|This article currently links to a large number of disambiguation pages (or back to itself). (November 2014)|
|City of regional significance|
From upper left: Savior Transfiguration Cathedral, ArcelorMittal, Kryvyi Rih Main Station, Maksyma Hor'koho Square, Saksahan boat station
|Motto: Life-long city|
Location in Dnipropetrovsk Oblast
|Founded||1775 (239 years ago)|
|Administrative HQ||Kryvyi Rih City Hall,
|• Type||City council, regional|
|• Governing body||Kryvyi Rih City Council|
|• Mayor||Yuri Vilkul|
|• MPs:||Yuri Pavlov
Konstantin Usov (PPB)
|• Total||410 km2 (160 sq mi)|
|Elevation||84 m (276 ft)|
|Population (2014 est.)|
|• Rank||8th, UA|
|• Density||1,600/km2 (4,100/sq mi)|
|Demonym||Kryvorizhanyn, Kryvorizhanka, Kryvorizhtsi|
|Time zone||EET (UTC+2)|
|• Summer (DST)||EEST (UTC+3)|
|Area code||+380 56(4)|
Kryvyi Rih or Krivoi Rog (Ukrainian: Кривий Ріг //; Russian: Кривой Рог //, Crooked Horn) is a city in the Dnipropetrovsk region, and is the 8th most populous city in Ukraine with over 650,000 inhabitants in 2013. It lies within a large urban area, administratively, incorporated with Kryvyi Rih Municipality as a city of region significance. It also serves as the administrative center of the district although it is not part of it. The city extends for 126 km from north to south.
Standing on the Saksahan and Inhulets river, Kryvyi Rih has been a major settlement for most of its history, going back to its founding as a postal city in 1775 by the Cossaks. A military settlement until 1860, it was part of Kherson, although it was incorporated during the 20th century with areas of Yekaterinoslav. The township began to expand "at an astonishing rate" around the turn of the 1880s. Kryvyi Rih's urbanization was unplanned; French and English investment was brought on by a boom in metallurgy, iron mining and investigation of rich deposits of iron ore. The building of the Yekateryninska Railway in 1884 built to transport ore to Donbas transformed Kryvyi Rih into a major industry town that culminated in city status in 1919. Nationalization and investment spurred by soviet authorities led to extensive growth. In 1934 Kryvorizhstal was built, the first of more than 500 factories. The city also gave rise to the foundation of Kryvyi Rih National University. Financially, the city's growth after the nazi occupation increased due to economic reforms. Also, investment spurred by Ukrainian Independence, market economy and the 2014 revolution led to extensive regeneration, particularly in the city centre.
Today Kryvyi Rih is arguably the main steel industry city of Eastern Europe, being a large globally important centre of the iron-ore mining and metallurgy region. Its oblast economy is the third largest in Ukraine.
- 1 History
- 2 Government
- 3 Culture
- 4 Landmarks
- 5 Education
- 6 Sport
- 7 Geography
- 8 Demographics
- 9 Economy
- 10 Transport
- 11 Twin cities
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 External links
The city was founded in the 18th century by Zaporozhian Cossacks. Kryvyi Rih in Ukrainian literally means Crooked Horn. According to local legend, the city was founded by a crooked (Ukrainian slang for one-eyed) Cossack named Rih. However, records pre-dating the existence of the city refer to the area by the same name, due to the shape of the landmass formed by the merging of the river Saksagan into the Inhulets.
Ingulets Palanka was established in 1734, and a list of villages and winterings from that time mentions Kryvyi Rih. In 1770 the camp of Zaporizhian Sich was founded, and four years later Johann Anton Güldenstädt visited the area and made its first scientific description. On May 8, 1775, after the end of the Russian-Turkish War, Russian authorities opened a postal station and track which linked Kremenchuk, Kinburn foreland and Ochakov, all locations of the Imperial Russian Army. The station was tended by 5 cossacks. Kryvyi Rih entered the 1800s as a village, the largest industrial enterprises of the town being 3 water mills. The first original stone houses were built in 1828, and the highest building at the end of the 1800s was the Central Synagogue, torn down in 1947. The village became a township in 1860.
