|Country||Republic of Macedonia|
|• Mayor||Zoran Damjanovski|
|• City||509.48 km2 (196.71 sq mi)|
|Elevation||+340 m (1,120 ft)|
|• Density||207.04/km2 (536.2/sq mi)|
|• Metro||105 484|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|Area code(s)||+389 (0)31|
|Patron saints||St. George|
Kumanovo (Macedonian: Куманово [kuˈmanɔvɔ] ( ); Albanian: Kumanova, Kumanovë), is a city in the Republic of Macedonia and is the seat of Kumanovo Municipality which is the largest municipality in the country. Municipal institutions include a city council, mayor and other administrative bodies.
- 1 Name
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 History
- 5 Economy
- 6 Infrastructure
- 7 Culture
- 8 International relations
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
The name of the city in Serbian and Bulgarian is the same as in Macedonian: Kumanovo (Куманово). The name derives from the Cumans, a Turkic tribe that invaded in the area in the early 12th century.
Kumanovo is situated in the northeastern part of the Republic of Macedonia, near the capital city of Skopje. The coordinates of the city are approximately 42°05'N and 21°40'E. Kumanovo lies 340 metres (1,115 feet) above sea level and is surrounded by the Karadag part of Skopska Crna Gora mountain on its western side, Gradishtanska planina mountain on its southern side, and Mangovica and German mountain on the eastern side. Kumanovo has a temperate climate. Skopje airport also serves Kumanovo.
The following is a table of historical visits to Kumanovo, along with the number of houses recorded by the visitor.
|Name of traveler||Year of visiting Kumanovo||number of houses/population|
|Hadzi Vasiljevich||1865||650 houses|
|Harachki's list||1868||721 houses|
|Hadxi Vasiljevich||1907||15,000 population|
Table below showing historic demographic development according to Yugoslav and Macedonian census data:
|census 1948||census 1953||census 1961||census 1971||census 1981||census 1994||census 2002|
The population of the city of Kumanovo according to the 2002 census numbers 76,275, the majority of which are ethnic Macedonians 62.6% (47,747), with a significant minority of ethnic Albanians 24.0% (18,278) and Serbs 6.9% (5,230).
The most common mother tongues in the city were the following:
- Macedonian, 50,458 (66.2%)
- Albanian, 18,284 (24.0%)
- Romani, 4,014 (5.3%)
- Serbian, 2,662(3.5%)
- Turkish, 215 (0.3%)
- others, 642 (0.8%)
The religious composition of the city was the following:
- Orthodox Christians, 52,178 (68.4%)
- Muslims, 22,498 (29.5%)
- others, 1,599 (2.1%)
The area boasts several prehistoric settlements, among which are the Kostoperska karpa, the Bronze Age Gradiste near the village of Pelince, the Neolithic site of Mlado Nagoričane, the Iron Age tumulus Groblje at Vojnik, the Roman Necropolis Drezga of Lopate, and the Roman Settlement Vicianus at village of Klečovce.
The Slavic migration into the Balkans began in the 6th century, with the settling of the Sclaveni group. Main lines of penetration were Morava-Vardar valleys and from there all the areas of central Balkans. In the 11th century Asian nomadic tribes Pechenegs, Uzi, Kumani and others inhabited the Central Balkans, including Kumanovo.
The first written mentioning of the individual modern villages of the Kumanovo region originate in the 14th century. These are, for the most part, found in Serbian charters: of King Stefan Milutin, Emperor Stefan Dušan, Sevastokrator Dejan, Jevdokija Dejanović, and Dejan's sons, Jovan and Konstantin. In this time, the Kumanovo region (old Žegligovo) received its geographical location and certain settlement picture.
According to a charter of the monastery of Arhiljevica dated 1355, sevastokrator Dejan held a large province (oblast) east of Skopska Crna Gora. It included the old župe (counties) of Žegligovo and Preševo (modern Kumanovo region with Sredorek and Kozjačija).
