Kurdish languages

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Kurdish
Kurdî, Kurdí, Кöрди, كوردی[1]
Native to Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Syria, Armenia, Azerbaijan
Ethnicity Kurds
Native speakers
40 million  (2007)[2]
Latin (main); Arabic
Official status
Official language in
 Iraq
Language codes
ISO 639-1 ku
ISO 639-2 kur
ISO 639-3 kurinclusive code
Individual codes:
ckb – Sorani
kmr – Kurmanji
sdh – Southern Kurdish
lki – Laki
Glottolog kurd1259[3]
Linguasphere 58-AAA-a (North Kurdish incl. Kurmanji & Kurmanjiki) + 58-AAA-b (Central Kurdish incl. Dimli/Zaza & Gurani) + 58-AAA-c (South Kurdish incl. Kurdi)
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Map of Kurdish speaking areas of middle-East
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

The Kurdish languages (Kurdî or کوردی) are several Iranian languages spoken by the Kurds in western Asia. The Kurdish languages, of which Kurmanji Kurdish has the largest number of speakers, are not mutually intelligible without acquired bilingualism.[4] The languages spoken by Kurds do not form a linguistic group; the four in the box at right are commonly grouped together, whereas the Zaza–Gorani languages are more distantly related.

The literary output in the Kurdish languages was mostly confined to poetry until the early 20th century, when a more general literature began to be developed. In its written form today, Kurdish has two principal dialects, namely Kurmanji in the northern parts of the geographical region of Kurdistan, and Sorani further east and south. Sorani is the second official language of Iraq and is referred to in political documents simply as "Kurdish",[5][6] whereas the recognized minority language in Armenia is Kurmanji, which is also spoken in Turkey, Syria, Iraq, and Iran.

Another group of languages, Zaza–Gorani, is spoken by several million Kurds.[7][8][9][10] Hewrami, a dialect of Gorani, was an important literary language since the fourteenth century but was replaced by Sorani in the twentieth.[11]

Classification[edit]

The Kurdish languages belong to the Iranian branch of the Indo-European family. They are generally classified as Northwestern Iranian languages, or by some scholars as intermediate between Northwestern and Southwestern Iranian.[12] Martin van Bruinessen notes that "Kurdish has a strong south-western Iranian element", whereas "Zaza and Gurani [...] do belong to the north-west Iranian group".[13] Ludwig Paul concludes that Kurdish seems to be a Northwestern Iranian language in origin,[14] but acknowledges that it shares many traits with Southwestern Iranian languages like Persian, apparently due to longstanding and intense historical contacts.

Origin[edit]

The present state of knowledge about Kurdish allows, at least roughly, drawing the approximate borders of the areas where the main ethnic core of the speakers of the contemporary Kurdish dialects was formed. The most argued hypothesis on the localisation of the ethnic territory of the Kurds remains D.N. Mackenzie’s theory, proposed in the early 1960s (Mackenzie 1961). Developing the ideas of P. Tedesco (1921: 255) and regarding the common phonetic isoglosses shared by Kurdish, Persian, and Baluchi, D.N. Mackenzie concluded that the speakers of these three languages may once have been in closer contact. He has tried to reconstruct the alleged Persian-Kurdish-Baluchi linguistic unity presumably in the central parts of Iran. According to Mackenzie's theory, the Persians (or Proto-Persians) occupied the province of Fars in the southwest (proceeding from the assumption that the Achaemenids spoke Persian), the Baluchis (Proto-Baluchis) inhabited the central areas of Western Iran, and the Kurds (Proto-Kurds), in the wording of G. Windfuhr (1975: 459), lived either in northwestern Luristan or in the province of Isfahan.[15] Windfuhr identified Kurdish dialects as Parthian, albeit with a Median substratum.[16]

History[edit]

During his stay in Damascus, historian Ibn Wahshiyya came across two books on agriculture written in Kurdish, one on the culture of the vine and the palm tree, and the other on water and the means of finding it out in unknown ground. He translated both from Kurdish into Arabic in the early 9th century AD.[17]

Among the earliest Kurdish religious texts is the Yazidi Black Book, the sacred book of Yazidi faith. It is considered to have been authored sometime in the 13th century AD by Hassan bin Adi (b. 1195 AD), the great-grandnephew of Sheikh Adi ibn Musafir (d. 1162), the founder of the faith. It contains the Yazidi account of the creation of the world, the origin of man, the story of Adam and Eve and the major prohibitions of the faith.[18] From the 15th to 17th centuries, classical Kurdish poets and writers developed a literary language. The most notable classical Kurdish poets from this period were Ali Hariri, Ahmad Khani, Malaye Jaziri and Faqi Tayran.

