Kukkuta Sastra

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Introduction[edit]

Kukkuta Sastra (also called Cock Astrology) is a form of divination based on cock fighting, commonly believed in coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh, India. It is particularly prevalent in state, especially in the districts of Krishna, Guntur, East and West Godavari during the Sankranti festival. Kukkuta Sastra with reference to the calendar and cock color "is almost certainly associated to a "cock almanac" reported in South India (Saltore 1926-1927, pp 319–327)"[1] and a religious claim of foretelling the future "merely by indicating the color associated with the strongest planet in an Horary Figure".[2]

Karttikeya with Vel and Seval (rooster), coin of the Yaudheyas 200 BCE.

Kukkuta Sastra with further reference to the calendar, the cock within an astrological and religious schema and that divine association as with Lord Murugan and the rooster, his flag, "refers to the sun"[3] and also associated with Ahmuvan, an Indus Valley Deity[4]

A further understanding of the need of the kukkuta being within a religious and astrological context may be taken from the Akkadian, Shidallu or the Sumerian, SIPA.ZI.AN.NA (the True Shepherd of Anu or Heavenly Shepherd) and his accompanying cock representing the herald of the gods with the divinely ordained role "to communicate the messages of the gods".[5] and being from the religions of the pre-Vedic Aryans and the Indus Valley and similar to the ancient religions of the Mediterraneans as determined from "findings of excavations of Mohonjodaro and Harrappa".[6] Further understanding of the possible significance of kukkuta sastra and the kukkuta association with Mohenjo-daro may be gained from the original Dravidian name of Mohenjo-daro which seems to have been recorded in the ancient Indus script. With the understanding that kukkuta means rooster or cock, Dr. Iravatham Mahadevan, in a paper presented at the World Classical Tamil Conference 2010, brought forth the literal meaning of Kukkutarma, as "the ruined city of the cock".[7] Mahadevan also drew attention to an Indus seal from Mohenjo-daro, which has an inscription featuring the Indus ideogram for "city" and a pair of cocks, inferring that “the Indus seal has recorded in the Indus script the original Dravidian name of the city, IA kukkuta-arma, with the ideographic suffix CITY added to it”.[8]

Similarly, kukkuta sastra as a form of divination is also exampled within Javanese-Balinese religious understanding as revealed within "Tatempuran, Javanese-Balinese prose treatise on marks of fighting-cocks, divination of cock-fighting"[9] and "palm leaf notes on divination referring to fighting cocks"[10] found within the inventory of the library of the University of Leiden.

Kukkuta Sastra discloses various types of fighter cocks, their care and medication, the influences of various Zodiac signs on the cocks and their winning strategies, and rules to be followed by the owner of the cock before putting the bet. In Sanskrit, Kukkuta means a Cock (also called Rooster). Kukkuta Sastra became popular after the Bobbili and Palanadu Wars which were the result of Cock Fighting.

Variety of Fighter Cocks[edit]

Cocks are named according to the colors of their feathers.

  • Kaaki—is a cock with black feathers
  • Setu—is a cock with white feathers
  • Nallamachala Setu—is a cock with black spots on white feathers
  • Parla—is a cock with black and white feathers on its neck in equal ratio
  • Savala—is a cock with black feathers over its neck
  • Nalla Savala—is a cock with black spots over its wings or over its back
  • Kokkirayi (Kodi) -- is a cock with black skin and combination 2 or 3 colors of feathers
  • Daega—is a cock with red colored feathers
  • Nemali—is a cock with yellow feathers on wings or back
  • Kowju—is a cock with black, red and yellow feathers
  • Myla—is a cock with red and ash colors of feathers
  • Poola—is a cock with a mixture of black, white and red colors on each feather
  • Telupu Gowdu—is a cock with black and white feathers
  • Aerupu Gowdu—is a cock with black and red feathers
  • Pingali—is a cock with feather color uncertain
  • Nallabora—a type of cock
  • Yerrapoda—a type of cock
  • Kaaki, Daega and Naemali cocks are very popular for cock fights

Zodiac Results[edit]

Planetary influences works not only on man, but also on birds and animals. Such influences show variations in blood circulation in a cock's body. The following are the 27 star movements and their influences on fighter cocks.