The town was first mentioned in 1519 in a document housed in a Turkish archive in Istanbul. The most comprehensive and relevant information on Kumanovo is provided by Evliya Çelebi in 1660/1661:
- "The colony of Kumanovo is situated on the territory of the Skopje sanjak and represents one county. The city is embellished with many rivers and 600 tile-roofs houses. The mosque in the downtown is beautiful, there are teke, madrassa, hammam, a number of shops and water mills; and the climate is pleasant and agreeable. There are many vineyards and gardens".
According to Ottoman historian Silahdar Findikli Mehmed Aga, Karposh, a brigand commander in the region of Dospat (present-day Bulgaria), had become a commander of the Ottoman Christian auxiliary forces in the area between Sofia, Veles, Dojran, Kyustendil and Nevrokop. Initially an Ottoman vassal, Karposh took advantage of the weakening of the Ottomans in 1689 and the discontent that arose concerning higher Ottoman taxation policies, and organized a revolt while Austria staged an attack on the Ottoman Empire. Karposh's uprising quickly spread, resulting in the liberation of Kratovo, Kriva Palanka, Kumanovo, Kačanik and other towns. Then, together with the Austrian army led by Emperor Leopold I, the local Christian population fought to liberate Skopje and Štip. Later changes in the military and political situation in the Balkans had crucial downwards effect on the revolt. The Austrian army was forced to withdraw and powerful Ottoman forces, reinforced by Tatar detachments belonging to the Crimean Khan Selim I Giray, attacked the rebels. After fierce battles the Ottomans took Kriva Palanka, the rebel stronghold, and then attacked Kumanovo and its newly constructed fortress. Karposh was captured, removed to Skopje, and put to death on the Stone Bridge across the Vardar.
Kumanovo became an urban settlement and administrative center of the region at the end of the 16th century or the beginning of the 17th century. Following the turbulent events (notably, the Karposh Uprising in 1689) the city experienced a period of stagnation, and by the end of 18th century Kumanovo epitomized an Ottoman provincial town.
Kumanovo was under the Skopje Revolutionary district of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO). After the meeting with Hristo Tatarchev in 1984 in his house in Resen it was decided that the teacher from Kriva Palanka born in Stip Dimitar Miraschiev was to come from Skopje in Kumanovo and organize a revolutionary committee. In the house of Jordan Yovchev he formed the first IMRO Revolutionary committee of Kumanovo. From Kumanovo were the activists of IMRO Yordan Ivanov - one of the leaders of the revolutionary district of Skopje, Jordan Yovtchev - for many years head of the district committee and the Vojvodas, Methodi Stoyanov - local chieftain, Zachary Gyorev - Bulgarian teacher and revolutionary and Michail Shumanov - leader of the local organization.
First Balkan War
In October 1912, during the First Balkan War, Serbian forces under the command of General Radomir Putnik won a decisive victory over the Ottomans north of the town. The two-day Battle of Kumanovo ended Ottoman authority in Vardar Macedonia and prepared the way for the region's integration into Yugoslavia. Macedonia was split in three among Serbia, Greece and Bulgaria after the Treaty of Bucharest in 1913.
World War II
The anti-fascist insurrection of Macedonians and the struggle for national and social liberation began in Kumanovo and Prilep on October 11, 1941. On 11 October 1941, in Kumanovo and Prilep started the antifashist struggle of the Macedonian people. The struggle ended with victory and formation of the Macedonian federative state inside Yugoslavia Federation (SFRY). One of the famous partizans from Kumanovo was Hristijan Todorovski Karposh shown on the picture. After 1945 Kumanovo experienced fast economic, administrative and cultural development.
It developed economically in the late 19th century (agriculture, handcrafts and trade). Still, industrial development occurred only at the end of the Second World War. The rapid economic, administrative and cultural expansion of Kumanovo began in 1945. Today, it is a modern city with approximately 100,000 inhabitants. It was also the site of the June 9, 1999 Agreement signed between FR Yugoslav Generals and the NATO Generals about bringing in a NATO peacekeeping contingent in Kosovo called, the Kosovo Force, or KFOR.