Olexander Paul discovered and initiated iron ore investigation and production, and this in turn caused the formation of a mining district. In 1874 Alexander II initiated the founding project of a railway, running 505 km. This enabled transportation right into the nearest factories and greatly sped up the development of the region. In 1880, with 5 million francs of capital, Paul founded the "French Society of Kryvyi Rih Ores". In 1882 16.4 thousand tons of ore were extracted from the outskirts by 150 workers. A centre of capitalism, the region was the greatest area of ore extraction in Russia, and the first underground mine of the basin began to function in 1886. A new branch of industry - metallurgy - was founded in 1892, when the first blast furnace of Hdantsivka Ironworks was started.
The export of ore in Silesia soon began. 5 schools and an aerial cableway were created in the town, and the development of the city attracted new people looking for a quick profit. The supply of mined ore far exceeded the demand, and so many mines completely suspended their work, while others have reduced their workers and output by more than half. Workers did not have proper conditions, social security, or contracts, and they were prone to combinations of lung cancer, tuberculosis and asthma. Thousands of people who worked in the mines and the factories were left without employment. At the same time, the city began to develop the ideas of socialism and democracy. However, there were also several terrorist attacks and strikes, and 1905 brought anti-Jewish pogroms and repressions.
The First World War interrupted access to the export markets, and a lot of workers were called to the front. The city survived Soldier and Worker's Deputies in 1917. Soviet Power was established on January 1918. The Donetsk–Krivoy Rog Soviet Republic, founded on 12 February 1918, became a self-declared republic of the Russian SFSR and sought independence from Ukraine. On 29 March 1918 it became a republic within Ukraine until it was fully occupied by German forces in support of the Central Rada. It was disbanded on 20 March 1918 when the independence of Soviet Ukraine was announced.
Around this time, Kryvyi Rih's status was changed from township to city. It was founded by Uyezd as part of the Yekaterinoslav Governorate. It included 30 volosts. In late 1919, it was briefly ruled by the Volunteer Army.
On January 17, 1920 the Red Army finally took Kryvyi Rih. City's population totaled 22,571. The city did not have a drinking water system until 1924, when a 55.3 km (34.4 mi) system was laid underground. Foreign investments were stopped, mines renewed. The first Mining Institute began work in 1929, and the Medical and Pedagogical Institutes were founded. In 1931 the foundation of metallurgical works was laid , the first blast furnace of the metallurgical works gave metal 3 years later. The city grew rapidly, there are 160 industrial enterprises and 947 shops.
During World War II, Kryvyi Rih was occupied by the German Army as part of the Reichskommissariat Ukraine from August 15, 1941 to February 22, 1944. Being evacuated from 20 September 1941 to August 1944, Government, factories and Kryvyi Rih Institute worked in Nizhny Tagil. Germans immediately began to build up local government - executive, gendarmerie, police. Ukrainian national liberation movement in Krivoy Rog was organized by marching groups OUN. The answer came in the ethnic cleansing of Ukrainians as well as large-scale holocaust. On October 13, 1941 700 people were executed, from October 1941 to April 1942 - 6293 persons, in August 1943 - 13 people.
Hitler has repeatedly stressed the crucial importance of this area "As Nikopol manganese, its importance to us all can not be expressed in words. Loss of Nikopol (on the Dnieper, the south-west of Zaporozhye) would mean the end of war. " In addition, the bridgehead on the left bank of the Dnieper left the German command a strike in order to restore the land connection with the group of forces locked in the Crimea. During the first half of January, Soviet troops made repeated attempts to eliminate the Nikopol-Krivoy Rog enemy group, but because of the stubborn resistance of German troops did not achieve success. Kryvyi Rih was almost totally destroyed by the fleeing Red Army during Nikopol–Krivoy Rog Offensive.
Post-Second World War and Post-Soviet
After the war, people lived among the ruins while housing stocks were rebuilt. The housing shortage was met by innovative technological solutions, which meant temporary barracks and houses could be built quickly. The two kinds of cheap new materials [clarification needed] were used later for years afterwards.