The Italian priest Maurizio Garzoni published the first Kurdish grammar titled Grammatica e Vocabolario della Lingua Kurda in Rome in 1787 after eighteen years of missionary work among the Kurds of Amadiya.[19] This work is very important in Kurdish history as it is the first acknowledgment of the originality of the Kurdish language on a scientific base. Garzoni was given the title Father of Kurdology by later scholars.[20] The Kurdish language was banned in a large portion of Kurdistan for some time. After the 1980 Turkish coup d'état until 1991 the use of the Kurdish language was illegal in Turkey.[21]

Current status[edit]

Road signs near Diyarbakır showing the place names in Turkish and Kurdish.

Today, Kurdish is an official language in Iraq. In Syria, on the other hand, publishing material in Kurdish is forbidden.[22] Before August 2002, the Turkish government placed severe restrictions on the use of Kurdish, prohibiting the language in education and broadcast media.[23][24] The Kurdish alphabet is not recognized in Turkey, and the use of Kurdish names containing the letters X, W, and Q, which do not exist in the Turkish alphabet, is not allowed.[25] In 2012 Kurdish-language lessons became an elective subject in public schools; previously, Kurdish education had only been possible in private institutions.[26]

In Iran, though it is used in some local media and newspapers, it is not used in public schools.[27][28] In 2005, 80 Iranian Kurds took part in an experiment and gained scholarships to study in Kurdish in Iraqi Kurdistan.[29]

In March 2006, Turkey allowed private television channels to begin airing programming in the Kurdish language. However, the Turkish government said that they must avoid showing children's cartoons, or educational programs that teach the Kurdish language, and could broadcast only for 45 minutes a day or four hours a week.[30] However, most of these restrictions on private Kurdish television channels were relaxed in September 2009.[31] In 2010 Kurdish municipalities in the southeast decided to begin printing water bills, marriage certificates and construction and road signs, as well as emergency, social and cultural notices in Kurdish alongside Turkish. Friday sermons by Imams began to be delivered in Kurdish, and Esnaf provided Kurdish price tags.[32]

The state-run Turkish Radio and Television Corporation (TRT) started its 24-hour Kurdish television station on 1 January 2009 with the motto “we live under the same sky.”[33] The Turkish Prime Minister sent a video message in Kurdish to the opening ceremony, which was attended by Minister of Culture and other state officials. The channel uses the X, W, and Q letters during broadcasting.

Three standards[edit]

Kurdish has three standardized versions, which have been labelled 'Northern', 'Central' and 'Southern'. The northern version, commonly called Kurmanji, is spoken in Turkey, Syria, and the northern part of the Kurdish-speaking areas of Iraq and Iran,[34] and it accounts for a little over three-quarters of all Kurdish speakers. The central version, commonly called Sorani, is spoken in west Iran and much of Iraqi Kurdistan.[35] The southern version, commonly called Kermanshahi, is spoken in Kermanshah province of Iran.[36]

In historical evolution terms, Kurmanji is less modified than Sorani and Kermanshahi in both phonetic and morphological structure. The Sorani group has been influenced by among other things its closer cultural proximity to the other languages spoken by Kurds in the region including the Gorani language in parts of Iranian Kurdistan and Iraqi Kurdistan.[35][37] The Kermanshahi group has been influenced by among other things its closer cultural proximity to Persian.[36]

Philip G. Kreyenbroek, an expert writing in 1992, says:[35]

Since 1932 most Kurds have used the Roman script to write Kurmanji.... Sorani is normally written in an adapted form of the Arabic script.... Reasons for describing Kurmanji and Sorani as 'dialects' of one language are their common origin and the fact that this usage reflects the sense of ethnic identity and unity among the Kurds. From a linguistic or at least a grammatical point of view, however, Kurmanji and Sorani differ as much from each other as English and German, and it would seem appropriate to refer to them as languages. For example, Sorani has neither gender nor case-endings, whereas Kurmanji has both.... Differences in vocabulary and pronunciation are not as great as between German and English, but they are still considerable.

