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Cities of Malaysia
Aerial view of Kuala Terengganu, The Crystal Mosque of the Islamic Heritage Park, and Terengganu State Museum.
Location of Kuala Terengganu district in Terengganu
|Municipality||18 January 1979|
|Granted city status||1 January 2008|
|• Body||Kuala Terengganu City Council|
|• Mayor||Samiun Salleh|
|• Total||605 km2 (233.59 sq mi)|
|• Density||557.94/km2 (1,445.07/sq mi)|
|Time zone||MST (UTC+8)|
|• Summer (DST)||Not observed (UTC)|
|National calling code||09-6xxxxxxx|
Kuala Terengganu (Jawi: كوالا ترڠڬانو; simplified Chinese: 瓜拉丁加奴, pinyin: guālādīngjiānú; colloquially abbreviated as K.T.) is the administrative capital, royal capital, and the main economic centre of Terengganu, Malaysia. Kuala Terengganu is also the administrative centre for the eponymous district of Kuala Terengganu. As a district, Kuala Terengganu is the smallest in terms of area, but it has the largest population in Terengganu with a population of 406,317 in 2010. City status was awarded to Kuala Terengganu with the title Bandaraya Warisan Pesisir Air (English: Coastal Heritage City) on 1 January 2008. Kuala Terengganu is located about 500 kilometres northeast of Kuala Lumpur on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia.
- 1 History
- 2 Governance
- 3 Geography
- 4 Demography
- 5 Cityscape
- 6 Public Facilities and Infrastructure
- 7 Tourism and Culture
- 8 International Relations
- 9 Gallery
- 10 References
- 11 External links
The name Kuala Terengganu is roughly translated as "the confluence/estuary of Terengganu", referring to the broad expanse of the Terengganu River estuary which empties into the ocean. Among the earliest references of Terengganu are in Chinese historical sources. A Chinese writer’s note during the Sui dynasty has mentioned about a state named Tan-Tan that sent tributes to China. The state was presumably located somewhere in Terengganu. Tan-Tan sent tributes to Sui dynasty and then to the Tang dynasty after Sui dynasty has collapsed. It ceased to send tributes to China after it came under the dominance of the Srivijaya during the 7th century.
Chinese history books such as Ling-wai-dai-da (嶺外代答) written by Zhou Qufei (周去非) in 1178 and the book Zhufan Zhi (嶺外代答; also romanised as Chu-fanchi) written by Zhao Rugua (趙汝适; also romanised as Chau Ju-Kua) in 1226 mentioned Teng-ya-nu and Teng-ya-nung respectively, as being a dependency of San-fo-ts’i (三佛齊). Both referred to Terengganu as being a vassal state to Srivijaya. After Srivijaya fell during the 13th century, Terengganu came under the influence of Majapahit. In the 15th century, Majapahit was vying with Ayutthaya Kingdom and the nascent Malacca Sultanate for the control of the Malay Peninsula. Malacca Sultanate prevailed and Terengganu then came under its influence. When the Malacca Sultanate fell in 1511 to the Portuguese, the newly established Sultanate of Johor exerted its influence on most of the former territories of the Malacca Sultanate, including Terengganu. Terengganu was briefly under the influence of the Aceh Sultanate during the early 17th century, but Johor managed to exert its influence again on Terengganu in the late 17th century.
The present Sultanate of Terengganu was established in the 1708. The first Sultan of Terengganu, Sultan Zainal Abidin I established his court near Kuala Berang, then he moved his court a few more times until he settled near Bukit Keledang, Kuala Terengganu. During the early 18th century, Kuala Terengganu was still a small town. It was described as having about one thousand houses that were scattered around the town. The Chinese was already present in Kuala Terengganu at that time. Half of the population were Chinese and they were engaged in agriculture and trading.
By the 19th century, Kuala Terengganu has become a large and populous town. Thomas John Newbold, an English soldier in the service of the East India Company, estimated population of Kuala Terengganu was around 15,000 to 20,000 Malays with 600 Chinese, but it was presumably an overestimation. There were few brick buildings in the town. The principal brick buildings were a mosque and a custom house. Most of the houses were made of wood and thatch. The Chinese settlement in Kuala Terengganu, Kampung Cina, has become an old and established settlement. Most of the houses and shops in Kampung Cina were made of stone and brick. There were also a considerable number of Arabs and their descendant in Kuala Terengganu. Kuala Terengganu was a major fishing port and one of the important trading ports in Malaya. The chief export commodities were coffee, gambier, gold, ivory, pepper and tin. It were mainly traded for rice, tobacco, cotton goods and opium.
