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Cities of Malaysia
|Municipality||18 January 1979|
|Granted city status||1 January 2008|
|• Mayor||Dato' Haji Adzlan Bin Mohd Dagang|
|• Total||605 km2 (233.59 sq mi)|
|• Density||590.51/km2 (1,529.21/sq mi)|
|Time zone||MST (UTC+8)|
|• Summer (DST)||Not observed (UTC)|
|District of Malaysia|
|State||Terengganu Darul Iman|
|• Body||Kuala Terengganu City Council|
|• Mayor||Dato' Haji Adzlan Bin Mohd Dagang|
|National calling code||09-6xxxxxxx|
Kuala Terengganu (Jawi: كوالا ترڠڬانو; simplified Chinese: 瓜拉丁加奴, pinyin: guālādīngjiānú; colloquially abbreviated as KT; Terengganuan: Kole Tranung) is the largest city as well as the state and royal capital, and the main economic centre of Terengganu state, Malaysia. Kuala Terengganu is also one of eight districts in this state. Kuala Terengganu, as a district, is the smallest in terms of area. On 1 January 2008, Kuala Terengganu was awarded city status. The city has a population of 343,284. Kuala Terengganu is located about 500 kilometres northeast of Kuala Lumpur on a promontory surrounded on three sides by the South China Sea.
- 1 History
- 2 Governance
- 3 Geography
- 4 Demography
- 5 Public Facilities and Infrastructure
- 6 Tourism and Culture
- 7 International Relations
- 8 References
- 9 External links
History shown that Kuala Terengganu has been known hundreds of years ago. Chinese history books such as “Ling-Wai-Tai-ta” written by Cao-Cu-Fei in 1178 mentioned ‘Teng-ya-nu’ and the book ‘Cu-fan-cih’ by Cao-Ju-Kua in 1226 mentioned ‘Teng-ya-nung’. Both mentioned names referred to the Terengganu which was said to be ruled by Seri Wijaya Government (San-fo-Cih) in the 2nd Century. Ptolemy, a Greek astronomer, has noted down two ports in the east coast of Malay Peninsular. The ports are Primula and Kole. Primula is believed to be in Kuala Terengganu while Kole in Kemaman.
A Chinese writer’s note during Sui Dynasty has also mentioned about a state named ‘Tan-Tan’ that sent a gift to China and Paul Wheatley concluded that the state mentioned in the Chinese note may be was governed either in Kuala Besut or Kuala Terengganu. The note also mentioned that Kuala Terengganu and Kuala Berang were the main trading center in South-east Asia in 12th Century. Terengganu River was the main route and important for foreign traders in those time. Trading goods such as eaglewood, laka wood and high quality tusks as an exchanges with gold and silver. A Chinese traveller, “Chao Ju Kua” mentioned in the notes he wrote in 1225 that ‘Teng–Ya-Nong’ or Kuala Terengganu was an important trading port along the east coast of the Malay Land.
The name Kuala Terengganu means the "The Harbour of Terengganu", referring to the broad expanse of the Terengganu River estuary which empties into the ocean at this point. Kuala Terengganu is also the name of the parliamentary constituency in which the city is situated. The inhabitants of the city speak a distinct Terengganese dialect of Malay.
As it is the capital of Terengganu, the city is vital to the political and economic welfare of the state. The city is the centre for the State and Federal Government agencies, housing the offices of many ministries' departments and governmental bodies, such as the Immigration and Customs Department, State Economic Planning Unit, Pos Malaysia Kuala Terengganu General Post Office, Terengganu State Library, and many others. As the administrative capital of Terengganu, the Legislative Assembly convenes at Wisma Darul Iman, the state secretariat building. Kuala Terengganu is also the royal capital of the state, being the site of the Sultan's many palaces, for example Istana Badariah and Istana Maziah.
The Election Commission of Malaysia has divided Kuala Terengganu into two different parliament constituencies: P.35 for Kuala Nerus, and P.36 for Kuala Terengganu. There are four state assembly districts in each Parliament. They are:
- P.35 - Kuala Nerus
- N9 - Tepuh
- N10 - Teluk Pasu
- N11 - Seberang Takir
- N12 - Bukit Tunggal
- P.36 - Kuala Terengganu
- N13 - Wakaf Mempelam
- N14 - Bandar
- N15 - Ladang
- N16 - Batu Buruk
Local Authority and City Definition
Kuala Terengganu Municipal Council was established on 18 January 1979, with an area of 18,712 hectares covering 21 district, including the sub-district of Kuala Terengganu. On 1 January 1985, the sub-districts of Bukit Palos and Alor Limbat were removed from the Council and placed under the administration of Marang District Council. With these changes, the area under the Council's administration was reduced to 16,806 hectares.