According to Encyclopaedia of Islam, although Kurdish is not a unified language, its many dialects are interrelated and at the same time distinguishable from other Western Iranian languages. The same source classifies different Kurdish dialects as two main groups, northern and central.[37] The reality is that the average Kurmanji speaker does not find it easy to communicate with the inhabitants of Suleymania or Halabja.[38]

Sorani differs on six grammatical points from Kurmanji. This appears to be a result of Gorani (Haurami) influence.[citation needed]

  • The passive conjugation: the Sorani passive morpheme -r-/-ra- corresponds to -y-/-ya- in Gorani and Zazaki, whereas Kurmanji employs the auxiliary verb, come;
  • a definite suffix -eke, also occurring in Zazaki;
  • an intensifying postverb -ewe, corresponding to Kurmanji preverbal ve-;
  • an 'open compound' construction with a suffix -e, for definite noun phrases with an epithet;
  • the preservation of enclitic personal pronouns, which have disappeared in Kurmanji and in Zazaki;
  • a simplified izāfa system.

Some linguistic scholars assert that the term "Kurdish" has been applied extrinsically in describing the language the Kurds speak, whereas Kurds have used the word "Kurdish" to simply describe their ethnic or national identity and refer to their language as Kurmanji, Sorani, Hewrami, Kermanshahi, Kalhery or whatever other dialect or language they speak. Some historians have noted that it is only recently that the Kurds who speak the Sorani dialect have begun referring to their language as Kurdî, in addition to their identity, which is translated to simply mean Kurdish.[39]

Gorani Kurds, Zazaki Kurds, and Shabaki[edit]

Main articles: Gorani language and Zazaki language

Gorani is a language that appears to be distinct from Kurmanji and Sorani, but that shares vocabulary with both of the latter mentioned and some grammatical similarities with Sorani.[40] Despite the differences, the Zazaki and Gorani language has been classified as part of the Kurdish language.[41] This is probably due to the fact that Zazaki and Gorani speakers, who are spread out across the southern and southeastern parts of Kurdistan, identify themselves as Kurds and the Gorani language is not spoken by other ethnic groups.[42] European scholars have maintained that Gorani is separate from Kurdish and that Kurdish is synonymous with the Kurmanji-language group, whereas ethnic Kurds maintain that Kurdish encompasses any of the unique languages or dialects spoken by Kurds and that are not spoken by neighboring ethnic groups.[43]

The Gorani language (which includes Horami) is often classified as part of the Zaza–Gorani branch of Indo-Iranian languages.[44] The Zazaki language, spoken in the northernmost parts of Kurdistan differs both grammatically and in vocabulary and is generally not understandable by Gorani speakers but it is considered related to Gorani. Almost all Zaza-speaking communities,[45] as well as speakers of another closely related language spoken in parts of Iraqi Kurdistan called Shabaki, identify themselves as ethnic Kurds.[46][47][48][49][50][51]

Phonology[edit]

According to the Kurdish Academy of Language, Kurdish has the following phonemes:

Consonants[edit]

Bilabial Labio-
dental
Apical Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyn-
geal
Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p 3   b t 3   d k 2,3   ɡ 2 q ʔ
Affricate t͡ʃ 3   d͡ʒ
Fricative f   v s   z ʃ   ʒ ç x   ɣ ħ   ʕ h
Lateral l   ɫ 1
Flap ɾ
Trill r
Approximant ʋ j
  • ^1 Just as in many English dialects, the velarized lateral does not appear in the onset of a syllable. Additionally, in some dialects, the velarized lateral /ɫ/ changes to a [ɾ] in women's speech.[52]
  • ^2 /k/ and /ɡ/ are strongly palatalized before the close and mid front vowels (/i/ and /e/) as well as the rounded high front allophone [ɥ] of the phoneme /w/, closing on /t͡ʃ/ and /d͡ʒ/.[53]
  • ^3 In the Kurmanji dialect, a phonemic distinction is made between aspirated and unaspirated voiceless stops. Thus /p/ contrasts with /pʰ/, /t/ with /tʰ/, /k/ with /kʰ/, and the affricate /t͡ʃ/ with /t͡ʃʰ/. This may be an areal feature shared with languages such as Armenian.[54]