After the death of Sultan Daud in 1831, a brief civil war erupted between two claimants to the throne, namely Tengku Mansur and Tengku Omar. Tengku Omar was based at Bukit Puteri while Tengku Mansur was based at Balik Bukit. Tengku Omar was defeated by Tengku Mansur and he fled from Terengganu. Tengku Mansur became the next Sultan as Sultan Mansur II. His son, Sultan Muhammad succeeded him as the next Sultan after his death in 1837. But, in 1839, Tengku Omar returned to Terengganu with his entourage to reclaim the throne. He defeated Sultan Muhammad and forced Sultan Muhammad to flee. Tengku Omar reoccupied his fort at Bukit Puteri and was throned as the next Sultan, Sultan Omar.
In 1862, ex-Sultan of Riau-Lingga, Sultan Mahmud IV Muzaffar Shah went to Terengganu from Bangkok on a Siamese vessel. The British requested that the ex-Sultan to be withdrawn because the British accused the ex-Sultan and also the Sultan of Terengganu, Sultan Omar of supporting Wan Ahmad. Wan Ahmad had constantly attacked Pahang using Kemaman as his base and British trade there were disrupted by the constant attacks. The Siamese agreed to British request, but they have yet to follow through with their agreement. The Strait Settlements Governor, Sir Orfeur Cavenagh sent three ships, HMS Scout, HMS Coquette and a steamer Tonze to Kuala Terengganu, under the command of Captain Corbett, accompanied by Major MacPherson. They were sent with orders to compel the ex-Sultan of Riau-Lingga to be sent back by the British to Siam, and to call upon the Sultan to cease supporting Wan Ahmad. After the Sultan of Terengganu declined to surrender the ex-Sultan to the British, the ships bombarded Kuala Terengganu. The Sultan of Terengganu and the ex-Sultan had fled Kuala Terengganu during the bombardment. The ships then returned to Singapore.
Kuala Terengganu was ravaged by a fire in 1882. The fire that swept through Kuala Terengganu destroyed many buildings, including Istana Hijau, the Sultan’s palace. Istana Maziah was later built to replace the destroyed palace.
As it is the capital of Terengganu, the city is vital to the political and economic welfare of the state. The city is the centre for the State and Federal Government agencies, housing the offices of many ministries' departments and governmental bodies, such as the Immigration and Customs Department, State Economic Planning Unit, Pos Malaysia Kuala Terengganu General Post Office, Terengganu State Library, and many others.
As the administrative capital of Terengganu, the Legislative Assembly convenes at Wisma Darul Iman, the state secretariat building. Kuala Terengganu is also the royal capital of the state, being the site of the Sultan's many palaces, for example Istana Badariah and Istana Maziah.
The Election Commission of Malaysia has divided Kuala Terengganu into two different parliament constituencies: P.35 for Kuala Nerus, and P.36 for Kuala Terengganu. There are four state assembly districts in each Parliament. They are:
- P.35 - Kuala Nerus
- N9 - Tepuh
- N10 - Teluk Pasu
- N11 - Seberang Takir
- N12 - Bukit Tunggal
- P.36 - Kuala Terengganu
- N13 - Wakaf Mempelam
- N14 - Bandar
- N15 - Ladang
- N16 - Batu Buruk
Local Authority and City Definition
Kuala Terengganu Municipal Council was established on 18 January 1979, with an area of 18,712 hectares covering 21 district, including the sub-district of Kuala Terengganu. On 1 January 1985, the sub-districts of Bukit Palos and Alor Limbat were removed from the Council and placed under the administration of Marang District Council. With these changes, the area under the Council's administration was reduced to 16,806 hectares.
On 16 December 1996, Kuala Terengganu Municipal Council was extended to cover the entire area of Kuala Terengganu, including the famous resort island, Redang Island. With that, the number of the number the sub-districts increased to 23 while the area increased dramatically to 60.528 hectares. On 1 January 2008, a declaration was made by the state government and Kuala Terengganu became the first city on the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia to city status. Kuala Terengganu Municipal Council changed its name to Kuala Terengganu City Council to reflect the change of its status.
