Kunduz

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
"Konduz" redirects here. For the village in Iran, see Konduz, Iran.
Kunduz
کندز
City
Afghan Business School Kunduz.jpg
Kunduz is located in Afghanistan
Kunduz
Kunduz
Location in Afghanistan
Coordinates: 36°44′N 68°52′E / 36.733°N 68.867°E / 36.733; 68.867Coordinates: 36°44′N 68°52′E / 36.733°N 68.867°E / 36.733; 68.867
Country  Afghanistan
Province Kunduz Province
District Kunduz District
First mention 329 BC
Elevation 391 m (1,283 ft)
Population (2012)[1]
 • Total 304,600
Time zone Afghanistan Standard Time (UTC+4:30)

Kunduz (Pashto: کندز; Persian: قندوز‎) is a city in northern Afghanistan, which serves as the capital of Kunduz Province. It is sometimes spelled as Kundûz, Qonduz, Qondûz, Konduz, Kondûz, Kondoz, or Qhunduz.

Sitting in the Kunduz District, the population of the city is around 304,600.[1] It is about the 5th largest city of Afghanistan in terms of population.

Kunduz is located in the historical Tokharistan in the region of Bactria. It is linked by highways with Mazar-e Sharif to the west, Kabul to the south and Sher Khan Bandar to the north. Kunduz is located at an elevation of 391 meters above sea level.

Etymology[edit]

The name of the city is derived from Persian compound, kuhan/quhan diz, "old/ancient fort" or from Turkic konak/konut ("residence, palace, court, housing, established dwelling area, city, town, village"), from Proto-Turkic *kon-, "to settle down/to perch." Alternative derivations also include Turkic kündüz ("day, daylight"), from Proto-Turkic kün, "day/sun".

Interestingly, until the 1960s, the city served as the capital to the now-defunct province of Qataqan, itself meaning "Old/Ancient city" (from Turkic kata ("old/ancient') and Eastern Iranian (Sogdian) kand or Common Turkic kent, "fort", "town".

Climate[edit]

Kunduz has a cold semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSk) with hot summers and cold winters. Precipitation is generally low except from January to April, with summers almost always rainless.

Climate data for Kunduz
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 21.2
(70.2)
25.0
(77)
32.8
(91)
38.9
(102)
42.2
(108)
46.2
(115.2)
45.3
(113.5)
44.2
(111.6)
39.2
(102.6)
39.4
(102.9)
28.4
(83.1)
21.6
(70.9)
46.2
(115.2)
Average high °C (°F) 6.3
(43.3)
9.5
(49.1)
15.8
(60.4)
23.0
(73.4)
29.8
(85.6)
37.3
(99.1)
39.0
(102.2)
36.9
(98.4)
31.8
(89.2)
24.5
(76.1)
16.0
(60.8)
9.7
(49.5)
23.3
(73.93)
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.6
(34.9)
4.4
(39.9)
10.4
(50.7)
17.2
(63)
22.9
(73.2)
29.3
(84.7)
31.3
(88.3)
29.2
(84.6)
23.9
(75)
16.9
(62.4)
9.5
(49.1)
4.4
(39.9)
16.75
(62.14)
Average low °C (°F) −2.4
(27.7)
-0.0
(32)
5.7
(42.3)
11.6
(52.9)
15.7
(60.3)
20.9
(69.6)
23.3
(73.9)
21.5
(70.7)
16.3
(61.3)
10.6
(51.1)
4.1
(39.4)
0.0
(32)
10.61
(51.1)
Record low °C (°F) −22.7
(−8.9)
−23.1
(−9.6)
−11.8
(10.8)
−2.1
(28.2)
4.2
(39.6)
12.5
(54.5)
15.7
(60.3)
12.6
(54.7)
3.5
(38.3)
−2.0
(28.4)
−9.8
(14.4)
−20
(−4)
−23.1
(−9.6)
Precipitation mm (inches) 44.0
(1.732)
56.5
(2.224)
76.7
(3.02)
54.4
(2.142)
29.8
(1.173)
0.1
(0.004)
1.3
(0.051)
0.3
(0.012)
0.1
(0.004)
7.3
(0.287)
23.7
(0.933)
28.4
(1.118)
322.6
(12.7)
Avg. rainy days 5 6 11 10 9 1 1 0 0 3 5 6 57
Avg. snowy days 5 4 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 14
 % humidity 80 75 75 71 54 31 28 29 32 44 63 76 54.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 114.4 114.6 158.9 201.0 276.5 332.1 340.2 315.5 289.7 221.8 169.4 229.5 2,763.6
Source: NOAA (1958-1983) [2]

History[edit]

Further information: History of Afghanistan

Kunduz is the site of the ancient city of Drapsaka. It was a great center of Buddhist learning and very prosperous during the 3rd century AD.