Vowels[edit]

According to the Kurdish Academy of Language, vowel phonemes of Kurdish are as follows:[55][56]

Front Central Back
Close i ʉ u
Near-close ɪ̈
Mid o
Open-mid ɛ
Near-open æ
Open a

As in most modern Iranian languages, Kurdish vowels contrast in quality; they often carry a secondary length distinction that does not affect syllabic weight.[57] This distinction appears in the writing systems developed for Kurdish. The five "short" vowels are /ɛ/, /æ/, /ɪ̈/, /o/, and /u/, and the four long vowels are //, //, /ʉː/, and //.[55]

Historical phonology[edit]

OP MP Persian Kurdish Parthian Avestan Proto-Iranian
θ h h s s s
d d d z z z
j z z ž ž j *j, *Vč
c z z ž ž c
-š- -š- -š- -h-/nil -š- -š- *-š-
x- x- x- k- x- x- *x-
w- w- b- b- w- w- *w-
y- j- j- j- y- y- *y-
b, d, g w, y, (') w, y, (/nil) w, y, (nil) β, ð, ɣ b, d, g *b, *d, *g
p, t, k b, d, g, b, d, g w, h, y, (/nil) β, ð, ɣ p, t, k *p, *t, *k
Vm -m -m -v (-w) -m -m -*m
fr- fr- (hr-) for- etc. fr- fr- fr- *fr-
ç s s s? hr θr ('s'?) *θr
θw h h h? or w/v? f θw *θw
duv- d- d- d- b- duu- *dw-
s/z s/z s/z sp?/zw? sp/zw sp/zw *św/ *źw
(h)uv- xw- x(w)- x(w)- wx- xv-, huu- *hw-
rd l, r l unclear (maybe: l, ł, r) rð & rz rd & rz *rd & *rź
nd nd/nn nd n nd nd *nd
šn šn šn žn zn sn *śn
Všm, Vhm -šm, -hm -šm, -xm -v (-w) -šm, -hm -šm, -hm *šm?
ft ft ft (w)t, (ft?) ft ft *ft
xt xt xt t xt xt *xt
pasā pas pas pāš paš pas-ča *pas-ča
šiyav- šaw- šaw- č- šaw- šiiu- *čyau-
a- a- a- ha- a- a- *a-
d- -d- -d- -l- -d- -d- -*d-

Indo-European linguistic comparison[edit]

Because Kurdish is an Indo-European language, there are many words that are cognates in Kurdish and other Indo-European languages such as Avestan, Persian, Sanskrit, German, English, Norwegian, Latin and Greek. (Source: Altiranisches Wörterbuch (1904) for the first two and last six.)

Kurdish Avestan Persian Sanskrit Greek English German Swedish Latin Lithuanian Russian PIE
ez "I" azəm adam [Old Persian] aham egō I ( < OE ) ich jag ego ja (related to OCS azŭ) *h₁eĝh₂om
lep "hand" palāme "palm" (OE lōf "fillet, band") to lob (OHG lappo "palm (of the hand)") labor (hand)work lṓpa "paw, claw" lápa "paw" *tlāp-
jin "woman" ɣənā- "woman" zan janay- gynē queen (OHG quena) kvinna genus "birth, origin" (OPruss. genna) žená "wife" *gʷenh₂-
leystin (bileyzim) "to play(I play)" ley ley kardan(to jump with one foot) réjati ālma "jump" (OE lācan "to play") leich leka láigyti *(e)leig'- "to jump, to spring, to play"
mezin, gewre "great" maz-, mazant masan (middle Persian), gošn "numerous" mah(ī)-/mahānt- megas much ( < OE mićil, myćil) (OHG mihhil) mycket "much" magnus moshch "power" *meĝh₂- "big, great"
mêzer "headband/turban" Miθra "binding", "god name" *Miça "god name"(Old Persian) mitrah mitra "headband, turban", mitre "belt, turban" metat' "to sew, to tack" *mei- "to tie"
pez "sheep" pasu- "sheep, goat" boz "goat" paśu "animal" poemne "herd" fee ( < OE feoh "cattle") Vieh "cattle" "cattle" pecus "cattle" pekus "ox" pasti "to herd" *pek̂-u- "sheep"
çiya چيا),[58] kash[59] کاش) "mountain" kūh, chakād "peak/summit" kakúd-, kakúbh- "peak/summit" koryfē "top" kupfa[60][61] bërc/Gipfel "peak/summit" kinn "steep mountain side" cacūmen kucha *kak-, *kakud- "top"
jîyar "alive" jiyan "to live" gaêm [gaya] zend[e] "alive", zî[stan] "to live", zaideh "child" jīvati zoi "life", "live" quick quick "bright" kvick "quick" vīvus "alive", vīvō "live", vīta "life" gývas žyzn' "life", žyvój "living, alive" *gʷih₃(u̯)-
[di] [a]zan[im] "I know" zan[în] "to know" zan- [mi]dān[am] "I know", dān[estan] "to know" jān[āti] [gi]gnō[skō] know kennen kunna "to be able to", "to know" nō[scō], [co]gn[itus] žin[au]"I know" žin[oti] "to know" znat' "to know" *ĝneh₃-