There are a number of towns, townships, and sub-urban areas under the jurisdiction of Kuala Terengganu City Council. They are:
- Gong Badak
- Durian Burung
- Batu Enam
- Padang Air
- Wakaf Tengah
- Batu Rakit
- Atas Tol
- Batu Buruk
- Bukit Besar
- Cabang Tiga
- Gelugur Kedai
- Gelugur Raja
- Kepung, Kuala Terengganu
- Kuala Ibai
- Kuala Nerus
- Kubang Parit
- Paloh, Kuala Terengganu
- Pengadang Buluh
- Tok Jamal
- Pasir Panjang, Kuala Terengganu
- Pulau Duyong
- Kampung Dalam Bata
- Panji Alam
- Seberang Takir
The villages under the authority of the City Council are Kuala Terengganu are:
- Kampung Jalan Tekukur
- Kampung Ladang Mengabang
- Kampung Ladang Sahak
- Kampung Tanjung Nesan Empat
Districts under Kuala Terengganu City Council
There are two districts that are administered by Kuala Terengganu City Council. They are Kuala Terengganu and Kuala Nerus. Kuala Nerus was formerly a part of Kuala Terengganu district, but on 18 September 2014, the Malaysian Prime Minister, Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak declared this northern part of Kuala Terengganu district as the eighth and newest district in Terengganu state.
With a population or over 200,000 and a size of 39,890 hectares, it comprises a substantial part of the former larger Kuala Terengganu district. Significant development in the areas of higher education and housing projects have occurred there in contemporary times. Kuala Nerus main center of population includes Manir and Batu Rakit. Among major education institutions located in this district are Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin the Institute of Teacher Education Dato Razali Ismail Campus and an industrial training institute. The Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA) Teaching Hospital is now under construction, thus providing this district with a new significant establishment. The Sultan Mahmud Airport is located within the district, as is the multipurpose Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin Stadium.
Although Kuala Nerus and Kuala Terengganu are now two districts on their own, since both of them are under the administration of the same local government, this makes Kuala Terengganu City Council among the few local governments in Malaysia to manage two different districts.
Kuala Terengganu is located in the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. It is administered by Kuala Terengganu City COuncil, which covers the whole area of Kuala Terengganu district. The district's location at the estuary of Terengganu River divided the district into two parts, Kuala Terengganu Utara (North Kuala Terengganu) and Kuala Terengganu Selatan (South Kuala Terengganu). The eastern part of the district faces the South China Sea and is characterised by sandy coastal beaches.
The type of soil that can be found here is mostly peat. The land is best suited for crops like tobacco, pineapple, dragon fruit and melon, but it is rare for the land area to be developed for agricultural purposes. Most of the land is developed for settlements, industrial and commercial sectors due to the limited land area in Kuala Terengganu (especially the southern part of the district).
Hills dominate the western part of the district, but most of the district are lowlands because of it geographical proximity to the coast. The city are has a few high points with the highest being Bukit Besar, followed by Bukit Kecil. Bukit Puteri is centrally located in the city, just near the Terengganu River estuary.
As a part of Terengganu, Kuala Terengganu has a tropical rainforest climate under the Köppen climate classification with constant temperature, considerable amount of rain and high humidity. It is generally fairly hot and humid all year round, averaging from 28 °C to 30 °C in daytime and slightly cooler after dusk. Nevertheless, the sea breeze from South China Sea has somehow moderating the humidity in offshore areas while the altitude and lush forest trees and plant has cooled the mountain and rural areas.
There are two main types of monsoons in the state. The southwest monsoon season is usually established in the later half of May or early June and ends in September. The prevailing wind flow is generally southwesterly and light, below 15 knots. The northeast monsoon season usually starts in early November and ends in March. During this season, steady easterly or northeasterly winds of 10 to 20 knots prevail. The winds over the east coast states of Peninsular Malaysia may reach 30 knots or more during periods of strong surges of cold air from the north (cold surges).
During the northeast monsoon season, Kuala Terengganu, being exposed to the coast, receives heavy rainfall. It is inadvisable to visit any of the offshore islands or participating in sea activities as the sea can be very rough. However, in some clear sunny days during the monsoon season, surprisingly east coast is always presented with clear blue sky and cooling wind.