On 16 December 1996, Kuala Terengganu Municipal Council was extended to cover the entire area of Kuala Terengganu, including the famous resort island, Redang Island. With that, the number of the number the sub-districts increased to 23 while the area increased dramatically to 60.528 hectares. On 1 January 2008, a declaration was made by the state government and Kuala Terengganu became the first city on the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia to city status. Kuala Terengganu Municipal Council changed its name to Kuala Terengganu City Council to reflect the change of its status.
There are a number of towns, townships, and sub-urban areas under the jurisdiction of Kuala Terengganu City Council. They are:
- Gong Badak
- Durian Burung
- Batu Enam
- Padang Air
- Wakaf Tengah
- Batu Rakit
- Atas Tol
- Batu Buruk
- Bukit Besar
- Cabang Tiga
- Gelugur Kedai
- Gelugur Raja
- Kepung, Kuala Terengganu
- Kuala Ibai
- Kuala Nerus
- Kubang Parit
- Paloh, Kuala Terengganu
- Pengadang Buluh
- Tok Jamal
- Pasir Panjang, Kuala Terengganu
- Pulau Duyong
- Kampung Dalam Bata
- Panji Alam
- Seberang Takir
The villages under the authority of the City Council are Kuala Terengganu are:
- Kampung Jalan Tekukur
- Kampung Ladang Mengabang
- Kampung Ladang Sahak
- Kampung Tanjung Nesan Empat
Districts under Kuala Terengganu City Council
There are two districts that are administered by Kuala Terengganu City Council. They are Kuala Terengganu and Kuala Nerus. Kuala Nerus was formerly a part of Kuala Terengganu district, but on 18 September 2014, the Malaysian Prime Minister, Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak declared this northern part of Kuala Terengganu district as the eighth and newest district in Terengganu state.
With a population or over 200,000 and a size of 39,890 hectares, it comprises a substantial part of the former larger Kuala Terengganu district. Significant development in the areas of higher education and housing projects have occurred there in contemporary times. Kuala Nerus main center of population includes Manir and Batu Rakit. Among major education institutions located in this district are Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin the Institute of Teacher Education Dato Razali Ismail Campus and an industrial training institute. The Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA) Teaching Hospital is now under construction, thus providing this district with a new significant establishment. The Sultan Mahmud Airport is located within the district, as is the multipurpose Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin Stadium.
Although Kuala Nerus and Kuala Terengganu are now two districts on their own, since both of them are under the administration of the same local government, this makes Kuala Terengganu City Council among the few local governments in Malaysia to manage two different districts.
Kuala Terengganu is located in the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. It is administered by Kuala Terengganu City COuncil, which covers the whole area of Kuala Terengganu district. The district's location at the estuary of Terengganu River divided the district into two parts, Kuala Terengganu Utara (North Kuala Terengganu) and Kuala Terengganu Selatan (South Kuala Terengganu). The eastern part of the district faces the South China Sea and is characterised by sandy coastal beaches.
The type of soil that can be found here is mostly peat. The land is best suited for crops like tobacco, pineapple, dragon fruit and melon, but it is rare for the land area to be developed for agricultural purposes. Most of the land is developed for settlements, industrial and commercial sectors due to the limited land area in Kuala Terengganu (especially the southern part of the district).
Hills dominate the western part of the district, but most of the district are lowlands because of it geographical proximity to the coast. The city are has a few high points with the highest being Bukit Besar, followed by Bukit Kecil. Bukit Puteri is centrally located in the city, just near the Terengganu River estuary.
As a part of Terengganu, Kuala Terengganu has a tropical rainforest climate under the Köppen climate classification with constant temperature, considerable amount of rain and high humidity. It is generally fairly hot and humid all year round, averaging from 28 °C to 30 °C in daytime and slightly cooler after dusk. Nevertheless, the sea breeze from South China Sea has somehow moderating the humidity in offshore areas while the altitude and lush forest trees and plant has cooled the mountain and rural areas.
There are two main types of monsoons in the state. The southwest monsoon season is usually established in the later half of May or early June and ends in September. The prevailing wind flow is generally southwesterly and light, below 15 knots. The northeast monsoon season usually starts in early November and ends in March. During this season, steady easterly or northeasterly winds of 10 to 20 knots prevail. The winds over the east coast states of Peninsular Malaysia may reach 30 knots or more during periods of strong surges of cold air from the north (cold surges).
