoth Book of Secret Codes and Cryptograms. Constable & Robinson. p. 500. ISBN 0-7867-1726-2. 
  • Dunin, Elonka (2009). "Kryptos: The Unsolved Enigma". In Daniel Burstein & Arne de Keijzer (editors). Secrets of the Lost Symbol: The Unauthorized Guide to the Mysteries Behind The Da Vinci Code Sequel. Harper Collins. pp. 319–326. ISBN 978-0-06-196495-4. 
  • Dunin, Elonka (2009). "Art, Encryption, and the Preservation of Secrets: An interview with Jim Sanborn". In Daniel Burstein & Arne de Keijzer (editors). Secrets of the Lost Symbol: The Unauthorized Guide to the Mysteries Behind The Da Vinci Code Sequel. Harper Collins. pp. 294–300. ISBN 978-0-06-196495-4. 
  • Taylor, Greg (2009). "Decoding Kryptos". In John Weber (ed.). Illustrated Guide to the Lost Symbol. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4165-2366-6. 

Articles[edit]

External links[edit]

Media related to Kryptos at Wikimedia Commons

Aerial photos of Kryptos location[edit]

Coordinates: 38°57′08″N 77°08′45″W / 38.952255°N 77.145773°W / 38.952255; -77.145773