|Climate data for Kuala Terengganu Precipitation In 2014 (Mean Rainfall : 2009-2013)|
|Average high °C (°F)||29
|Average low °C (°F)||23
|Precipitation mm (inches)||72.8
|Rainfall mm (inches)||220.6
|Source: Malaysian Meteorological Department|
|Climate data for Kuala Terengganu Precipitation In 2013|
|Precipitation mm (inches)||202.4
|Source: Malaysian Meteorological Department|
|Climate data for Kuala Terengganu Precipitation In 2012|
|Precipitation mm (inches)||183.4
|Source: Malaysian Meteorological Department|
|Climate data for Kuala Terengganu Precipitation In 2011|
|Precipitation mm (inches)||391
|Source: Malaysian Meteorological Department|
|Climate data for Kuala Terengganu Precipitation In 2010|
|Precipitation mm (inches)||203.6
|Source: Malaysian Meteorological Department|
|Climate data for Kuala Terengganu Precipitation In 2009|
|Precipitation mm (inches)||122.4
|Source: Malaysian Meteorological Department|
According to The Malaysian Census 2010, Kuala Terengganu has a population of 406,317. The city population mainly consists of Malays with a population of 319,813. Chinese residents are the second biggest ethnic (11,617). Other residents include Non-Malaysian citizens (4,326), other Bumiputras (643), Indian (867) and others (287).
As of 2010 Census the population of Kuala Terengganu by religion is 96.9% Muslim, 2.5% Buddhist, 0.2% Hindu, 0.2% Christian, and 0.2% follower of other religions, Sikhs or non-religious. All Malays are Muslim. Mosques and halal food establishments can be found all over the city. The Chinese of Kuala Terengganu are made up of Hokkien and they practised either Buddhism, Taoism or Christianity. A small number of Hindus and Sikhs also exist.
The Malays in Kuala Terengganu speak a distinct Terengganu Malay and is the main lingua franca in the city. The Chinese mostly speak Hokkien with some speak Teochew and Mandarin. Most Indians in Kuala Terengganu speak Tamil.
The architecture of Kuala Terengganu is a blend of old colonial influences, traditional Terengganu's Malay architecture, Asian traditions, Malay Islamic inspirations, modern, and postmodern architecture mix. Most of the styling has been modified to use local resources and acclimatised to the local climate, which is hot and humid all year around. Prior to the Second World War, many shophouses, usually two stories with functional shops on the ground floor and separate residential spaces upstairs, were built around the old city centre. These shop-houses drew inspiration from Straits Chinese, mainland China and European traditions, most of the building's architecture can be found in the old city center in Jalan Bandar, Chinatown, Kuala Terengganu.
Independence coupled with the rapid economic growth from the 1970s to the 1990s and with Islam being the official religion in the country, has resulted in the construction of buildings with a more local traditional Terengganu's Malay architecture and Islamic flavour arise around the city. Many of these buildings derive their design from Terenggaanu house belongs to the “Rumah Tiang Dua Belas” type, named after the 12 posts ( 3 rows of four ) which extend from the foundation to the roof.
Public Facilities and Infrastructure
Other transport facilities include the taxicab and Kuala Terengganu Bus Terminal where passengers can have the interstate bus services to all major cities and towns in Peninsular Malaysia. The interstate bus services use air-conditioned express buses. There is a limited service tourist bus that plies back and forth to tourist areas such as the Nor Arfa batik outlet south of the city, and the jetty for ferries to the island resorts at Redang and Perhentian islands.
Kuala Terengganu has its own special bus service known as Cas Ligas or Town Bus. The buses have the characteristics of a traditional old castle through the unique roof design to reflect the state cultural identity. The buses cover three lines in and out of the city. A token fare of RM1 should be paid for each ride.
There is also trishaw services although this service is dying fast and is not as extensive as the ones in the states of Malacca and Penang. In Kuala Terengganu, pedestrian-pulled rickshaws were gradually replaced by cycle rickshaws (beca in Malay). Cycle rickshaws were ubiquitous up to the 1970s in cities. Since then, rapid urbanization has increased demand for more efficient public transport, resulting in dwindling cycle rickshaw numbers. Today, cycle rickshaws are operated mostly as a tourist attraction in Kuala Terengganu. The city's only taxi rank stands nearby to the city's bus terminal. Cars may be hired at certain outlets and at the airport. The city and suburbs are relatively easy to negotiate by car.
The city is connected to other towns via a good network of roads. The Sultan Mahmud Bridge, a three-kilometre bridge over the Terengganu River, provides a road link to both banks of the river and Duyong Island. The East Coast Expressway, which starts from Karak until Kuala Terengganu, has made it easy for any travellers to drive up to the city. Roads are accessible from many major towns and cities in Peninsula Malaysia. It takes about 6–7 hour drive from Kuala Lumpur and 1.5 hour drive from Kuantan. Visitors can also drive to Kuala Terengganu from the north of the peninsula via East-West Highway.