During the northeast monsoon season, Kuala Terengganu, being exposed to the coast, receives heavy rainfall. It is inadvisable to visit any of the offshore islands or participating in sea activities as the sea can be very rough. However, in some clear sunny days during the monsoon season, surprisingly east coast is always presented with clear blue sky and cooling wind.
According to The Malaysian Census 2010, Kuala Terengganu has a population of 337,553. The city population mainly consists of Malays with a population of 319,813. Chinese residents are the second biggest ethnic (11,617). Other residents include Non-Malaysian citizens (4,326), other Bumiputras (643), Indian (867) and others (287). All Malays are Muslim. Mosques and halal food establishments can be found all over the city. The Chinese of Kuala Terengganu are made up of Hokkien and they practised either Buddhism, Taoism or Christianity. A small number of Hindus and Sikhs also exist.
The Malays in Kuala Terengganu speak a distinct Terengganu Malay and is the main lingua franca in the city. The Chinese mostly speak Hokkien with some speak Teochew and Mandarin. Most Indians in Kuala Terengganu speak Tamil.
Public Facilities and Infrastructure
The city is connected to other towns via a good network of roads. The Sultan Mahmud Bridge, a three-kilometre bridge over the Terengganu River, provides a road link to both banks of the river and Duyong Island. The East Coast Expressway, which starts from Karak until Kuala Terengganu, has made it easy for any travellers to drive up to the city. Roads are accessible from many major towns and cities in Peninsula Malaysia. It takes about 6–7 hour drive from Kuala Lumpur and 1.5 hour drive from Kuantan. Visitors can also drive to Kuala Terengganu from the north of the peninsula via East-West Highway.
Other transport facilities include the taxicab and Kuala Terengganu Bus Terminal where passengers can have the interstate bus services to all major cities and towns in Peninsular Malaysia. The interstate bus services use air-conditioned express buses. There is a limited service tourist bus that plies back and forth to tourist areas such as the Nor Arfa batik outlet south of the city, and the jetty for ferries to the island resorts at Redang and Perhentian islands. Kuala Terengganu has its own special bus service known as Bas Bandar or Town Bus. The buses have the characteristics of a traditional old castle through the unique roof design to reflect the state cultural identity. The buses cover three lines in and out of the city. A token fare of RM1 should be paid for each ride. There is also trishaw services although this service is dying fast and is not as extensive as the ones in the states of Malacca and Penang. The city's only taxi rank stands nearby to the city's bus terminal. Cars may be hired at certain outlets and at the airport. The city and suburbs are relatively easy to negotiate by car.
On the other side of the Terengganu River, there is a medium-sized airport called Sultan Mahmud Airport (IATA: TGG, ICAO: WMKN) serving domestic routes although it was granted international status. The airlines serving this airport are Malaysia Airlines, Firefly, AirAsia, and Malindo Air.
The city also has water transportation that ply the Terengganu River. The lifeline between the north and south parts of the city is bot penambang. Bot penambang are engined, roofed wooden boats made to carry passengers from Seberang Takir Jetty and Pulau Duyong Kecil Jetty to Kuala Terengganu Jetty. It is the easiest and shortest way to get to the city. There are also ferry services to the resort island of Redang and other small islands, although these services are mainly carried out by modern express ferries. The ferries dock at Syahbandar Jetty, just in front of the General Post Office.
Malaysian central bank, Bank Negara Malaysia maintains the east coast branch in Kuala Terengganu. Major Malaysian commercial banks also have their branches here. This includes Maybank, CIMB Bank, AmBank, Public Bank, RHB Bank, and Hong Leong Bank. Many of these banks have their offices near to one another at Jalan Sultan Ismail.
Courts of Law, Legal Enforcement, and Safety
All types of courts in Kuala Terengganu can be found in Jalan Sultan Mohamad. The High Court, Sessions Court, and the Magistrate Court are housed under one building complex. Another type of court, the Syariah Court is situated not far from the Terengganu Courts Complex.
The headquarters of Terengganu Police Contingent and the Kuala Terengganu District Police Contingent are at Jalan Sultan Omar. There is no prison complex in the district, but temporary lock-up cells are to be found in most police stations here.