2001 Albanian insurgency and Inter-community relations
The Albanian insurgency in Macedonia first started in the mountains outskirts of Tetovo and then spread in May 2001 to the region of Kumanovo mostly to the north. The armed conflict in Kumanovo mainly resulted in a division of the educational system along ethnical lines. All the Albanian-language students left the schools and demanded new schools to be opened. Following this process there is a visible separation in the town affecting the inter-community relations. The Law on Local Self-Government, Article 44 (Sl.besnik br.5/2002), envisages the establishment of the Commission for Inter-community Relations (CICR). CICR is a consultative body in the Council of the Municipality of Kumanovo and is formed by 12 representatives of the Macedonian, Albanian, Roma, Serbian, Turkish and Vlach ethnic groups. CICR aims to develop and improve relations between the ethnic communities and to ensure active participation of minorities in decision-making on issues that have ethnic nature and are found in the agenda of the Council of the Municipality of Kumanovo. Other organizations active in bridging the community divide include the Center for Intercultural Dialogue (CID), Roma community center DROM, the local Red Cross and others. One of the most effective systems for supporting the inter-community divide is through the youth centers MultiKulti managed by CID Kumanovo. These centers offer space for youngsters to meet, and apart from learning about each other, they also get youth work support.
The town's metal-processing, tobacco, agriculture, footwear and textile industries have made it an economic, trading and cultural center of approximately 135,529 people. Agriculture and trade developed mainly in the 19th century, but the city's modern look was established after the Second World War.
A railway connects exists between Skopje with Kumanovo and Serbia. In 2013 rehabilitation of railway section between Kumanovo and village Beljakovce will start which is part of Railway Corridor VIII that will connect Macedonia and Bulgaria.
A 40 kilometre (25 miles) highway exists between Skopje and Kumanovo, going near Kumanovo in the north and crossing the border with Serbia. On the section Kumanovo-Miladinovski there is a Pay tool. Section of the Pan-European Corridor X was put into use in 2010 connecting Kumanovo to the border crossing Tabanovce. The 7.6 kilometres (4.7 miles) highway was build for 4 years and at a cost of 15.5 million Euros. Another important road goes from Kumanovo to Kriva Palanka and then to the border with Bulgaria.
Skopje "Alexander the Great" Airport is only 20 km (12 mi) south from Kumanovo. Road rout E-75 is accessible from Kumanovo. Sofia Airport is 190 km (118 mi) from the town and Thessaloniki International Airport is 240 km (149 mi). Near Kumanovo there is Adzi Tepe Airport that doesn't have a paved runway.
Kumanovo has several monuments dating back to the prehistoric period. The most important ones are: Gradishte, an archaeological place of interest that is situated near the village of Pelince and dates from the Bronze Age. Near the village of Mlado Nagorichane is another interesting site dating from the period of Neolith. Near the village of Lopate is the Drezga place that represents a Roman necropolis.
The oldest folklore assemble in the Republic of Macedonia, KUD "Pance Pesev" is placed in Kumanovo. This year the assemble is celebrating 80 years of existence. It has represented Kumanovo and Macedonia on many international folklore festivals in Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria, Turkey, Croatia, Romania, Hungary, Poland, France, etc. The president is Mr. Miroslav Krstevski.
Kumanovo has a library “ Tane Georgievski Library”, cultural center Trajko Prokopiev, museum and national theatre. Several painting colonies and exhibitions take place every year in Kumanovo or in nearby villages. Kumanovo is distinguished by its jazz festival which features bands from all over the world. In 2002 the Macedonian bands Foltin and Dragan Dautovski Quartet, as well as bands from Croatia, Hungary, Netherlands, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro participated in the festival and in 2005 bands from as far as the Netherlands and Norway participated.
Every year Kumanovo has a “Days of comedy” festival, sponsored by the Macedonian Ministry of Culture, featuring comedies from several Macedonian theatres and also from neighbouring Serbia and Bulgaria.
Kumanovo municipality was organizing the manifestation “City of culture 2006”.
Goce Delchev, Pero Chicho (Banevo Trlo), Karposh (Rajkova Kukja), (Ajduchka Cheshma), Sokolana, Igo Trichkovikj (Pukovsko),Vera Kotorka (Dobroshane), Bedinje, Jane Sandanski (Babin Dol), Sredorek.