On the other side of the Terengganu River, there is a medium-sized airport called Sultan Mahmud Airport (IATA: TGG, ICAO: WMKN) serving domestic and international routes. The airport is located 8 km (5.0 mi) from the city center, located in Seberang Takir. The airlines serving this airport are Malaysia Airlines, Firefly, AirAsia, Malindo Air, and Sriwijaya Air.
Until December 2014, the airport was served by 5 cities which operated daily and weekly flights from/to Kuala Lumpur, Kuala Lumpur-Subang, Medan, Miri, and Singapore. Malaysia Airlines has also bring passengers to the Holy Land Mecca via Jeddah and Medina during the hajj seasonal. In 2013, the airport handled 699,310 passengers with 11,402 aircraft movements. The terminal was designed to handle 2 million passengers every year.
The city also has water transportation that ply the Terengganu River. The lifeline between the north and south parts of the city are the water taxis more popularly known as bot penambang. Bot penambang are engined, roofed wooden boats made to carry passengers from Seberang Takir Jetty and Pulau Duyong Kecil Jetty to Kuala Terengganu Jetty. It is the easiest and shortest way to get to the city. There are also ferry services to the resort island of Redang and other small islands, although these services are mainly carried out by modern express ferries. The ferries dock at Syahbandar Jetty, just in front of the General Post Office.
Malaysian central bank, Bank Negara Malaysia maintains the east coast branch in Kuala Terengganu. Major Malaysian commercial banks also have their branches here. This includes Maybank, CIMB Bank, AmBank, Public Bank, RHB Bank, and Hong Leong Bank. Many of these banks have their offices near to one another at Jalan Sultan Ismail.
Courts of Law, Legal Enforcement, and Safety
All types of courts in Kuala Terengganu can be found in Jalan Sultan Mohamad. The High Court, Sessions Court, and the Magistrate Court are housed under one building complex. Another type of court, the Syariah Court is situated not far from the Terengganu Courts Complex.
The headquarters of Terengganu Police Contingent and the Kuala Terengganu District Police Contingent are at Jalan Sultan Omar. There is no prison complex in the district, but temporary lock-up cells are to be found in most police stations here.
The main fire station is at Jalan Kemajuan, near Bukit Kecil. This is the biggest fire station in Kuala Terengganu. Another fire station is located just beside Pasar Payang in the city centre.
The headquarters of the Malaysian Civil Defence Force, the civil defence services agency in Malaysia, is at Jalan Lapangan Terbang, near to Terengganu Sports Complex.
The 18th Battalion of the Royal Malay Regiment has its camp in the northern part of the district at Kem Sri Pantai in Seberang Takir. The camp is currently undergoing restoration and upgrading processes.
Unlike other major cities, Kuala Terengganu does not have a lot of hospitals. The main hospital is Sultanah Nur Zahirah Hospital (HSNZ), formerly known as Kuala Terengganu General Hospital, the largest hospital in the state with 821 beds. This is a public government hospital that began to provide its services during the 1920s.
Kuala Terengganu Specialist Hospital is the first and largest private hospital in the state, operating since September 2006. There are other types of clinics such as private and public health clinics, village clinics, and 1Malaysia clinics operating in the district.
- Polyclinic of Hiliran
- Polyclinic of Manir
- Polyclinic of Batu Rakit
- Polyclinic of Bukit Tunggal
- Polyclinic of Seberang Takir
- Polyclinic of Air Jernih (Mothers and infant)
There are no shortages of mosques or Muslim prayer buildings, the most famous among these religious buildings and are considered as tourist attractions are Abidin Mosque, and Tengku Tengah Zaharah Mosque. There are two Buddhist temples, Ho Ann Kion Temple and Tien Hou Kong Temple nearby Chinatown, Kuala Terengganu. Two Presbyterian churches, the largest being Jalan Air Jerneh Presbyterian Church, and an Anglican church known as St Andrew's Church can also be found in the city. For Hindu adherents, there is temple that is known as Sri Kali Yuga Durga Lakshmi Aman Temple, located in Jalan Cherong Lanjut.
