|Native to||Panama, Colombia|
|Region||San Blas Islands, Panama; north coastal region, Colombia|
cuk – San Blas Kuna
kvn – Border Kuna
|High||i [ɪ]||u [u̟]|
|Mid||e [e]||o [ɤ]|
Vowels may be short or long.
|Lax Stops||b[p]||d [t]||g [k]|
|Tense Stops||p [pˑ]||t [tˑ]||k [kˑ]|
|Lax Nasals||m[m]||n [n]||ns [nʃ]|
|Tense Nasals||mm [mˑ]||nn [nˑ]|
|Fricative||w [v]*||s [s]|
|Lax Lateral||l [l]|
|Tense Lateral||ll [lˑ]|
|Approximants||w [w]*||y [j]|
Most consonants may appear either as short (lax) or long (tense). The long consonants only appear intervocalically. However, they are not always a result of morpheme concatenation, and they often differ phonetically from the short analogue. For example, the long stop consonants p, t, and k are pronounced as voiceless, usually with longer duration than in English. The short counterparts are pronounced as voiced b, d, and g when they are between vowels or beside sonorant consonants m, n, l, r, y, or w (they are written using b, d, and g in the Kuna alphabet). At the beginnings of words, the stops may be pronounced either as voiced or voiceless; and are usually pronounced as voiceless word-finally (Long consonants do not appear word-initially or word-finally). In an even more extreme case, the long s is pronounced [tʃ]. Underlyingly long consonants become short before another consonant. The letter w may be pronounced as either [v] or [w] depending on dialect and position.
In 2010, the Congreso Nacional Kuna decided a spelling reform by which long consonants should be written with double letters. Equally the phonemes /p, t, k/ that may sound like [p, t, k] or [b, d, g] are represented by ⟨b, d, g⟩ in all positions. Equally the old digraph ⟨ch⟩ becomes ⟨ss⟩ o ⟨ds⟩ depending on its morphological procedence (narassole [naraʧole] < naras + sole, godsa [koʧa] 'called' < godde 'to call' + -sa (past). So the reformed orthography uses only the fifteen letters ⟨b, d, g, l, m, n, r, s, w, y; a, e, i, o, u⟩ for transcribing all the sounds of the language, with the digraphs ⟨bb, dd, gg, ll, mm, nn⟩ for the tense consonants.
Other phonological rules
The alveolar /s/ becomes the palatal [ʃ] after /n/ or /t/. Both long and short /k/ become [j] before another consonant.
Kuna is an agglutinative language which contains words of up to about 9 morphemes, although words of two or three morphemes are more common. Most of the morphological complexity is found in the verb, which contains suffixes of tense and aspect, plurals, negatives, position (sitting, standing, etc.) and various adverbials. The verb is not marked for person.
- Llerena Villalobos, Rito. (1987). Relación y determinación en el predicado de la lengua Kuna. Bogotá: CCELA – Universidad de los Andes. ISSN 0120-9507 (Spanish)
- Alphonse Louis Pinart (1890). Vocabulario castellano-cuna. Ernest Leroux. pp. 3–. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
- Holmer, Nils Magnus (1952). Ethno-linguistic Cuna dictionary, with indices and references to A critical and comparative Cuna grammar (Etnologiska studier 14) and The grammatical sketch in Cuna chrestomathy (Etnologiska studier 18). Göteborg: Etnografiska Museet.