The main fire station is at Jalan Kemajuan, near Bukit Kecil. This is the biggest fire station in Kuala Terengganu. Another fire station is located just beside Pasar Payang in the city centre.
The headquarters of the Malaysian Civil Defence Force, the civil defence services agency in Malaysia, is at Jalan Lapangan Terbang, near to Terengganu Sports Complex.
The 18th Battalion of the Royal Malay Regiment has its camp in the northern part of the district at Kem Sri Pantai in Seberang Takir. The camp is currently undergoing restoration and upgrading processes.
Unlike other major cities, Kuala Terengganu does not have a lot of hospitals. The main hospital is Sultanah Nur Zahirah Hospital, formerly known as Kuala Terengganu General Hospital. This is a public government hospital that began to provide its services during the 1920s.
Kuala Terengganu Specialist Hospital is the first and largest private hospital in the state, operating since September 2006. There are other types of clinics such as private and public health clinics, village clinics, and 1Malaysia clinics operating in the district.
There are no shortages of mosques or Muslim prayer buildings, the most famous among these religious buildings and are considered as tourist attractions are Abidin Mosque, and Tengku Tengah Zaharah Mosque. There are two Buddhist temples, Ho Ann Kion and Tien Hou Kong. Two Presbyterian churches, the largest being Jalan Air Jerneh Prespyterian Church, and an Anglican church known as St Andrew's Church can also be found in the city. For Hindu adherents, there is temple that is known as Sri Kali Yuga Durga Lakshmi Aman Temple, located in Jalan Cherong Lanjut.
Kuala Terengganu is the centre of tertiary education in the state. There are three public universities here, and they are Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (both in Kuala Nerus district), and Universiti Teknologi MARA Chendering campus. Other tertiary education institute are UCSI University, Insitut Teknologi Petronas, Kuala Terengganu Community College, and others. There is one institute of teacher education in Kuala Terengganu, that is Institut Pendidikan Guru Kampus Dato' Razali Ismail
There are 81 primary schools and 34 secondary schools. Among them are:
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Panji Alam
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Ibrahim Fikri
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Padang Midin
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Seri Budiman
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Tengku Mizan Zainal Abidin
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Manir
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Bukit Guntong
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Sultan Ahmad
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Belara
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Bukit Tunggal
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Chendering
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Kompleks Mengabang Telipot
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Sultan Mansor
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Bukit Besar
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Dato' Razali Ismail
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Kompleks Gong Badak
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Kompleks Seberang Takir
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Seri Nilam
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Padang Negara
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Padang Kemunting
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Sultan Sulaiman
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Tengku Bariah
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Chung Hwa Wei Sin
- Sekolah Menengah Sains Sultan Mahmud
- Sekolah Menengah (Sains) Kuala Terengganu
- Sekolah Menengah Teknik Wakaf Tembesu
- Sekolah Menengah Teknik Kuala Terengganu
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Agama Tok Jiring
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Agama Sheikh Abdul Malek
- Sekolah Menengah Agama Khairiah
- Sekolah Menengah Agama Sultan Zainal Abidin
- Sekolah Menengah Agama (Atas) Sultan Zainal Abidin
- Sekolah Menengah Imtiaz
- Sekolah Berasrama Penuh Integrasi Batu Rakit
Tourism and Culture
Kuala Terengganu has a number of places of interest. Chinatown (Malay: Kampung Cina, Simplified Chinese: 唐人坡, pinyin: Teng Lang Po) is one of the main attractions. This settlement is a row of shophouses from the prewar era, with some of them dating back from 1700s. Most of the houses are 2 stories high, mainly made of bricks or concrete, with wooden flooring for the second storey. Some have kept the intricate wood carving windows, huge heavy wooden front doors, and olden plaques. The centuries old buildings now consists of sundry shops, local coffee shops, offices, souvenir shops, restaurants, kopitiam, and other services. It is home to two Chinese temples, Ho Ann Kiong and Tien Hou Kong, which was built in 1801 and 1896. Another landmark is the 19th-century Low Tiey water well, erected in 1875. After years and years, it still supplies clean water to Chinatown's residents. Many of the buildings here have undergone restoration or beautification programmes to make them more appealing, but without destroying the heritage value.
Pasar Besar Kedai Payang or Central Market (more commonly known as Pasar Payang) is the main market of the city. This double-storey building houses different kinds of goods, ranging from fresh produce, poultry, sea products, traditional delicacies, home products, clothes, and handicrafts such as batik, songket, and brassware.
