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Kubb (pronounced [kɵb] in Swedish or [kub] in Gutnish) is a lawn game where the object is to knock over wooden blocks by throwing wooden batons at them. Kubb can be somewhat described as a combination of bowling and horseshoes. Today's version originated on the island of Gotland, Sweden..
Some rules vary from country to country and from region to region, but the ultimate object of the game is to knock over the kubbs on the opposing side, and then knock the "king" over, before the opponent does. This, combined with the fact that there is a certain level of strategy that can be used by players, has led some players and kubb fans to nickname the game "Viking Chess." Games can last from five minutes to well over an hour. The game can be played on a variety of surfaces such as grass, sand, concrete, snow, or even ice.
Although it is often claimed that the game dates back to the Viking Age and has survived on Gotland, there doesn't appear to be any firm evidence of this. The Föreningen Gutnisk Idrott ("Society (of) Gotland Games"), formed in 1912, does not list kubb as one of the traditional games from Gotland. On the Swedish island of Gotland, stories of kubb being played date only from the early 20th century.
The game in its modern conception became popular in the 1990s when commercial kubb sets were first manufactured. The key feature of the game (opposing teams throwing) is shared by the games kyykkä and bunnock, both of which come from Karelia or neighbouring areas. The game has now gained international interest, and an annual World Championship has been held since 1995 on Gotland. Large kubb tournaments are now located throughout Europe and the U.S. Belgium alone held over 50 tournaments in 2012.
On December 13th, 2011, Eau Claire, Wisconsin declared itself to be The Kubb Capital of North America. The city has hosted the U.S. National Kubb Championship since 2007, is home to Kubbnation Magazine, and to many kubb clubs and kubb leagues. In addition, kubb sets are in the local schools, with some schools having kubb units in physical education classes. There are also kubb clubs at some schools, including Eau Claire Memorial High School.
There are twenty-three game pieces used in kubb:
- Ten Kubbs, rectangular wooden blocks 15 cm tall and 7 cm square on the end.
- One King, a larger wooden piece 30 cm tall and 9 cm square on the end, sometimes adorned with a crown design on the top.
- Six Batons, 30 cm long and 4.4 cm in diameter.
- Four Field Marking Pins, to designate the corners of the pitch and two to mark the centerline.
According to the U.S Championship Rules and World Championship Rules, kubb is played on a rectangular pitch 5 meters by 8 meters. Corner stakes are placed so that a rectangle is formed. The center stakes are placed in the middle of the sidelines (long edges of the rectangle), which divides the pitch into two halves. No other markers are required to demarcate the field's boundaries, although markings that do not interfere with game play are allowed (such as chalk lines). The king is placed upright in the center of the pitch, and the kubbs are placed on the baselines (short edges of the rectangle), five kubbs on each side equidistant from each other. Kubbs starting the game on the baseline are referred to as base kubbs. The baseline should run through the center of the kubbs. For young children, the 8-meter pitch length can be shortened.
|World Championship||US Championship|
|Players only throw 1 baton, mandating teams of 6 or more||Players only throw 2 batons, mandating teams of 3 or more|
|"Perfect Game" allowed||"Perfect Game" not allowed. If in the first 5 throws you hit 5 kubbs, you must forfeit your last baton.|
Kubb is played between two teams, which may consist of only one person per team.
There are two phases for each team's turn:
- Team A throws the six batons (called Kastpinne/Kastpinnar in Swedish) from their baseline, at their opponent's lined-up kubbs (called Baseline kubbs). Throws must be under-handed, and the batons must spin end over end. Throwing batons overhand, sideways or spinning them side-to-side (helicopter) is not allowed.
- Kubbs that are successfully knocked down by Team A are then thrown by Team B onto Team A's half of the pitch, and stood on end. These newly thrown kubbs are called field kubbs. Deciding where in the opponent's half to throw the field kubbs is a very important part of the strategy. However, the key objective is to keep them close to each other (as to be able to hit more than one with a single throw of the pinnar). The player that tosses the kubbs is called the inkastare.
