|- Town -|
Ploshchad' Lenina (Lenin Square) in Kstovo
Location of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast in Russia
|Federal subject||Nizhny Novgorod Oblast|
|Administrative district||Kstovsky District|
|Population (2010 Census)||66,657 inhabitants|
|- Rank in 2010||233rd|
|Time zone||MSK (UTC+04:00)|
|Founded||14th century|
|Town status since||1957|
|Dialing code(s)||+7 83145|
Kstovo (Russian: Ксто́во) is a town and the administrative center of Kstovsky District of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia, located on the right bank of the Volga River, 22 kilometers (14 mi) southeast of Nizhny Novgorod. Population: 66,657 (2010 Census); 66,944 (2002 Census); 62,414 (1989 Census).
The village of Kstovo was mentioned as early as the 14th century.
With the construction of Novogorkovsky Oil Refinery (Новогорьковский нефтеперерабатывающий завод; started operations on August 18, 1958) in the 1950s, a new town was built a few kilometers to the northwest of the old village of Kstovo, on the high ground between the Volga and the Kudma Rivers.
Since then, the western part of the town centered around the original village of Kstovo, and, still quite rural in character, has been commonly referred to as the Old Kstovo (Staroye Kstovo), while the newer eastern part, built in the 1950s, and still expanding, is known as the New Kstovo (Novoye Kstovo). As the New Kstovo expanded over the years, it completely or partially displaced several smaller villages. According to Google Maps (2012), the villages of Lukeryino (mostly demolished) and Vishenki (still preserving its rural character) are now within the official city limits, while Veliky Vrag remains outside of them.
Kstovo's main industrial zone is located south of the town, on the southern side of the Kudma River. On older maps (1970s), this location was shown as a separate urban-type settlement called "Yuzhny"; however, the settlement has apparently been abolished, and, according to Google Maps (2012), the industrial zone is now officially within the town limits. It is centered around the petrochemical plants of LUKOIL-Nizhegorodnefteorgsintez (formerly NORSI-Oil and Novogorkovsky Oil Refinery), a subsidiary of LUKOIL, which is the town's main employer, and, historically, the reason for the town's existence.
Some of the technological processes developed at the oil refinery have been patented in the USSR and the USA.
The "BVK" plant, which started operation in 1973 and was closed in 2003, used n-paraffins (produced by the oil refinery nearby) as feed for yeast, in order to produce the so-called "protein and vitamin concentrate" (single-cell protein) for use as animal food. The facility was originally run by the Soviet Ministry of Microbiological Industry. As of ca. 1990, it produced some 300,000 tons of its product per year. The facility also produced certain pharmaceutical products, e.g. Coenzyme Q10 (Ubiquinone-10), used as a dietary supplement.
A cogeneration power plant (Russian: Новогорьковская ТЭЦ, Novogorkovskaya TETs) supplies electricity into the regional electric grid (305 MWt) and hot water for heating town apartment buildings. In November 2008, the local power company announced its plans to increase the power plant's electricity production capacity to 605 MWt; the new power generation unit is scheduled to be brought on-line by the end of 2011. Plans for the construction of another cogeneration plan elsewhere in Kstovsky District, namely at the site of the abandoned Gorky Nuclear Cogeneration Plan (Горьковская АСТ) near the selo of Fedyakovo, are considered as well.
The town has a large farmer's market, and a decent selection of supermarkets and retail stores.
Kstovo is served by the Moscow-Nizhny Novgorod-Kazan Highway (Highway M-7), a river tanker port on the Volga, an electric railroad branch, and a number of oil and oil-product pipelines (e.g. Sever Pipeline).
The town has a history of building bypass roads to keep some of the transit traffic (either the east-west traffic on M-7, or traffic destined for the petrochemical industrial area south of the town) off the town streets, only to see the development overtake them a decade or so later, the "bypass" not being a true bypass anymore. Most recently, in 2003 a highway bypass was completed a few kilometers south of the town (cutting through a section of the Zelyony Gorod forest) both taking M-7 away from the town and providing convenient road access to the Lukoil area.
The Kstovo railroad branch is primarily used to serve the needs of the oil refinery. Although commuter trains from Nizhny Novgorod's Myza terminal stop not far from both the Old and the New Kstovo, the stations are not particularly conveniently located, the trains are fairly slow and only run 2-3 times a day, and are thus popular mostly with retirees and other persons eligible for free or discount fares.
Therefore, most of passenger travel between Kstovo and Nizhny Novogorod is by road. i.e. by bus or private car. Commuter buses and "passenger vans" to Nizhny Novgorod, as well as suburban buses to villages throughout Kstovksy District run from a bus station on the west side of the New Kstovo. Some long-distance buses between Nizny Novgorod and points east (Lyskovo, Cheboksary, etc.) stop there as well. There are also shuttle buses from Kstovo's downtown Lenin Square to the Mega shopping mall in Fedyakovo, in the western part of Kstovsky District.
Most summers, during the beach season, ferry boat service operates between Kstovo and the beach area on the north bank of the Volga.
Nizhny Novgorod Military Engineering College (Russian: Нижегородское высшее военно-инженерное командное училище), founded in 1801 in Saint Petersburg and moved in 1960 to Kaliningrad, received its current name in 1995, when it was transferred to Kstovo.
The movie theater (originally named "Saturn", then "50 Let VLKSM" (i.e., "50 Years' Anniversary of Komsomol", and finally "Rus'"), was popular with the citizens during the Soviet era, but closed down after the advent of VCRs and DVDs. Part of its premises were used by an Eldorado electronics store for a few years in the early 2000s.