  • 1. At the time of Ashwini Nakshatra (Beta Arietis) -- Naemali wins over kaaki; Kaaki wins over Kodi; Gowdu wins over Pingali
  • 2. At the time of Bharani Nakshatra (35 Arietis) -- Black Savala wins over Naemali or brick red kodi; Sparrow colored Gowdu wins over Naemali and Yerrapoda; reddish kaaki wins over kaaki
  • 3. At the time of Krittika Nakshatra (Eta Tauri) -- reddish kaaki wins over kaaki; sparrow colored Gowdu wins over Naemali and Yerrapoda
  • 4. At the time of Rohini Nakshatra (Aldebaran)-- Naemali wins over black Myla; Pingali wins over reddish Kodi; Kaaki wins over Red Gowdu and Kodi
  • 5. At the time of Mrigashirsha Nakshatra (Lambda Orionis) – Kaaki wins over Daega; Daega wins over Pasimi Kaaki ; Pingali wins over Kaaki; Ituka Daega can chase Mungisa; Kodi can win over Naemali or Daega.
  • 6. At the Aridra Nakshatra (Alpha Orionis) – Daega can win over Kaaki; Kaaki can win over Pingali or Black Myla or Naemali; Daega can win over Kaaki with pasimi; Kodi can win over Vannepoda Kodi; Black Poda Kodi can win over Yerrapoda Kodi or Sparrow colored Gowdu.
  • 7. At the time of Punarvasu Nakshatra (Beta Geminorium) – Kaaki can win over Kodi; Sudda Kaaki can win over Kodi; Naemali can win over Daega; Sparrow colored Gowdu wins over Nallabora and Red Kodi
  • 8. At the time of Pushya Nakshatra (Delta Cancri) – Kaaki wins over Kodi; Pasimi Kaaki wins over Blackish Kaaki; Pingali wins over Daega and Naemali; Kodi wins over Naemali; Kaaki wins over Pingali.
  • 9. At the time of Aslesha Nakshatra (Alpha Hydroe) – Naemali wins over Daega; Pingali wins over bee colored Kaaki ; Pasimi Kaaki can gain over Daega; Kaaki wins over Sparrow colored Kodi, Red Kodi and Nallabora.
  • 10. At the time of Magha Nakshatra (Regulus) – Daega wins over Naemali; Kodi wins over Pingali; Pasimi Kaaki wins over Daega; Reddish Naemali wins over Blackish Daega; Pure Kodi wins over whitish Daega
  • 11. At the time of Poorva Phalguni / Pubba Nakshatra (Delta Leonis) – Kaaki wins over Daega, Naemali and Kodi; Naemali can win over Pingali and Kodi; Pingali can win over 3 Daegas
  • 12. At the time of Uttara Phalguni (Beta Leonis) – Kodi tortures Naemali; Kaaki wins over Kodi, Daega and Pingali; White Daega defeats Black Daega
  • 13. At the time of Hasta Nakshatra (Delta Corvi) – Daega wins over Black Myla; Pingali wins over Naemali; Naemali wins over Yerrapoda Kodi; Daega wins over Pingali; Pasimi Kodi wins over Naemali
  • 14. At the time of Chitta Nakshatra (Spica Virginis – Vegus) – Kodi wins over Daega; Naemali wins over Kaaki and Yerrapoda Kodi; Yerrapoda Kodi wins over Sparrow color Gowdu; Kaaki wins over Kodi
  • 15. At the time of Swati Nakshatra (Arcturus) – Naemali wins over Daega; Black Daega wins over white Daega; Pingali wins over reddish Gowdu and Pure Kaaki; Pasimi Kaaki wins over Nalupu poda Kodi;Pasimi Kodi wins over Pure Kaaki; Kaaki looses its thigh
  • 16. At the time of Visakha Nakshatra (Alpha Libroe) – Kodi wins over Naemali, Daega, Pingali and Kaaki; Pasimi Kaaki wins over Daega; Reddish Gowdu wins over pure Myla; Reddish Naemali wins over Pingali.
  • 17. At the time of Anuradha Nakshatra (Delta Scorpio) – Kaaki wins over Naemali and Black Myla; Naemali wins over Kodi
  • 18. At the time of Jyeshta Nakshatra (Antares) – Pingali wins over Kodi and Daega; Sparrow color Gowdu wins over Daega; Pasimi Kaaki wins over Pure Kaaki; Reddish brown Pingali wins over Naemali and Kodi.
  • 19. At the time of Moola Nakshatra (Lambda Scorpio) – Kaaki wins over whitish Daega; Peacock shaded Gowdu wins over Nallapoda Kodi and Black Kaaki; Pure Kaaki wins over Pasimi Kaaki; Black Savala wins over Kodi
  • 20. At the time of Poorvashadha Nakshatra (Delta Sagittari) – Daega wins over Naemali; Yellowish Kaaki wins over Bee colored Kaaki
  • 21. At the time of Uttarashada Nakshatra (Sigma Sagittari) – Daega wins over Kaaki; Peacock shaded Gowdu wins over red Kodi with black neck
  • 22. At the time of Sravana Nakshatra (Alpha Aquiloe) – White Daega wins over Kaaki; Kodi wins over Kaaki, Daega and Pingali; White Naemali weakens Black Naemali
  • 23. At the time of Dhanishta Nakshatra (Beta Delphinum) – Peacock shaded Kaaki wins over reddish Kaaki and Kodi; Kodi weakens yellowish Daega and Nallapoda Kodi
  • 24. At the time of Satabhisa Nakshatra (Lambda Aquarius) – Yellowish Daega wins over Nallapoda Kodi; Kodi wins over Kaaki; white Naemali wins over Pure Daega and Pure Kaaki
  • 25. At the time of Poorvabhadra Nakshatra (Alpha Pegasi) – Kodi wins over Naemali and yellowish Kaaki
  • 26. At the time of Uttarabhadra Nakshatra (Gama Pegasi) – Naemali wins over Kodi and Kaaki; Pingali wins over Naemali and Kaaki; Daega wins over Naemali and Kaaki
  • 27. At the time of Revati Nakshatra (Zeta Piscum) – Pingali shaded Gowdu wins over Kodi; Kodi wins over Daega; Kaaki wins over Daega and Pingali; Yellowish Kodi weakens Deaga and Pingali; Naemali wins over Daega and Kodi