The city used to be called Walwalij[3] and the name Kuhandiz began to be used from the Timurid time.

In the 18-19th centuries it was the capital of a rather large eponymous sometimes independent, sometimes autonomous Uzbek-Tajik khanate that in 1820s encompassed land from Khulm to Pamir[disambiguation needed]. This khanate was finally destroyed by Afghanistan in 1859. Between one hundred and two-hundred thousand Tajiks and Uzbeks fled the conquest of their homeland by Russian Red Army and settled in northern Afghanistan.[4]

In the early 20th century, under the governance of Sher Khan Nasher, Kunduz became one of the wealthiest Afghan provinces. This was mainly due to Nasher's founding of the Spinzar Cotton Company, which continues to exist in post-war Afghanistan.

Kunduz is the most important agricultural province which produces wheat, rice, millet, and other products and obtained the nickname of "the hive of the country."

Kunduz is the centre for the north east provinces, and was the stronghold of the Taliban during its regime. It was the last major city held by the Taliban before its fall to US-backed Afghan Northern Alliance forces on November 26, 2001. The city is strategically important because it is the only way connecting Takhar province and Badakhshan provinces, which play a critical role in the existing government.

Demography[edit]

Further information: Demography of Afghanistan

The city of Kunduz has a population of about 304,600.[1] Ethnic Pashtun people make up the largest percent followed by Tajiks, Uzbeks, Hazaras, Arabs and a few others.[4][5]

The Kunduz "Arabs" are Persian-speaking and have been so since time immemorial. However, they claim an Arab identity. There are other such Persian-speaking "Arabs" to the north and west, between Kholm, Mazar-e Sharif and Shibarghan. Their self-identification as Arabs is largely based on their tribal identity and may in fact point to the 7th and 8th centuries migration to this and other Central Asian locales of many Arab tribes from Arabia in the wake of the Islamic conquests of the region.[6]

Administration[edit]

The city of Kunduz is divided into 6 districts: Khan Abad, Ali Abad, Char Dara, Dashti Archi, Qala -e-Zal and Imam Sahib. Kunduz has 9 representatives in the lower house and 2 in the upper house and has a provincial council. The most influential leader of Kunduz was Arif Khan, who was a governor of Kunduz Province and was shot dead in the city of Peshawar, Pakistan in the year 2000. Soon after the incident his brother Haji Omar Khan took his responsibility and was appointed as the Governor of Kunduz (2000-2001). In the Karzai administration, Haji Omar Khan was elected to be a representative of Kunduz Province in the Lower House (Wolasi Jirga) and at a time serve as an Advisor Minister to the President Hamid Karzai.

The famous figure from the Kunduz area was Haji Nazikmir Khan. He was the leader and the Grand Malik of the Zakheil tribe. Haji Nazkmir was the wealthiest person in the province. He owned thousands of acres of farmland, apartment buildings, commercial buildings, Russian car agency, and many hotels. He and his family were also known for having a close relationship with the royal family of Afghanistan.

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Settled Population of Kunduz province by Civil Division, Urban, Rural and Sex-2012-13". Retrieved 2014-01-12. 
  2. ^ "Kunduz Climate Normals 1958-1983". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved December 25, 2012. 
  3. ^ http://www.aai.uni-hamburg.de/voror/Personal/Islamic_Numismatics.html
  4. ^ a b Wörmer, Nils (2012). "The Networks of Kunduz: A History of Conflict and Their Actors, from 1992 to 2001" (PDF). Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik. Afghanistan Analysts Network. p. 8. Retrieved 2014-01-12. 
  5. ^ "Kunduz Province" (PDF). Program for Culture & Conflict Studies. Naval Postgraduate School. Retrieved 2014-01-12. 
  6. ^ Thomas J. Barfield, The Central Asian Arabs of Afghanistan: Pastoral Nomadism in Transition. 1982.

Further reading[edit]

  • Dupree, Nancy Hatch (1977): An Historical Guide to Afghanistan. 1st Edition: 1970. 2nd Edition. Revised and Enlarged. Afghan Tourist Organization.
  • Thomas J. Barfield, The Central Asian Arabs of Afghanistan: Pastoral Nomadism in Transition. 1982.

External links[edit]