Kullu language

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Kullu
Kulvi
Native to India
Region Himachal Pradesh
Native speakers
110,000  (1997)[1]
Census results conflate some speakers with Hindi.[2]
Devanagari script
Language codes
ISO 639-3 kfx
Glottolog kull1236[3]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

Kullu (Kullū, also known as Kuluī and Kulvi) is a Western Pahari language spoken in Himachal Pradesh.

Phonology[edit]

Consonants[edit]

Bilabial Dental Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Pharyngeal Glottal
Plosive p
b

t̪ʰ

d̪ʱ
ʈ
ʈʰ
ɖ
ɖʱ
k
ɡ
ɡʱ
ʔ
Affricate ts
tsʰ
dz
dzʱ
c
j
Fricative s ś ħ ɦ
Nasal m ɳ ɲ ŋ
Trill/Flap r ɽ
Lateral l ɭ
Approximant y

For the stops and affricates there is a four-way distinction in phonation between tenuis /p/, voiced /b/, aspirated /pʰ/ and breathy voiced /bʱ/ series. Thakur (1975, pp. 175–8) lists as separate phonemes aspirated correlates of /ŋ/, /n/, /m/, /j/, /r/, /ɽ/, /l/ and /ɭ/, but describes the aspiration as a voiceless pharyngeal friction. /n̪/ is dental, but becomes alveolar if the next syllable contains a retroflex consonant. /ŋ/ and /ɲ/ are rare, but contrast with the other nasals word-medially between vowels. /ɳ/, /ɭ/ and /ɽ/, together with their aspirated correlates, don't occur in the beginning of words.[4] The glottal stop occurs only between a vowel and /ɳ/, /n/, /r/ or /l/, e.g. [kɑːʔɭ] "a trumpet", which contrasts with [kɑːɭ] "famine". The pharyngeal fricative /ħ/ historically derives from /s/ and occurs word-finally, e.g. [ɡʱɑːħ] "grass", [biːħ] "twenty".[5]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Kullu at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Kullu Pahari". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  4. ^ (Thakur 1975, p. 180), an exception is the word [ɽəbɑːɳɑː] "to throw"
  5. ^ (Thakur 1975, p. 181)

Bibliography[edit]

  • Thakur, Mauluram (1975), Pahāṛī bhāṣā, Delhi: Sanmarg Prakashan