Weekly Results[edit]

In the cockpit, the participant should face the direction of the cock as per the name of the week

  • Sunday, Friday – towards North
  • Monday, Saturday – towards South
  • Tuesday – towards East
  • Wednesday, Thursday – towards West

The following table shows when the cocks remain feeble during a month

Sukla Paksha Krishna Paksha
Sunday - Pingali Sunday – Kaaki
Monday – Kaaki Monday – Naemali
Tuesday – Kodi Tuesday – Daega
Wednesday – Naemali Wednesday – Naemali
Thursday – Daega Thursday – Kodi
Friday – Pingali Friday – Naemali
Saturday – Daega Saturday – Kodi

Forbidden Directions[edit]

Care is needed while betting at the time of Rohini Nakshatra – ruled by Brahma, Uttara phalguna ruled by Aryamu, Jyeshta Nakshatra ruled by Indra, Poorvabhadra Nakshatra ruled by Ajacharana.

  • Rohini Nakshatra: At this time of run, do not leave a cock for fight in the direction of west during the week days such as Sunday, Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday. This results in defeat due to Brahma’s defect in vision.
  • Uttara Phalguni Nakshatra: At this time of run, do not leave a cock for fight in the direction of east during the week days such as Tuesday and Wednesday. This results in defeat due to Aryaman's vision.
  • Jyeshta Nakshatra: At this time of run, do not leave a cock for fight in the direction of east during the week days such as Monday and Saturday. This results in Indra’s vision and gets defeated like Parvataraja by Vajrayudha.
  • Poorvabhadra Nakshatra: At this time of run, do not leave a cock for fight in the direction of the south on Thursday. This results in defeat due to Ajacharan’s vision.

Disarvanam[edit]

Disarvanam (also known as going in Direction) means knowing the direction and name of the place where the cockfight is held. The competitor should know where the cockfight is going on, and should know in which direction he starts to go towards the place. The direction in which he should go depends on the first letter of his name. If a competitor’s name starts with any of the vowels in Telugu alphabet, the place of cock fight should be in the direction of south-east or north-east, south-west or north-west. Going in East or North directions bring more gain, in South-East and South-West brings little gain, in West or North-West brings disputes, in North-East brings fear and harm.