Regeneration began in the late 1940s with initiatives such as Stakhanovite movement, Khrushchyovkas, new mines, shoe and wool spinning-factory, Central Iron Ore Enrichment Works, Northern Iron Ore Enrichment Works, City Circus. Trolleybuses in Kryvyi Rih were launched in 1985, Kryvyi Rih Airport became International. In 1990 Kryvbas produced 42% of USSR and 80% of Ukrainian ore extraction volume .
Large sections of the city dating from the 1960s have been either demolished and re-developed or modernised with the use of beton and steel. Old flats have been converted into modern apartments, 9 microdistricts of 17 ans 9-floor panelák apartments have since been developed. Kryvyi Rih TV Mast is a 185m tall guyed tubular steel mast built in 1960, which carries in 2 levels 3 crossbars, which run from the mast structure to the guys. All three crossbars are equipped with gangways that carry additional smaller antennas.
The city itself is laid out with broad avenues lined by wide sidewalks. Tram lines run down the centre of the major streets. Beside the sidewalks there are usually several rows of trees such as lindens and horse chestnuts. Many people live in rows of 5 to 9 story apartment buildings that are wrapped around large inner courtyards. Many of these courtyards are also filled with trees giving the overall impression that the entire city is built in a park.
The proclamation of the independence of Ukraine in 1991 brought about radical changes in every sphere of city life . In the 1990s the city was known for its banditry, which was successfully destroyed. Spurred by the investment after the 2005 Kryvorizhstal privatization by ArcelorMittal, and aided by Metinvest , Kryvyi Rih's city centre has undergone extensive regeneration. City has of the biggest flower clocks in Europe. New and renovated complexes such as Auchan and The Union have become popular shopping and entertainment destinations. Kryvyi Rih is among 30 most comfortable cities for living in Ukraine.
Administratively, the city is divided into "raions" ("districts"). Presently, there are 7 raions: Dzerzhinskiy, Central City, Terny, Saksahan, Ingulets, Zhovtnevy and Dovhuntsevsky. Small townships, Avanhard, Horniatske, Ternovaty Kut, Kolomoitsevo and Nowoivanovka were added to the City
Originally Ingulets povit of Novorossiysk Governorate was established on lands of Ingulets palanca in 1775 after the destruction of the Zaporozhian Sich. In 1775 - 1776 it was part of Kherson Governorate. In 1783, the povit centre became Kryvyi Rih, and it was renamed to Kryvyi Rih povit. In 1860 Kryvyi Rih got the status of township in Kherson Governorate. In 1919 township was granted city status in Yekaterinoslav Governorate and, later, Dnipropetrovsk Oblast. As a result of the administrative reform in 1923 Kryvyi Rih povit converted to Kryvyi Rih okruga, which in 1930 became an independent administrative unit of Ukraine.
Kryvyi Rih has three single-mandate parliamentary constituencies entirely within the city, through which members of parliament (MPs) are elected to represent the city in Rada. At the last general election, were won by PPB and independent candidates with representation being from Yuri Pavlov, Andriy Halchenko, Konstantin Usov respectively. In multimember districts city voted for Opposition Bloc, union of all political forces that did not endorse Euromaidan.
In the last decades, Kryvyi Rih has generally supported candidates belonging to the Party of Regions and (in 1990s) Communist Party of Ukraine in national and local elections. Same situation was with presidential elections, strong support had Leonid Kuchma and Viktor Yanukovych. After 2014 events of Euromaidan, mass demonstrations and clashes in central city, Regions lost its influence, and Kryvyi Rih supported Petro Poroshenko.