If a kubb is thrown out of play, i.e., outside the boundary markers or not beyond the middle line (Note: after being raised, at least half of the kubb must be in the field of play to be considered in play), then one more attempt is given. If this also goes out, the kubb becomes a "punishment kubb" and can be placed anywhere in the target half by the opposing team as long as it is at least one baton length from a corner marker or the King. If a thrown kubb knocks over an existing baseline or field kubb, then the field kubbs are raised at the location where they rest, and baseline kubbs are raised at their original location.
Play then changes hands, and Team B throws the batons at Team A's kubbs, but must first knock down any standing field kubbs. If a baseline kubb is knocked down before all remaining field kubbs, the baseline kubb is returned to its upright position. (Field kubbs that right themselves due to the momentum of the impact are considered knocked down. Also kubbs are considered knocked down if they end up tilting and relying on a game piece for support.) Again, all kubbs that are knocked down are thrown back over onto the opposite half of the field and then stood.
If either team does not knock down all field kubbs before their turn is over, the kubb closest to the centerline now represents the opposite team's baseline, and throwers may step up to that line to throw at their opponent's kubbs. This rule applies only to throwing the batons at the opposite team's field and baseline kubbs; fallen kubbs are thrown from the original baseline, as are attempts to knock over the king.
Play continues in this fashion until a team is able to knock down all kubbs on one side, from both the field and the baseline. If that team still has batons left to throw, they now attempt to knock over the king. If a thrower successfully topples the king, his team has won the game.
If at any time during the game the king is knocked down by a baton or kubb, the throwing team immediately loses the game.
In tournaments, winners are typically determined by playing best out of three.
For informal play between players of widely differing abilities, such as an adult and a child, it is permissible to shorten the length of the pitch. Another option is for both players to play on the same team and keep switching sides during play.
The Kubb World Championship is held annually on the island of Gotland, Sweden. The U.S. Championship is held annually in Eau Claire, WI. The Australian Championships are held annually in Breamlea, Victoria. This tournament has been traditionally dominated by team: NG&T who have made the final in every year since the inception of the Championships.
Tournaments in the U.S. have exploded since 2007, especially in the Midwest. In 2012, the Midwest tournament list included Eau Claire, WI; Minneapolis, MN; Rockford, IL; Decorah, IA; Appleton, WI; Des Moines, IA; Dallas, WI; Madison, WI, and smaller tournaments in a variety of small Minnesota towns. Lindsborg, KS and Atlanta, GA also host tournaments. In 2013, the U.S. Midwest Championship was created. The annual tournament will travel throughout the Midwest. It will be located in Rockford, IL in 2013 and Decorah, IA in 2014.
Links to some of these tournaments in the United States include:
- U.S. National Kubb Championship in Eau Claire, Wisconsin.
- Fall Kubb Klassic Tournament in Des Moines, IA
- Madison Midsommar Kubb Tournament held in June in Madison, Wisconsin.
- Dallas, WI Oktoberfest Tournament First Saturday in October. Only six-person team tournament in U.S.
- Rockford Swedish Historical Society Tournament held in May
- Tournaments in Round Lake, Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, and Chicago, Illinois
There are also numerous other tournaments throughout Europe (Sweden, Germany, Switzerland, Belgium, The Netherlands, Czech Republic, Italy and more). Most countries have their own national championship tournament.
Other kubb tournaments in Europe include:
- European Championship in Berlin
- Spring tournament in Stockholm, Sweden Kubbistan, tournament held annually since 2008, in Stockholm, Sweden.
- Swedish National Championship
- Swiss Kubb Open in Basel, Switzerland
- UK tournament held every year near Bristol, England, representing European Kubb players.
- Belgian Championship held annually in different locations in Flanders
- Dutch Championship held annually in Nijeveen, The Netherlands
- Kubb Open Gneven - annually winter and summer tournaments in Gneven, Germany
- Italian Championship in different location every year in Italy
Magazines and forums
- Kubbnation, the magazine for the game of kubb (by Wisconsin Kubb)
- Ask Planet Kubb, a Q&A Web site for Kubb enthusiasts.
- Planet Kubb Pitch is a kubb discussion board for the whole planet.
- Official U.S. National Championship Rules at USAKubb.
- Planet Kubb is a feed aggregator combining Kubb information from around the web.
- Planet Kubb Wiki is a wiki with only Kubb related information.
- Build Your Own Kubb Lawn Game Set
- German Wiki and Informationportal about Kubb Sport in Europa
- Wikingerschach (German)