Kavargu[edit]

If the first letter of the competitor’s name is any of the consonants such as Ka, Kha, Ga, Gha, it is Kavargu. For person of this kind, it is better that the place of cock fight lies either on South-East or South or South-West or North-East direction from his house. The following table shows the results as per the direction in which the competitor goes.

East South-East South South-West West North-West North North-East
Turning Gain, comfort Less gain,Comfort More gain Poor, Cock illness Fear of foes, illness Disputes Rich,Victory

Chavargu[edit]

If the first letter of the competitor’s name is any of the consonants such as Cha, Chha, Ja, Jha, Ini, it is Chavargu. For person of this kind, it is safe that the place of cock fight lies either on East, or South-West, or West or South to his house. The following table shows the results as per the direction in which the competitor goes.

East South-East South South-West West North-West North North-East
Friend & profit Fear of life, cock illness Profit Less profit Rich Illness,Poor Fear of enemies Danger

Tavargu[edit]

If the first letter of the competitor’s name is any of the consonants such as Ta, Tha, Da, Dha, Nna, it is Tavargu. For person of this kind, it is safe that the place of cock fight lies either on South-East or South-West or West or North-West to his house. The following table shows the results as per the direction in which the competitor goes.

East South-East South South-West West North-West North North-East
Dispute, poor Riches Fear of life Riches, profit Less profit Friend & riches Illness Fear of illness

Thavargu[edit]

If the first letter of the competitor’s name is any of the consonants such as Tha, Thha, Da, Dha, Na, it is Thavargu. For person of this kind, it is safe that the place of cock fight lies either on South or West or North-West or North to his house. The following table shows the results as per the direction in which the competitor goes.

East South-East South South-West West North-West North North-East
Fear of enemies Disputes Special profits Fear of death Profit & friends Normal profit Money & grain profit Illness torture

Pavargu[edit]

If the first letter of the competitor’s name is any of the consonants such as Pa, Pha, Ba, Bha, Ma, it is Pavarlu. For person of this kind, it is safe that the place of cock fight lies either on South-West or North-West or North or North-East to his house. The following table shows the results as per the direction in which the competitor goes.

southwest South-East South South-West West North-West North North-East
Illness Fear of enemies Illness, dispute, loss Rise of profit Poor, illness More profit Less profit More profit & friends

Yavargu[edit]

If the first letter of the competitor’s name is any of the consonants such as Ya, Ra, La, Va, it is Yavarlu. For person of this kind, it is safe that the place of cock fight lies either on East or West or North or North-East to his house. The following table shows the results as per the direction in which the competitor goes.

East South-East South South-West West North-West North North-East
More riches More fear of illness Enemies, loss Dispute, Harm Riches Fear of life, poor Good, profit Normal profit

Savargu[edit]

If the first letter of the competitor’s name is any of the consonants such as Sae, Sha, Sa, Ha, Ala, it is Savargu. For person of this kind, it is safe that the place of cock fight lies either on East or South-East or North-West or North-East from his house. The following table shows the results as per the direction in which the competitor goes.

East South-East South South-West West North-West North North-East
Normal friendship gain Riches Illness, poor Fear of life, poor Dispute, Woman power All riches Poor All riches

Various states of Fighter Cocks[edit]

In Astrology there are 9 states for nine planets. Similarly for birds, there are 5 states for five timings of a day. Bojana State (Eat) – cock wins the bet; Vrishasalla / Rajya State (Rule)- cock wins the bet; Gamana State (Move)– result is poor, and only normal profit is expected; Nidra State (Sleep) – This state brings defeats for the cock; Japavasta / Marana State (Death) – cock dies in this state at the fight.

States during Weeks of Sukla Paksha[edit]

The following table shows the states of fighter cocks during Sukhla Paksha. Compare the species and their respective times.