Kryvyi Rih has a thriving theatre, circus and dance scene, and is home to a number of large performance venues. First theater was Coliseum in 1908, also the New Theatre of Vyzenberh and Hrushevskyy (1911, corner of Lenina and Kalynychenko st.). Kryvbas Theatre began its activities in, 1931, three years later incorporated with Shevchenko Theater. Another ones are Doll Theatre and Movement Theatre. Kryvyi Rih is famous as the birthplace Eugenie Gershoy, an American sculptor and watercolorist who emigrated with her family in 1903. Gershoy's work is in the collections of the Whitney Museum of American Art, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, and the Smithsonian American Art Museum. Her papers are held at Syracuse University. Folk musician Eduard Drach, actress Helena Makowska and dancer Vladimir Malakhov also originated in the city.
The first screenings were conducted in the early 1920s. In 1934 Lenin Cinema was built, there are three of them - Olympus, Odessa and Multiplex now open. Kryvyi Rih Circus feature large-scale exhibition space where fairs are held. Soviet heritage are Palaces of Culture in every district of the city.
Local historical museum celebrate Cossaks history, rich industrial heritage and its role in the Soviet State. The municipally owned Art Gallery houses a collection of local painting.
The night-time economy of city has expanded significantly since 2000s. Big clubs such as Hollywood and Sky, many tours of famous djs, pop and rap performers were based there. Another major scene of the city - Palace of Youth and Students of the KNU University. The most popular fast-food, McDonalds, located at 95th Block. Ukrainian cuisine adjacent to bagels, cheesecake, hot dogs, shawarma and pizza, while Japanese cuisine and other Asian restaurants, hookahs, sandwich joints, trattorias and coffeehouses have become ubiquitous. Other well-known places - City Pub and Prado Cafe. The city is home to the annual electronic music Turbofly festival. Rock band music, a tradition in the Ukraine, is an important part city's life and hosted in few small pubs.
Kryvyi Rih's buildings display a variety of architectural styles, ranging from eclecticism to contemporary architecture. The widespread use of red brick and block apartments character the city. Much of the architecture in the city harks back to its days as a centre for the ore trade. Just outside the immediate city centre is a large number of former factories, some of which have totally destroyed and in despare need of restavration.
Stalinist architecture is wide with neoclassical mass lowcoast apartments. City Hall is the best example of The decree On liquidation of excesses. Khrushchyovka is a type of low-cost, concrete-paneled or brick three- to five-storied apartment building which was developed in the USSR during the early 1960s, during the time its namesake Nikita Khrushchev directed the Soviet government, dozens of such units are now past their design lifetime all over the city. There are 6 microdistricts.
The city has many Christian churches, the most notable being the Savior Transfiguration Cathedral. It is the main centre of Kryvyi Rih Eparchy founded on July 27, 1996. Roman Catholic chapel located in old town. Pokrova church, Mykhailivska church and Christmas church were destroyed in 1930s during the Great Purge, never to be used as a church again.
Large parks hold many of Kryvyi Rih's public monuments. City has mostly socialist realism style monuments to Cossaks, Olexander Paul, Taras Shevchenko (2), Bohdan Khmelnytsky (3, since 1954), Vasili Marguelov, Alexander Pushkin, Fyodor Sergeyev, Mikhail Lermontov and Maxim Gorky. Few Lenin monuments were destroyed during euromaidan events in 2014. There are dozenz of cenotaphs and memorials to Second World War soldiers. A Sukhoi Su-15 is on display near Aviator Club, Yakovlev Yak-40 at National Aviation University, Vyzvolennia Square hold IS3 tank. Russian locomotive class Ye placed near Railway station.
Kryvyi Rih has few designated natural monuments the old pear near Karnavatka, another pear of 1789, Vizyrka landscape reserve, Northern and Southern Red Beam, Amphibolite, Arkose and Skelevatski Outputs, Mopr Rocks, Slate rocks, Sandstone rock. Park named after the newspaper Pravda is very famous by its ampir boat station. Kryvyi Rih Botanical Gardens of NAS est. in 1980.
Major Kryvyi Rih National University was originally formed as college and Mining Institute in 1929. It gained university status in 1982. Kryvyi Rih Pedagogical Institute it was founded in 1930 as an Institute of Vocational Training, is the oldest pedagogical institution in Kryvyi Rih, reorganized in Pedagogical Institute. In 2011 Cabinet of Ukraine founded Kryvyi Rih National University by uniting Mining Institute, Pedagogical University, Economic Institute of Kyiv National Economic University and Department of the National Metallurgical Academy of Ukraine.
