Kundal Shahi language

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Kundal Shahi
Native to Pakistan
Native speakers
700  (2005)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 shd
Glottolog kund1257[2]

Kundal Shahi is an endangered Dardic language of Pakistan. Speakers are shifting to Hindko.

Phonology[edit]

The following tables set out the phonology of Kundal Shahi.[3]

Vowels[edit]

Kandal Shahi is unusual amongst Dardic languages in that it has front rounded vowels.[3]

Front Central Back
unrounded rounded unrounded rounded
Close i iː y yː u uː
Close-Mid e eː øː ə o oː
Open-Mid ɛ ɛː ʌ ɔ ɔː
Open a aː

Consonants[edit]

Like Kashmiri, Kundal Shahi is unusual amongst Dardic languages in that it lacks retroflex fricatives and affricates.[3]

Labial Dental Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n ɳ (ŋ)
Plosive voiceless p t ʈ k (q)
aspirated ʈʰ
voiced b d ɖ ɡ
Affricate voiceless
aspirated tʃʰ
voiced
Fricative voiceless f s ʃ x h
voiced z ɣ
Lateral l
Flap ɾ ɽ
Approximant j w

Tone[edit]

Kundal Shahi, like many Dardic languages, has either phonemic tone or, as in Kundal Shahi, pitch accent.[4] Words may have only one accented mora, which is associated with high pitch; the remaining mora have a default or low pitch.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kundal Shahi at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Kundal Shahi". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ a b c d Baart, Joan L. G. and Khawaja A. Rehman (2005), A First Look at the Language of Kundal Shahi in Azad Kashmir, SIL International, pp. 10–13 
  4. ^ Baart, Joan L. G. (2003), Tonal features in languages of northern Pakistan, National Institute of Pakistan Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University and Summer Institute of Linguistics, pp. 3, 6