Kstovo's best known sporting venue is The World Academy of Sambo, which has hosted many national and international Sambo wrestling competitions. Its origins go back to 1964, when the first local Sambo club was formed. In October 1976, a Sambo School building was opened on the western edge of the town; in 1995, in time for the Sambo World Cup, a new, taller building was constructed next to it, the facility becoming known as the "World Academy of Sambo".
Christians are served by three Orthodox churches in the town and immediately adjacent villages. The Church of Our Lady of Kazan in the Old Kstovo was built in the late 19th century, closed during the Communist era, when its building was used for a printshop, and re-opened and augmented in the early 1990s.
Closer to the city center is another Church of Our Lady of Kazan; although it can be seen from many apartment buildings on Kstovo's new north-east side, this historic building (constructed in 1792 and is now protected as a heritage site) is actually located in the village of Veliky Vrag, which has not (yet) been annexed by the town. just northeast of the city; it was built in, owned by the federal government.
Finally, the small Church of St.Vladimir in Vishenki village (now within the city limits, just south of the city's main urban area), is the closest to most of the city's residential neighborhoods.
- "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
- "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Erman, Adolph (1852), Archiv für Wissenschaftliche Kunde von Russland, Volume 10, p. 324 (German)
- M. S. Matveev (August 1968), "Ten years of the Novogor'kii Refinery", Chemistry and Technology of Fuels and Oils 4 (8). Translated from Khimiya i Tekhnologiya Topliv i Masel, No. 8, pp. 1–4, August 1968
- US Patent 4132631, "A process for petroleum refining to obtain petroleum products having a reduced content of sulphur, oxygen-and nitrogen-containing compounds which comprises introducing into the petroleum during distillation volatile and nonvolatile carbonyl compounds of transition metals selected from the group...". Inventors: Nikolai S. Nametkin, Mikhail S. Matveev, Sergei P. Gubin, Abram S. Dekhterman, Vladimir D. Tjurin, Anatoly P. Skibenko, Valentina S. Orlova, Alevtina I. Savenko, Irina P. Podolskaya, mostly from Kstovo.
- Soviet Plant to Convert Oil to Protein for Feed; Use of Yeast Involved, By THEODORE SHABAD. the New York Times, November 10, 1973.
- RusVinyl – Summary of Social Issues (EBRD)
- Первенец микробиологической промышленности (Microbiological industry's first plant), in: Станислав Марков (Stanislav Markov) «Кстово- молодой город России» (Kstovo, Russia's Young Town)
- "Practitioners' forum perestroika and soviet biotechnology". Authors: Rod Greenshields; Anthony Rimmington; Harry Rothman. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, Volume 2, Issue 1 1990 , pages 63 - 76. Quote: "There arc large n-paraffins-based SCP factories at various stages of construction at Angarsk, Kirishi (1 00,000 tonnes/year), Kremenchug (120,000 tonnes), Kstovo, Mozyr (300,000 tonnes), Novopolotsk (100,000 tonnes), Svetloyar (240,000 tonnes projected), arid Syzran... "
- A. S. Koryagin, E. V. Krylova, and L. D. Luk'yanova (June 2002), "Effect of Ubiquinone-10 on the Blood System in Rats Exposed to Radiation", Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine 133 (6): 562–564, doi:10.1023/A:1020225623808, ISSN 0007-4888, PMID 12447465.. Abstract: "The use of synthetic ubiquinone-10 (2 and 10 mg/kg) as a therapeutic food additive normalized the counts of erythrocytes, reticulocytes, and leukocytes and the content of hemoglobin in the blood and inhibited lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes in irradiated rats (3 Gy)." Quote: "... ubiquinone-10 synthesized at the BVK Plant (Kstovo) ..."
- Solvay to buy Russian soda ash plant. Reuters, Sep 8, 2009.
- JV for Russian vinyls production plant: First world-scale fully integrated vinyls plant to be built in Kstovo, Russia by Joint Venture, SolVin and SIBUR LLC (2007-06-30 News Release)
- BISNIS Search For Partners, April 6, 1998
- "Волго-Вятская генерирующая компания" намерена построить парогазовую ТЭЦ в Кстовском районе NTA Privolzhye, 12-Nov-2008. (Russian)
- Local hydrofoil boat service schedule for the 2006 season. Volga Shipping (Accessed 2006-Oct-21) (Russian)
- Bus schedules (Russian)
- Nizhny Novgorod Technical University, Kstovo Branch (Accessed 2006 October 24) (Russian).
- Colonel (retired) Boris Mikhailovoch Denisov, "Forgotten Anniversary". "Russky Pereplet" magazine, 3 November 2006 (Russian)
- "Михаил Бурдиков: После оглушительных успехов наших самбистов иностранные журналисты долго пытались отыскать на карте мира маленький город Кстово" (An article on the history of Sambo in Kstovo) (RIA Kreml, November 2004) (Russian)
- Unofficial website of Kstovo at the Wayback Machine (archived May 26, 2002) (Russian)
- News of culture of the town of Kstovo (Russian)
- Kstovo news (Russian)
- Kstovo information and photographs (Russian)
- Zemlyaki (Kstovo local newspaper) (Russian)
- News of Kstovo (Russian)
- Nizhny Novgorod Business Encyclopaedia article on LUKOIL- Nizhegorodnefteorgsintez (English)
- The Orthodox Archdiocese of Nizhny Novgorod, Kstovsky District (Russian)