Another institutions are local Department of Dnepropetrovsk State University of Internal Affairs, campuses of Zaporizhzhya National University, National University Odesa Law Academy and Interregional Academy of Personnel Management, college of National Aviation University.
According to Frances Cairncross (in April 2010) “There are too many small universities, the majority of which are ineffectively governed and mired in corruption. They are not able to withstand existing global challenges.” According to Anders Åslund (in October 2012) the quality of doctoral education is bad, particularly in management training, economics, law and languages. He also signaled that the greatest problem in the Ukrainian education system is corruption.
There are 149 general secondary schools and 150 nursery schools and kindergartens in Kryvyi Rih. Additionally, there are evening schools for adults, musical, art, sports and specialist technical schools.
Kryvyi Rih is well known for being a city of sport. The city has two football clubs. FC Hirnyk Kryvyi Rih is a club based in Hirnyk Stadium. The club currently competes in the Ukrainian First League. It is part of the Sports Club Hirnyk which combines several other sections. The club's owner is the Kryvyi Rih Iron Ore Combine (KZRK), the biggest subterranean mining public company in Ukraine.
Kryvyi Rih was home to the football team Kryvbas Kryvyi Rih. The team was founded as FC Kryvyi Rih in 1959. The next year it was part of the republican sport society Avanhard. After a couple of years it changed to Hirnyk, before obtaining current its name in 1966. Kryvbas debuted in the Ukrainian Premier League in the 1992–1993 season. They have been in the top league since their debut. Their best finish was in third place in the 1998–99 and 1999–2000 seasons. At the end of the UPL 2012-2013 season the team finished in 7th place, however, due to financial difficulties the club declared itself bankrupt in June 2013. FC Kryvbas-2 Kryvyi Rih was the reserve team of Kryvbas. In 1998 the club entered into the professional leagues to compete in the Second League. In 3 seasons the club moved to the Amateur Level before competing one last time in Second League.
SC Kryvbas is a professional basketball club. Achievements of the team are winning the Ukrainian Basketball League in 2009, and winning the Higher League in 2003 and 2004. Since 2010 the team is active in the Ukrainian Basketball SuperLeague.
At Kyiv, the city extends for 126 km from north to south, paralleling the ore deposits. The city centre is on the east bank of the Inhulets River, near its confluences with the River Saksahan. Kryvyi Rih's geographic features were highly influential in its early development industrial city., 415 kilometres (260 mi) south of
The city is set in the rolling steppe land surrounded by fields of sunflowers and grain. A short distance east of the city centre, there is an area along a small lake where glacial boulders were deposited. As a result, this area was never cultivated and contains one of the few remaining patches of wild steppe vegetation in the area. The city's environmental and construction safety is a growing problem due to abandoned mines and polluted ore-processing waste. According to the Scientific Hygienic Centre of Ukraine, the city is one of the most unfavourable places to live because of these problems.
Kryvyi Rih experiences a dry continental climate (Dfb/Dfa) according to the Köppen climate classification system, like much of Ukraine. This tends to generate warm summers and cold winters with relatively low precipitation. Snowfalls are not common in the city, due to the urban warming effect. However, districts that surround the city receive more snow and roads leading out of the city can be closed due to snow.
|Climate data for Kryvyi Rih|
|Record high °C (°F)||13.0
|Average high °C (°F)||−0.9
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−3.5
|Average low °C (°F)||−6.3
|Record low °C (°F)||−27.2
|Precipitation mm (inches)||30
Historically the population of Kryvyi Rih began to increase rapidly during the Interwar period, peaking at 197 000 in 1939. From than the population began to decrease rapidly, due to foreign workers and increased building of social housing overspill estates by Kryvyi Rih City Council after the Second World War such as Sotshorod and Sonyachny.