Day Species First time Second time Third time Fourth time Fifth time
Sunday, Tuesday Naemali, Daega, Kaaki, Pingali, Kodi Death, Eat, Rule, Move, Rule Eat, Move, Sleep, Ruleg, Sleep Move, Rule, Death, Sleep, Death Rule, Sleep, Eat, Death, Eat Sleep, Death, Move, Eat, Move
Monday, Wednesday Naemali, Daega, Kaaki, Pingali, Kodi Sleep, Death, Move, Eat, Rule Death, Eat, Rule, Move, Sleep Eat, Move, Sleep, Rule, Death Move, Rule, Death, Sleep, Eat Rule, Sleep, Eat, Death, Move
Thursday Naemali, Daega, Kaaki, Pingali, Kodi Rule, Sleep, Eat, Death, Move Sleep, Death, Move, Eat, Rule Death, Eat, Rule, Move, Sleep Eat, Move, Sleep, Rule, Death Move, Rule, Death, Sleep, Eat
Friday Naemali, Daega, Kaaki, Pingali, Kodi Move, Rule, Death, Sleep, Eat Rule, Sleep, Eat, Death, Move Sleep, Death, Move, Eat, Rule Death, Eat, Rule, Move, Sleep Eat, Move, Sleep, Rule, Death
Saturday Naemali, Daega, Kaaki, Pingali, Kodi Eat, Move, Sleep, Rule, Death Move, Rule, Death, Sleep, Eat Rule, Sleep, Eat, Death, Move Sleep, Death, Move, Eat, Rule Move, Eat, Rule, Move, Sleep

States during Weeks of Krishna Paksha[edit]

The following table shows the states of fighter cocks during Krishna Paksha. Compare the species and their respective times.

Day Species First time Second time Third time Fourth time Fifth time
Sunday, Tuesday Naemali, Daega, Kaaki, Pingali, Kodi Sleep, Move, Rule, Death, Eat Rule, Eat, Move, Sleep, Death Move, Death, Eat, Rule, Sleep Eat, Sleep, Death, Move, Rule Death, Rule, Sleep, Eat, Move
Monday, Saturday Naemali, Daega, Kaaki, Pingali, Kodi Eat, Sleep, Death, Move, Rule Death, Rule, Sleep, Eat, Move Sleep, Move, Rule, Death, Eat Rule, Eat, Move, Sleep, Death Move, Death, Eat, Rule, Sleep
Wednesday namali, Daega, Kaaki, Pingali, Kodi Move, Death, Eat, Rule, Sleep Eat, Sleep, Death, Move, Rule Death, Rule, Sleep, Eat, Move Sleep, Move, Rule, Death, Eat Rule, Eat, Move, Sleep, Death
Thursday Naemali, Daega, Kaaki, Pingali, Kodi Death, Rule, Sleep, Eat, Move Sleep, Move, Rule, Death, Eat Rule, Eat, Move, Sleep, Death Move, Death, Eat, Rule, Sleep Eat, Sleep, Death, Move, Rule
Friday Naemali, Daega, Kaaki, Pingali, Kodi Rule, Sleep, Move, Sleep, Death Move, Rule, Eat, Rule, Sleep Eat, Move, Death, Move, Rule Death, Eat, Sleep, Eat, Move Sleep, Death, Rule, Death, Eat

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Cockfight: A Casebook edited by Alan Dundes - Univ of Wisconsin Press - Junr 15, 1994 - pp 244 [1]
  2. ^ Encyclopedia of Astrology - By Nicholas DeVore - Astrology Center of America, Jul 31, 2005 [2]
  3. ^ [3] The Hexagram, Symbol of God Murukan - N.S. Valluvan - Chennai, India
  4. ^ [4] Evolution of the Asian deity Murukan from the Indus Valley Prototype Ahmuvan and his role as a mediator in the process of cultural and religious spheres with linguistic and astronomical implications - 34th Annual Meeting Southwest Conference on Asian Studies - University of North Texas, Denton, U.S.A October 7–8, 2005
  5. ^ Babylonian Star-lore by Gavin White "[5]"
  6. ^ Critique Of Hinduism And Other Religions - By Lakshmaṇaśāstrī Jośī - Popular Prakashan, 1996. - p.104 [6]
  7. ^ Akam and Puram : ‘Address’ Signs of the Indus Script - Iravatham Mahadevan - presented at World Classical Tamil Conference, 23–27 June 2010 - The Hindu “[7]
  8. ^ The Cocks in Indus seal and the Cock-city in Tamilnadu. (World Tamil Conference series 16)[8]
  9. ^ Inventory of the Oriental Manuscripts of the Library of the University of Leiden - Vol. 6 - Or. 5016 [9]
  10. ^ Inventory of the Oriental Manuscripts of the Library of the University of Leiden - Vol. 6 - Or. 5228 [10]

External links[edit]