Grammar[edit]

Main article: Kurdish grammar

Vocabulary[edit]

The bulk of the vocabulary in Kurdish is of Iranian origin, especially of northwestern Iranian. A considerable number of loanwords come from Semitic, mainly Arabic, which entered through Islam and historical relations with Arab tribes. Yet, a smaller group of loanwords which are of Armenian, Caucasian, and Turkic origins are used in Kurdish, besides some European words. There are also Kurdish words with no clear etymology.

Writing system[edit]

Main article: Kurdish alphabets
Kurdish restaurant sign written in Arabic script

The Kurdish language is written using four different writing systems. In Iran and Iraq it is written using a Perso-Arabic alphabet, composed by Sa'id Kaban Sedqi. More recently, it is sometimes written with a Latin alphabet in Iraqi Kurdistan. In Turkey, Syria and Armenia, it is written using a Latin alphabet. There is a proposal for a unified international recognized Kurdish alphabet based on ISO-8859-1[62] called Yekgirtú. Kurdish in the former USSR is written with a Cyrillic alphabet. Kurdish has even been written in the Armenian alphabet in Soviet Armenia and in the Ottoman Empire (a translation of the Gospels in 1857[63] and of all New Testament in 1872).

Dictionaries[edit]

Kurdish-only dictionaries[edit]

  • Wîkîferheng (Kurmanji Kurdish Wiktionary)
  • Husein Muhammed: Soranî Kurdish – Kurmancî Kurdish dictionary (2005)
  • Khal, Sheikh Muhammad, Ferhengî Xal (Khal Dictionary), Kamarani Press, Sulaymaniya, 3 Volumes (1960, 1964, 1976)

Kurdish–English dictionaries[edit]

  • inkurdish.com, online English–Kurdish translation
  • Dictio, online English–Kurdish dictionary
  • Rashid Karadaghi, The Azadi English–Kurdish Dictionary
  • Chyet, Michael L., Kurdish Dictionary: Kurmanji–English, Yale Language Series, U.S., 2003 (896 pages)[64]
  • Abdullah, S. and Alam, K., English–Kurdish (Sorani) and Kurdish (Sorani)–English Dictionary, Star Publications / Languages of the World Publications, India, 2004
  • Awde, Nicholas, Kurdish–English/English–Kurdish Dictionary and Phrasebook, Hippocrene Books Inc., U.S., 2004 ISBN 0-7818-1071-X
  • Raman: English–Kurdish (Sorani) Dictionary, Pen Press Publishers Ltd, UK, 2003, (800 pages) ISBN 1-904018-83-1
  • Saadallah, Salah, English–Kurdish Dictionary, Avesta/Paris Kurdish Institute, Istanbul, 2000, (1477 pages)
  • Amindarov, Aziz, Kurdish–English/English–Kurdish Dictionary, Hippocrene Books Inc., U.S., 1994 ISBN 0-7818-0246-6
  • Rizgar, Baran (M. F. Onen), Kurdish–English/English–Kurdish (Kurmancî Dictionary) UK, 1993, 400 p. + 70 illustrations ISBN 1-873722-05-2