The 2014 Estimate for the population of Kryvyi Rih was 654,900 (8th in Ukraine). This was a decrease of 4 348 since the 2013 E. Since 2001, the population has grown by 48 001. In 2013, deaths exceeded births by 3589. Net migration rate is 234 (negative).
According to the UNHCR and City Council, 7000 people of Donetsk and Luhansk have fled to Kryvyi Rih since the beginning of 2014 War in Donbass, not including those who did not register as asylum seekers.
Kryvyi Rih has traditionally been Christian, and has a large number of churches, particularly in the central city. The well-known Savior Transfiguration Cathedral in Saksahan Raion is Ortodox administrative center, bishop of the Kryvyi Rih Eparchy has his main residence here. The town has a school of icon painting. Patron saint of the city is Saint Nicholas as well as bishops Onufry and Porphyry. The majority of regions Jews live here, with significant Jewish community. Beis Shtern Shtulman Synagogue in the Central City was open in 2010. In the early twentieth century, the city had two synagogues, located on the Kaunas street. As part of Roman Catholic Diocese of Kharkiv-Zaporizhia city has Kostel of Mary Mother of Jesus. Kryvyi Rih is also home to Evangeliums-Christen, CEF and Vedas communities.
LGBT activity in city is not eligible, people may experience different social attitudes and public policies.
In terms of ethnic composition, there is no official statistics but history showed that Jews, make up the single largest ethnic minority of 15 000, followed by Russians and Armenians. Other large immigrant groups are people from Korea, Poland, Moldova, Azerbaijan and Roms. The area also attracts large numbers of African students to the city who attending the local universities. Central city and Dovhuntsevsky Raion are centres of population for ethnic minorities.
The Kryvyi Rih Metropolitan Region has a population of 900 000 in 2013. In addition to Kryvyi Rih itself, the KMR includes the 5 raions of the Dnipropetrovsk Oblast. The KMR is the sixth largest within the Ukraine.
In mid-2014 Kryvyi Rih had a IPI of ₴41.6bn (about $3bn) with 17.9% growth whitch is 41.8% of Dnipropetrovsk Oblast IPI. Export reached $2.520m (4.9% decreese), Import - $276m. City got $4.899m of foreign Investmentments, mainly from Germany, Cyprus, Netherlands, and the UK.
Processing and mining industry - the two largest sectors of Kryvyi Rih. Rest fraction is about 50%. City has over 53 plants, mines and factories. ArcelorMittal Kryvyi Rih, owned by ArcelorMittal since 2005 is the largest private company by revenue in Ukraine, producing over 7 million tonnes of crude steel, and mined over 17 million tonnes of iron or. As of 2011, the company employed about 37 000 people. 4 Iron Ore Enrichment Works of Metinvest are a large contributors to the UA's balance of payments. The third giant of city - Evraz mining company.
Local public transportation in Kryvyi Rih includes the Metrotram (underground), buses and minibuses line, trolleybuses (in operation since 1957, the system presently comprises 23 routes), trams (one of world's largest tram networks, operating on 105.8 kilometres of total route. As of 2014, it was composed of 13 lines) and, taxi.
The publicly owned and operated Kryvyi Rih Metrotram is the fastest, the most convenient and affordable network that covers most, but not all, of the city. The Metrotram is continuously expanding towards the city limits to meet growing demand, currently having three lines with a total length of 18.7 kilometres (11.6 miles) and 16 stations. Despite its designation as a "metro tram" and its use of tram cars as rolling stock, the Kryvyi Rih Metrotram is a complete rapid transit system with enclosed stations and tracks separated both from roads and from the city's conventional tram lines. City public transport provided servises for 66m persons in first part of 2014.
The Kryvyi Rih public transport system, except for taxi, uses a simple flat rate tariff system regardless of distance traveled: tickets or tokens must be purchased each time a vehicle is boarded. Discount passes are available for grade school and higher education students. Pensioners use public transportation free. Ticket prices are regulated by the city government, and the cost of one ride is far lower than in Western Europe.
City has no cycling lines. The taxi market is expansive but not regulated. In particular, the taxi fare per kilometer is not regulated. There is a fierce competition between private taxi companies.
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