||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (February 2013)|
|Alternative names||Vienna roll, hard roll, water roll|
|Place of origin||Austria|
|Region or state||Vienna|
|Main ingredients||Flour, barm, malt, water, salt|
|Cookbook:Kaiser roll Kaiser roll|
The Kaiser roll (German: Kaisersemmel), also called a Vienna roll (Wiener Kaisersemmel; as made by hand also: Handsemmel) or a hard roll, is a typically crusty round bread roll, originally from Austria. It is made from white flour, yeast, malt, water and salt, with the top side usually divided in a symmetric pattern of five segments, separated by curved superficial cuts radiating from the centre outwards or folded in a series of overlapping lobes resembling a crown. The crisp Kaisersemmel is a traditional Austrian food officially approved by the Federal Ministry of Agriculture.
Kaiser rolls have existed in a recognizable form at least since prior to 1760. They are thought to have been named to honor Emperor (Kaiser) Franz Joseph I of Austria (1830–1916). Indeed already in the 18th century, retail prices of Semmeln breadrolls were fixed by law in the Habsburg Monarchy. Allegedly the name Kaisersemmel came into general use, after the bakers' guild had sent a delegation in 1789 to Emperor Joseph II (1741–1790) and convinced him of decontrolling the selling price.
With its monarchal connotation, Kaiser rolls stood out against common rolls known as Mundsemmeln ("mouth rolls") or Schustersemmeln ("cobbler rolls"). They are traditionally found in Austria, but have also become popular in other countries of the former Austrian Habsburg Empire, such as Poland (known as kajzerka in Galicia), Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia (kajzerica), Italy, Hungary (császárzsemle), the Czech Republic (kaiserka), as well as in Germany, the United States, and Canada. Italian bakers, during the Austrian domination in Lombardy, produced a hollow version known as michetta or rosetta.
There are multiple variants of the common roll, differing in size, type of flour used, and toppings. While traditionally plain, Kaiser style rolls are today found topped with poppy seeds, sesame seeds, pumpkin kernels, linseed or sunflower seeds. The Kaiser roll is a main part of a typical Austrian breakfast, usually served with butter and jam. It is often used as a bun for such popular sandwiches as hamburgers in America and with a slice of Leberkäse in Germany (and Austria itself), though sliced Extrawurst and pickled gherkins (Wurstsemmel), or a type of Wiener Schnitzel (Schnitzelsemmel) are also used. A variation called a kummelweck (sometimes pronounced "kimmelweck" or "kümmelweck", from the Austrian Kümmelweckerl) is topped with kosher salt and caraway, and in the United States is a quintessential component of a Buffalo-area specialty, the beef on weck sandwich.
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