Kuala Terengganu is the centre of tertiary education in the state. There are three public universities here, and they are Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (both in Kuala Nerus district), and Universiti Teknologi MARA Chendering campus. Other tertiary education institute are UCSI University, Insitut Teknologi Petronas, Kuala Terengganu Community College, and others. There is one institute of teacher education in Kuala Terengganu, that is Institut Pendidikan Guru Kampus Dato' Razali Ismail
There are 81 primary schools and 34 secondary schools. Among them are:
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Panji Alam
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Ibrahim Fikri
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Padang Midin
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Seri Budiman
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Tengku Mizan Zainal Abidin
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Manir
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Bukit Guntong
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Sultan Ahmad
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Belara
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Bukit Tunggal
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Chendering
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Kompleks Mengabang Telipot
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Sultan Mansor
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Bukit Besar
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Dato' Razali Ismail
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Kompleks Gong Badak
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Kompleks Seberang Takir
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Seri Nilam
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Padang Negara
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Padang Kemunting
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Sultan Sulaiman
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Tengku Bariah
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Chung Hwa Wei Sin
- Sekolah Menengah Sains Sultan Mahmud
- Sekolah Menengah (Sains) Kuala Terengganu
- Sekolah Menengah Teknik Wakaf Tembesu
- Sekolah Menengah Teknik Kuala Terengganu
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Agama Tok Jiring
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Agama Sheikh Abdul Malek
- Sekolah Menengah Agama Khairiah
- Sekolah Menengah Agama Sultan Zainal Abidin
- Sekolah Menengah Agama (Atas) Sultan Zainal Abidin
- Sekolah Menengah Imtiaz
- Sekolah Berasrama Penuh Integrasi Batu Rakit
Tourism and Culture
Kuala Terengganu has a number of places of interest. Chinatown (Malay: Kampung Cina, Simplified Chinese: 唐人坡, pinyin: Teng Lang Po) is one of the main attractions. This settlement is a row of shophouses from the prewar era, with some of them dating back from 1700s. Most of the houses are 2 stories high, mainly made of bricks or concrete, with wooden flooring for the second storey. Some have kept the intricate wood carving windows, huge heavy wooden front doors, and olden plaques. The centuries old buildings now consists of sundry shops, local coffee shops, offices, souvenir shops, restaurants, kopitiam, and other services. It is home to two Chinese temples, Ho Ann Kiong and Tien Hou Kong, which was built in 1801 and 1896. Another landmark is the 19th-century Low Tiey water well, erected in 1875. After years and years, it still supplies clean water to Chinatown's residents. Many of the buildings here have undergone restoration or beautification programmes to make them more appealing, but without destroying the heritage value. The recent attractions in Kampung China are its back alleys, many of which are transformed into thematic lanes containing various information, decorations and murals.
Pasar Besar Kedai Payang or Central Market (more commonly known as Pasar Payang) is the main market of the city. This double-storey building houses different kinds of goods, ranging from fresh produce, poultry, sea products, traditional delicacies, home products, clothes, and handicrafts such as batik, songket, and brassware.
The Terengganu State Museum, the largest museum complex in South East Asia, with an area of 27 hectares, is located in Kampung Losong. The architecture is based on the traditional Terengganu Malay house known as rumah tele. It has eight different galleries such as Petronas Gallery, Maritime Gallery, and Islam Gallery. The museum is also the home of the Terengganu Inscription Stone, the oldest artefact with Jawi writing in this country. Near the museum is Islamic Heritage Park (Malay: Taman Tamadun Islam). This park has various replicas of the mosque from all over the world. The Crystal Mosque is also located here.
Near the heart of the city is a small hill known as Bukit Puteri. The hill is about 200 metres high and it is located near the banks of Terengganu River. Because of its strategic location in Kuala Terengganu, it was used as a fortification by the sultans of the state. Old artefacts and monuments can be found on top of the hill. During the holy month of Ramadan, a century-old brass bell known as genta will be rung to signify that it is time for iftar, or the end of the fasting on that day.
Kuala Terengganu has various places for recreation. Amongst the most prominent one is Batu Buruk Beach, located not far from the city centre. The beach has many amenities for visitors and visitors can go for many activities at the beach such as horse riding, a horse carriage ride and kite flying. However, visitors are not recommended to swim in the waters there because of strong waves. Taman Shahbandar is also a popular recreation place in Kuala Terengganu. It is located by the Terengganu River estuary. Taman Shahbandar is located close to other famous attractions in Kuala Terengganu such as Pasar Payang, Bukit Puteri and Istana Maziah. Other recreation places in Kuala Terengganu are:
- Pulau Warisan, a man-made island located on the Terengganu River behind Kampung Cina and Pasar Payang.