The Terengganu State Museum, the largest museum complex in South East Asia, is located on 27 hectares oin Kampung Losong. The architecture is based on the traditional Terengganu Malay house known as rumah tele. It has eight different galleries such as Petronas Gallery, Maritime Gallery, and Islam Gallery. The museum is also the home of the Terengganu Inscription Stone, the oldest artefact with Jawi writing in this country. Near the museum is Islamic Heritage Park (Malay: Taman Tamadun Islam). This park has various replicas of the mosque from all over the world. The Crystal Mosque is also located here.
In the heart of the city is a small hill known as Bukit Puteri. With a height of about 200 metres, the hill is strategically located near the banks of Terengganu River. It was formerly used as a fort by the sultans of the state. Old artefacts can be found on top of the hill. During the holy month of Ramadan, a century-old brass bell known as genta will be rung to signify that it is time for iftar, or the end of the fasting on that day.
Other attractions of Kuala Terengganu include Batu Buruk Beach, Teluk Ketapang Beach, Istana Maziah, Pulau Duyong traditional boat-making industry, traditional weaponry making industry, Abidin Mosque, and Tengku Tengah Zaharah Mosque.
Kuala Terengganu is famous for its keropok lekor Losong, a traditional delicacy made from fish, and other traditional dishes such as nasi dagang, laksam, laksa Terengganu, otak-otak, sata, pulut lepa, ketupat sotong, and roti paun.
Television and radio
Kuala Terengganu receives almost all of Malaysian terrestrial television channels. Among the terrestrial television stations that the city receives are TV1, TV2, TV3, NTV7, TV9, and TV Alhijrah. Most radio stations in Malaysia are also available here. The state's radio station, Terengganu FM, and the Terengganu feed of the national private radio station, Hot FM Teganu, are also located in this city.
Newspapers are distributed daily. The mainstream newspapers in Kuala Terengganu include English dailies: The Star, and New Straits Times ; Malay dailies: Berita Harian, Utusan Malaysia, Harian Metro and Kosmo!; Chinese dailies: Sin Chew Daily, and Nanyang Siang Pau; and Tamil dailies such: Tamil Nesan, Malaysia Nanban and Makkal Osai. All of them are in national circulation. Local newspaper companies also exist. The most widely-circulated is Sinar Harian, which provides regional and local news based on its regional editions.
There are two stadiums, Sultan Ismail Nasiruddin Shah Stadium in the heart of the city, and Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin Stadium located at Terengganu Sports Complex, Gong Badak. Both stadiums are the homes of the state's two football teams, Terengganu FA, and T-Team FC.
The sports complex was purposely built for the 2008 Malaysian Games (Malay: Sukan Malaysia or SUKMA). Besides the main stadium, it also have other facilities such as the Indoor Stadium, football fields, a rugby field, a lawn bowls field, a hockey pitch, and bowling lanes. A sport school to search for new generation athletes is being built to make full use of the facilities provided. Other venues catered for sports in Terengganu are, among others, Kuala Terengganu Aquatic Centre, Kuala Terengganu Hockey Stadium, Kuala Terengganu Tennis Courts, Kuala Terengganu Royal Golf Club, and Kuala Terengganu Lawn Bowls Fields.
The Monsoon Cup is an annual event on the Alpari World Match Racing Tour calendar. It is also widely considered as the most formidable leg of the Tour. As the final event of the season, it sees the conclusion of an adrenaline fuelled tournament with the crowning of the tour winner with the premier 'match racing' prize being the 'ISAF World Match Racing Champion. The match racing sport differs from other sailing disciplines in that the boats race one-on-one in supplied racing yachts. The yachts supplied for the Monsoon Cup are Foundation 36 type racing yachts.
The venue for the cup is Pulau Duyong. The Monsoon Cup has helped modernise the island from a sleepy fishing and boat-making village into a modern international-class resort and marina complete with boat repairing facilities. It also serves as the launching pad for the development in the state and to create economic opportunities in services and manufacturing sectors related to the event. Amongst the businesses that benefited from this event were the hoteliers, restaurateurs, traditional boat-makers, food suppliers as well as tourist related industries such as the arts and crafts, textiles and souvenirs.
Kuala Terengganu currently has one sister cities:
- ms:Senarai bandar di Malaysia mengikut penduduk
- Kuala Terengganu travel guide from Wikivoyage
- Kuala Terengganu Information
- Travel Guide: Kuala Terengganu
- Kuala Terengganu City Council
- Homestay Kuala Terengganu