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Kurdish Language – Kurdish Academy of Language". Kurdishacademy.org. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  2. ^ Nationalencyklopedin "Världens 100 största språk 2007" The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007
  3. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Kurdish". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  4. ^ Hassanpour, A. (1992). Nationalism and language in Kurdistan. San Francisco: Mellon Press. Also mentioned in: kurdishacademy.org
  5. ^ Allison, Christine. The Yezidi oral tradition in Iraqi Kurdistan. 2001. "However, it was the southern dialect of Kurdish, Sorani, the majority language of the Iraqi Kurds, which received sanction as an official language of Iraq."
  6. ^ Kurdish language issue and a divisive approach. http://www.kurdishacademy.org/?q=node/194
  7. ^ * Kaya, Mehmet. The Zaza Kurds of Turkey: A Middle Eastern Minority in a Globalised Society. ISBN 1-84511-875-8
  8. ^ http://belfercenter.ksg.harvard.edu/files/Dargin_-_Working_Paper_-_FINAL.pdf
  9. ^ http://gulf2000.columbia.edu/images/maps/Mid_East_Linguistic_lg.jpg
  10. ^ A Modern History of the Kurds: Third Edition - David McDowall - Google Books. Books.google.com. 2004-05-14. Retrieved 2012-12-18. 
  11. ^ Meri, Josef W. Medieval Islamic Civilization: A-K, index. p444
  12. ^ Gernot Windfurh, ed., 2009. The Iranian Languages. Routledge.
  13. ^ Bruinessen, M.M. van. (1994). Kurdish nationalism and competing ethnic loyalties
  14. ^ Paul, Ludwig (2008). "Kurdish language I. History of the Kurdish language". In Yarshater, Ehsan. Encyclopædia Iranica. London and New York: Routledge. Retrieved 28 August 2013. 
  15. ^ Professor Garnik Asatrian (Yerevan University) (2009)."Prolegomena to the Study of the Kurds", Iran and the Caucasus, Vol.13, pp. 1–58, 2009 Published in 2009, Iran and the Caucasus, 13, pp.1-58.
  16. ^ Windfuhr, Gernot (1975), “Isoglosses: A Sketch on Persians and Parthians, Kurds and Medes”, Monumentum H.S. Nyberg II (Acta Iranica-5), Leiden: 457-471
  17. ^ Ibn-Waḥšīya, Aḥmad Ibn-ʿAlī (1806). Ancient Alphabets and Hieroglyphic Characters Explained: With an Account of the Egyptian Priests, Their Classes, Initiation, and Sacrifices. Translated by Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall. Bulmer. p. 53. Retrieved March 28, 2013. 
  18. ^ Jonh S. Guest, The Yazidis: A Study In Survival, Routledge Publishers, 1987, ISBN 0-7103-0115-4, ISBN 978-0-7103-0115-4, 299 pp. (see pages 18, 19, 32)
  19. ^ Ernest R. McCarus, Kurdish Language Studies, The Middle East Journal, Published by Middle East Institute, Washington, 1960, p.325
  20. ^ Kurdistan and Its Christians, Mirella Galetti, World Congress of Kurdish Studies, 6–9 September 2006
  21. ^ Ross, Michael. The Volunteer (chapter: The Road to Ankara)
  22. ^ Repression of Kurds in Syria is widespread, Amnesty International Report, March 2005.
  23. ^ "Special Focus Cases: Leyla Zana, Prisoner of Conscience". Amnestyusa.org. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  24. ^ "Kurdish performers banned, Appeal from International PEN". Freemuse.org. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  25. ^ Karakaş, Saniye; Diyarbakır Branch of the Contemporary Lawyers Association (March 2004). "Submission to the Sub-Commission on Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: Working Group of Minorities; Tenth Session, Agenda Item 3 (a)" (MS Word). United Nations Commission on Human Rights. Archived from the original on 2007-06-28. Retrieved 2006-11-07. "Kurds have been officially allowed since September 2003 to take Kurdish names, but cannot use the letters x, w, or q, which are common in Kurdish but do not exist in Turkey's version of the Latin alphabet. [...] Those letters, however, are used in Turkey in the names of companies, TV and radio channels, and trademarks. For example Turkish Army has company under the name of AXA OYAK and there is SHOW TV television channel in Turkey." 