- Kuala Terengganu Waterfront, located south of Pulau Warisan by the Terengganu River.
- Taman Awam Lagun Kuala Ibai, a park 4 kilometers away from the city centre, in which the Tengku Tengah Zaharah Mosque is located.
Kuala Terengganu is famous for its keropok lekor Losong, a traditional delicacy made from fish, and other traditional dishes such as nasi dagang, laksam, laksa Terengganu, otak-otak, sata, pulut lepa, ketupat sotong, and roti paun.
Television and radio
Kuala Terengganu receives almost all of Malaysian terrestrial television channels. Among the terrestrial television stations that the city receives are TV1, TV2, TV3, NTV7, TV9, and TV Alhijrah. Most radio stations in Malaysia are also available here. The state's radio station, Terengganu FM, and the Terengganu feed of the national private radio station, Hot FM Teganu, are also located in this city.
Among the major newspapers in Malaysia that are available in Kuala Terengganu are:
- English dailies such as The Star, and New Straits Times.
- Malay dailies such as Berita Harian, Utusan Malaysia, Harian Metro and Kosmo!.
- Chinese dailies such as Sin Chew Daily and Nanyang Siang Pau.
- Tamil dailies such as Tamil Nesan, Malaysia Nanban and Makkal Osai.
Local newspaper companies also exist. The most widely-circulated is Sinar Harian, which provides regional and local news based on its regional editions.
There are two main stadiums, Sultan Ismail Nasiruddin Shah Stadium at the city centre, and Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin Stadium located at Terengganu Sports Complex, Gong Badak. Both stadiums are the homes of the state's two football teams, Terengganu FA, and T-Team FC.
The sports complex was purposely built for the 2008 Malaysian Games (Malay: Sukan Malaysia or SUKMA). Besides the main stadium, it also have other facilities such as the Indoor Stadium, football fields, a rugby field, a lawn bowls field, a hockey pitch, and bowling lanes. A sport school to search for new generation athletes is being built to make full use of the facilities provided. Other venues catered for sports in Terengganu are, among others, Kuala Terengganu Aquatic Centre, Kuala Terengganu Hockey Stadium, Kuala Terengganu Tennis Courts, Kuala Terengganu Royal Golf Club, and Kuala Terengganu Lawn Bowls Fields.
The Monsoon Cup is an annual event on the Alpari World Match Racing Tour calendar. It is also widely considered as the most formidable leg of the Tour. As the final event of the season, it sees the conclusion of an adrenaline fuelled tournament with the crowning of the tour winner with the premier 'match racing' prize being the 'ISAF World Match Racing Champion. The match racing sport differs from other sailing disciplines in that the boats race one-on-one in supplied racing yachts. The yachts supplied for the Monsoon Cup are Foundation 36 type racing yachts.
The venue for the cup is Pulau Duyong. The Monsoon Cup has helped modernise the island from a sleepy fishing and boat-making village into a modern international-class resort and marina complete with boat repairing facilities. It also serves as the launching pad for the development in the state and to create economic opportunities in services and manufacturing sectors related to the event. Amongst the businesses that benefited from this event were the hoteliers, restaurateurs, traditional boat-makers, food suppliers as well as tourist related industries such as the arts and crafts, textiles and souvenirs.
Kuala Terengganu currently has one sister cities:
- The total population and total area also includes the population and area for the district of Kuala Nerus, which was a part of the district of Kuala Terengganu, but Kuala Nerus is still under the jurisdiction of Kuala Terengganu City Council.
- "Population Distribution Information". Kuala Terengganu City Council Official Website.
- "Hubungan Ufti Tan-Tan dan P'an-P'an dengan China pada Zaman Dinasti Sui dan Tang: Satu Analisis Ekonomi" (in Malay).
- Wheatley, Paul. The Golden Khersonese.
- Cœdès, George (1968). The Indianized States of Southeast Asia. University of Hawaii Press. p. 52.
- Hirth, Friedrich; Rockhill, W.W. (1911). Chau Ju-kua: On The Chinese and Arab Trade in the twelfth and thirteenth Centuries, entitled Chu-fan-chi. p. 62. Retrieved 19 October 2014.
- Ooi, Keat Gin. The A-Z of Malaysia. p. 308.
- Newbold, Thomas John (1839). Political and Statistical Account of the British Settlements in the Strait of Malacca, viz. Pinang, Malacca and Singapore: with a History of the Malayan States on the Peninsula, Volume I. J. Murray. p. 112.