Oktomvriska Revolucija, Gjorche Petrov, 3 Makedonska Udarna Brigada, Goce Delchev, Narodna Revolucija, Nikola Tesla, Leninova, 11 Oktomvri, Ivo Lola Ribar, Srbo Tomovik, Tode Mendol, Karaorman and Pero Chicho.
Varosh maalo, Endek maalo, Muhamedbegovo maalo, Ortabunar maalo, Bedinsko maalo, Veleshka maalo, Karapsko maalo, Novo maalo, Lipkovsko maalo, Teke maalo, Tatar maalo and Muandzisko maalo, Sokolana maalo.
Opancharsko sokace, Nagorichki sokak, Proevski sokak, Veleshki sokak, Romanovski sokak, Ukumat sokak and Vranjsko Dzade.
One of the most important sites located near the Kumanovo is the 4,000 year old megalithic astronomical observatory of Kokino, located 30 km (19 mi) northeast of Kumanovo and discovered in 2001. It is ranked fourth on the list of old observatories by NASA. Sculpture of Batko Gjorgjija located in the center of the city, Monument Four Poles also located in the center of the city on the main square. Monument Kosturnica. House Museum of Hristijan Todorovski - Karposh. The oldest and biggest church in the town is the Church of St. Nikolas. There are icons from the 13th century in the church. The church represents a masterwork of Andreja Damjanov, an important Macedonian renaissance architect. Church Holy Trinity built in 1902, Church of St. George, Staro Nagoričane, Church of St. Petka in the village of Mlado Nagoričane, the Karpino Monastery, the Ascension of Holy Mother in the village of Matejce, Eski Mosque built in 1751, Monument Zebrnjak, Kumanovska Banja in the village of Proevce and Sports Hall Sokolana. Other landmarks are: staue of Woman Fighter, buildings: Zanatski dom and Kasapski Krug and ASNOM memorial center in the village Pelince.
Macedonian National Football Team played friendly match with Egypt in Kumanovo on the 29th of September 1998. The game took place at City Stadium Kumanovo and the scorers for Macedonian team were Zaharievski Srgjan and Sainovski Djevdat. The match ended 2:2
Twin towns — sister cities
- List of people from Kumanovo
- Kumanovo dialect
- Kumanovo Municipality
- Buildings and Structures in Kumanovo
- Karposh's Rebellion
- Battle of Kumanovo
- Kumanovo Treaty
- Macedonia, Bradt Travel Guide, Thammy Evans, Bradt Travel Guides, 2010, ISBN 1-84162-297-4, p. 257.
- Censuses of population 1948 - 2002
- Macedonian census, language and religion
- Srpsko geografsko društvo 1972, p. 123:
Ти помени већим делом налазе се у даровним повељама српских давалаца: краља Милутина, цара Сте- фана Душана, севастократа Дејана, Јевдокије Дејановић2', Дејано- вих синова — браће деспота Драгаша и „господина" Константина. Као што се зна, тада је ова област — старо Жеглигово до- била учвршћен географски положај и одрећену насеобинску слику
- Историско друштво НР Србије 1951, p. 20:
према повељи манастиру богоро- дичимог ваведења у Архиљевици,50 држао као своју баштину пространу област иеточно од Скопске Црне Горе. Она је обухватала старе жупе Прешево и Жеглигово (данас кумановски крај са Средореком, Козјачијом
- Reitman, Valerie; Richter, Paul; Dahlburg, John-Thor (23 June 2011). "Yugoslav, NATO Generals Sign Peace Agreement for Kosovo / Alliance will end air campaign when Serbian troops pull out". The San Francisco Chronicle.
- Kumani Zapad
- Kumanovo sister cities (Збратимени градови со Општина Куманово)
- Srpsko geografsko društvo (1972). Glasnik 52 (in Serbian). Srpsko geografsko društvo.
- Историско друштво НР Србије (1951). Историски гласник (in Serbian). Научна књига.
- Official Web Site of Kumanovo
- Kumanovo daily news
- Kumanovo FAQ
- Kokino megalithic observatory
- Kokino ancient observatory
- Kumanovo jazz festival
- Web Site of Kumanovo
- Kumani Zapad
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