  26. ^ "Turkey to allow Kurdish lessons in schools". Aljazeera. 12 June 2012. Retrieved 12 June 2013. 
  27. ^ The Kurdish Language and Literature, by Joyce Blau, Professor of Kurdish language and civilization at the National Institute of Oriental Language and Civilization of the University of Paris (INALCO)
  28. ^ The language policy of Iran from State policy on the Kurdish language: the politics of status planning by Amir Hassanpour, University of Toronto
  29. ^ "Neighboring Kurds Travel to Study in Iraq". Npr.org. 9 March 2005. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  30. ^ Turkey to get Kurdish television[dead link]
  31. ^ "TRT HABER - Özel Kürtçe Kanala Yeşil Işık". Trt.net.tr. 28 November 2011. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  32. ^ "On trial for speaking Kurdish". ANF-Firatnews. 11 May 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2013. 
  33. ^ "Kurdish TV starts broadcasting in Turkey". Kurdmedia.com. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  34. ^ Additionally, Kurmanji Kurdish is spoken in North Khorasan (in northeastern Iran), and small numbers of Kurdish speakers also live in the Caucasus.
  35. ^ a b c Philip G. Kreyenbroek, "On the Kurdish Language", a chapter in the book The Kurds: A Contemporary Overview. The book is previewable at Google Book Search.
  36. ^ a b Ranjbar, Vahid. Dastur-e Zaban-e Kurdi-ye Kermanshahi. Kermanshah: Taq-Bostan. 1388
  37. ^ a b D.N. MacKenzie, Language in Kurds & Kurdistan, Encyclopaedia of Islam.
  38. ^ Postgate, J.N., Languages of Iraq, ancient and modern, [Iraq]: British School of Archaeology in Iraq, 2007, ISBN 978-0-903472-21-0, p.139
  39. ^ [1][dead link]
  40. ^ Philip G. Kreyenbroek, "On the Kurdish Language", a chapter in the book The Kurds: A Contemporary Overview.
  41. ^ "Kurdish language." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2010. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 23 November 2010
  42. ^ Edmonds, Cecil. Kurds, Turks, and Arabs: politics, travel, and research in north-eastern Iraq, 1919-1925. Oxford University Press, 1957.
  43. ^ Edmonds, Cecil. Kurds, Turks, and Arabs: politics, travel, and research in north-eastern Iraq, 1919-1925. Oxford University Press, 1957. Oxford University Press, 1957
  44. ^ J. N. Postgate, Languages of Iraq, ancient and modern, British School of Archaeology in Iraq, [Iraq]: British School of Archaeology in Iraq, 2007, p. 138.
  45. ^ http://www.let.uu.nl/~martin.vanbruinessen/personal/publications/Bruinessen_Ethnic_identity_Kurds.pdf
  46. ^ Abd al-Jabbar, Falih. Ayatollahs, sufis and ideologues: state, religion and social movements in Iraq. University of Virginia 2008.
  47. ^ Sykes, Mark. The Caliphs' last heritage: a short history of the Turkish Empire
  48. ^ Kaya, Mehmet. The Zaza Kurds of Turkey: A Middle Eastern Minority in a Globalised Society. ISBN 1-84511-875-8
  49. ^ O'Shea, Maria. Trapped between the map and reality: geography and perceptions of Kurdistan. ISBN 0-415-94766-9.
  50. ^ Library Information and Research Service. The Middle East, abstracts and index
  51. ^ Meiselas, Susan. Kurdistan: in the shadow of history. Random House, 1997.
  52. ^ McCarus, Ernest N. (1997), "Kurdish Phonology", in Kaye, Alan S.; Daniels, Peter T., Phonologies of Asia & Africa (Including the Caucasus) 2, Winona Lake, Indiana: EISENBRAUNS, p. 694, ISBN 1-57506-017-5 
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  58. ^ Feryad fazil Omar: Kurdisch-Deutsches Wörterbuch (Soranî), Institut für Kurdische Studien e.V., Berlin 2005, p.332 ISBN 978-3-932574-10-8
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  60. ^ kupfa is Old High German; Kuppel is Middle High German, Kopf is head,Oskar Schade (1866)
  61. ^ Georg Scherer (1588)
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