- "Sejarah Ringkas Negeri Terengganu : Kesultanan Terengganu". Laman Web Rasmi KDYMM Sultan Terengganu (in Malay).
- Hamilton, Alexander. A New Account of the East Indies, Volume II. pp. 152–156.
- Pennant, Thomas. Outlines of the Globe: The View of Hindoostan: Western Hindoostan. p. 31.
- Newbold, Thomas John. Political and Statistical Account of the British Settlements in the Strait of Malacca, viz. Pinang, Malacca and Singapore: with a History of the Malayan States on the Peninsula, Volume II. pp. 62–63.
- "The East Coast of Malaya". The Straits Times. 12 August 1903.
- Earl, George Windsor (1837). The Eastern Seas or Voyages and Adventures in the Indian Archipelago. pp. 184–185.
- Sweeney, Amin (2005). Karya Lengkap Abdullah bin Kadir Munsyi (in Malay). Jakarta. pp. 116–117. ISBN 979-91-0029-1.
- Clifford, Hugh (1897). In Court and Kampong: Being Tales and Sketches of Native Life in the Malay Peninsula. G. Richards. p. 148.
- The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Register of British and Foreign India, China, and Australasia, Volume IX. London: Parbury, Allen, and Co. 1832. p. 175.
- Horsburgh, James (1827). India Directory, Or Directions for Sailing to and from the East Indies, China, New Holland, Cape of Good Hope, Brazil and the Interjacent Ports, Volume 2. Kingsburg. pp. 255–256.
- Newbold, Thomas John. Political and Statistical Account of the British Settlements in the Strait of Malacca, viz. Pinang, Malacca and Singapore: with a History of the Malayan States on the Peninsula, Volume 1. pp. 355–356.
- Newbold, Thomas John. Political and Statistical Account of the British Settlements in the Strait of Malacca, viz. Pinang, Malacca and Singapore: with a History of the Malayan States on the Peninsula, Volume 2. pp. 62–63.
- The Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge: Sigonio - Steam-Vessel, Volume 22. Charles Knight and Co. pp. 42–44.
- Newbold, Thomas John. Political and Statistical Account of the British Settlements in the Strait of Malacca, viz. Pinang, Malacca and Singapore: with a History of the Malayan States on the Peninsula, Volume I. pp. 424–425.
- The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Register for British and Foreign India, China and Australasia, Volume XII. London: Parbury, Allen, and Co. 1833. p. 100.
- The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Register of British India and its Depenencies, Volume XXII. London. 1826. pp. 91–92.
- "Kesultanan Terengganu". Laman Web Rasmi KDYMM Sultan Terengganu (in Malay).
- "The Attack on Tringanu". The Straits Times. 22 August 1863.
- Webster, Anthony (1998). Gentlemen Capitalists: British Imperialism in South East Asia 1770-1890. London: Tauris Academic Studies. p. 174. ISBN 1-86064-171-7.
- "Letters Respecting The Tringanu Question". The Straits Times. 27 February 1864.
- Buckley, Charles Burton (1902). An Anecdotal History of Old Times in Singapore..., Volume II. Singapore: Fraser & Neave, Limited. pp. 692–693.
- "The Proceedings at Tringanu". The Straits Times. 19 March 1864.
- "Common Sittings of 10 July 1863: The Attack on Tringanu". Hansard 1803-2005.
- "Untitled". The Straits Times. 31 August 1883.
- The Architectural Heritage of the Malay World: The Traditional Houses. Penerbit Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. 2005. p. 73. ISBN 983-52-0357-1.
- "Istana Maziah". Laman Web Rasmi KDYMM Sultan Terengganu (in Malay).
- "2010 Population and Housing Census of Malaysia" (in Malay and English). Department of Statistics, Malaysia. Retrieved 17 June 2012. p. 13
- "Bukit Puteri". Portal Rasmi Arkib Negara Malaysia (in Malay).
- "Pantai Batu Buruk (Beach)". Backpacking Malaysia.com. Retrieved 27 February 2015.
- "Pantai Batu Burok lokasi 'wajib singgah'". Sinar Harian (in Malay). 2 August 2014.
- "Floating Mosque (Masjid Tengku Tengah Zaharah)". Backpacking Malaysia.com. Retrieved 27 February 2015.
- Kuala Terengganu travel guide from Wikivoyage
- Kuala Terengganu Information
- Travel Guide: Kuala Terengganu
- Kuala Terengganu City Council
- Homestay Kuala Terengganu