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Kumhar (related to Bhumi)
Hans Raj Sutti Prajapati/Kumhar, Working on wheel Chakk in Bainchan village in punjab May, 2010
Hindi, Rajasthani, Haryanvi, Awadhi, Gujarati Marathi Punjabi

• 76% Hindu 16%Muslim 1.5%Sikh

6.5% Other religions
Related ethnic groups

Kumhar or Kumbhar is a caste or community of India. Kumhar literally means potter in Indian languages.

The Kumhar community is found throughout India and is found in all religions.

Mythological origin of Kumhars/Prajapatis/Pandit[edit]

[dubious ]

A section of Hindu Kumhars honorifically call themselves Prajapati, claiming descent from the Prajapati (the sons of the Hindu deity Brahma).[1]

The Kumhars derive their name from the Sanskrit word Kumbhakar meaning earthen pot maker.[2]

In Hindu mythology, the Kumhars are the descendants of Lord Prajapati. Therefore, they are also known as Prajapati.

According to a Hindu mythology, the first Kumbh (earthen pot) was a gift from the Gods. When the gods and the demons were churning the ocean for nectar, there was no vessel to collect the ambrosia. Some other Kumhar myths claim this to be their first creation. Another mythological story says that when Lord Shiva was about to marry Parvati, he realised he had forgotten the water pot integral for the ceremony. Therefore, he gave a part of his skin for clay to Prajapati, the god of creativity, to make a pot. And Parvati gave her blood to decorate the pot. That is when the first kumbh[3] (earthen pot) was created and Prajapati became the first Kumhar (potter).

Traditional tools of Kumhars[edit]

  • CHAKK (चाक): wheel (Manual/Automatic/Semiautomatic)
  • GHIRNIYAN (घिरनीयां): Designing tools
  • SOOT/Brahm SOOTRA (सूत्र): To cut the made pot from the chak
  • THATTHU (थत्थू): External support to the raw material
  • THAPI (थापी): Internal supporting organ
  • MOOLI (मूल़ी): Refining tool for soil (by beating it into small pieces)
  • CHALLAKAD (चलक्कड़): To rotate the wheel using a rod; the rod is called Challakad
  • SANCHA (सांचा): A dye to make Handis
  • AAWA (भट्ठी-आवा): A hearth/kiln for raw material finalizing.
Gazoro, in his shop in HoshiarpurPunjab June, 2010

Present circumstances[edit]

The Kumhars have almost shun their castly business(Soil work) but some have kept it alive. there are Kumhars in the Indian continent that export their items around world.The Kumhar traditional occupation remains pottery, but many are farmers also. The community are Hindus of the Shaivite sect.[4]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Saraswati Baidyanath (1 January 1979). Pottery-Making Cultures And Indian Civilization. Abhinav Publications. p. 46. ISBN 978-81-7017-091-4. Retrieved 6 April 2013. 
  2. ^ The Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of India - R. V. Russell - Google Books. Books.google.co.in. Retrieved 2012-03-12. 
  3. ^ The Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of India - R. V. Russell - Google Books. Books.google.co.in. Retrieved 2012-03-12. 
  4. ^ People of India Rajasthan Volume XXXVIII Part Two edited by B.K Lavania, D. K Samanta, S K Mandal & N.N Vyas pages 565 to 568 Popular Prakashan