Kurds in Syria

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Kurds in Syria is located in Syria
Efrin
Efrin
Ain al-Arab
Ain al-Arab
Hasakah
Hasakah
Qamishli
Qamishli
Kurdish inhabited areas are shaded in blue for areas inside Syria and light blue for areas outside the country.[1]

Kurds are the largest ethnic minority in Syria, comprising 10 to 15 percent of the country's population.[2] Syrian Kurds have faced routine discrimination and harassment by the government.[3][4]

"Syrian Kurdistan" (Kurdish: Kurdistana Sûriyê) is an unofficial name used by some to describe the Kurdish inhabited regions of northern and northeastern Syria.[5] The northeastern Kurdish inhabited region covers the greater part of Hasakah Governorate. The main cities in this region are Qamishli and Hasakah. Another region with significant Kurdish population is Kobanê (Ayn al-Arab) in the northern part of Syria near the town of Jarabulus and also the city of Afrin and its surroundings along the Turkish border.

Many Kurds seek political autonomy for the Kurdish inhabited areas of Syria, similar to Iraqi Kurdistan in Iraq, or outright independence as part of Kurdistan. The name "Western Kurdistan" (Kurdish: Rojavayê Kurdistanê) is also used by Kurds to name the Syrian Kurdish inhabited areas in relation to Kurdistan.[6][7][8] Since the Syrian Civil War, Syrian government forces have abandoned many Kurdish-populated areas, leaving the Kurds to fill the power vacuum and govern these areas autonomously.[9]

Demographics[edit]

The Crusade fortress of Krak des Chevaliers near Homs, which is known in Arabic as Hisn al-Akrad (Castle of the Kurds), was originally the location of a Kurdish military settlement.

Kurds are the largest ethnic minority in Syria, and made up between 10 and 15 percent of the Syrian population as of 2011—between 2 and 2.5 million people.[2] The Kurdish population in Syria is relatively small in comparison to the Kurdish populations in nearby countries, such as Iraq (4.7-6.2 million), Iran (7.9 million) and Turkey (14.4 million).[10] The majority of Syrian Kurds speak Kurmanji, a Kurdish dialect spoken in Turkey and northeastern Iraq and Iran, and are Sunni Muslims with the exception of some Yazidi Kurds.[11]

It is estimated that at the beginning of the 20th century around 12,000 Kurds lived in Damascus; an unknown number of Kurds lived in the Kurd-Dagh region; 16,000 Kurds lived in the Jarabulus region; and an unknown number lived in the Jazira province where they were likely the majority.[11] In the 1920s after the failed Kurdish rebellions in Kemalist Turkey, there was a large influx of Kurds to Syria’s Jazira province. It is estimated that 25,000 Kurds fled at this time to Syria.[12] These Kurdish newcomers, constituted no more than 10% of the Kurdish population of Jazira at the time and all were granted citizenship by the French mandate authorities who recognized their agricultural skills.[13]

Even though Kurds have a long history in Syria, the government has used the fact that many Kurds fled to Syria during the 1920s to claim that Kurds are not indigenous to the country and to justify the government’s discriminatory policies against them.[14][15]

Geography[edit]

Kurds mostly live in a geocultural region in northeastern Syria. This region covers the greater part of the governorate of Al Hasakah (formerly the Jazira province), a region also inhabited by many Assyrians. The main cities in this region are Qamishli and Hasakah. Another region with a significant Kurdish population is Kobanê (Ayn al-Arab) in the northern part of Syria near the town of Jarabulus. The Kurdish inhabited northern and northeastern parts of Syria are called "Kurdistana Binxetê" in Kurdish. An area of Kurdish concentration is Kurd Dagh (Kurdish Mountain) in the northwest, around the town of Afrin in Aleppo Governorate, a region that extends to the Turkish districts of Islahiye and Kırıkhan. Also, many Kurds live in the large cities and metropolitan areas of the country, for example, in the neighborhood of Rukn al-Din in Damascus which was formerly known as Hayy al Akrad (Kurdish Quarter).[16][17]

History[edit]

Early Settlements[edit]

Kurdish settlement in Syria goes back to before the Crusades of the 11th century. A number of Kurdish military and feudal settlements from before this period have been found in Syria. Such settlements have been found in the Alawite and north Lebanese mountains and around Hama and its surroundings. The Crusade fortress of Krak des Chevaliers, which is known in Arabic as Hisn al-Akrad (Castle of the Kurds), was originally a Kurdish military settlement before it was enlarged by the French Crusaders. Similarly, the Kurd-Dagh (Kurdish Mount) has been inhabited by Kurds for more than a millennium.[13]

Ayyubid period[edit]

In the 12th century, Kurdish and other Muslim regiments accompanied Saladin, who was a Kurd from Tikrit, on his conquest of the Middle East and establishment of the Ayyubid dynasty (1171–1341), which was administered from Damascus. The Kurdish regiments that accompanied Salidin established self-ruled areas in and around Damascus. These settlements evolved into the Kurdish sections of Damascus of Hayy al-Akrad (the Kurdish quarter) and the Salhiyya districts located in the north-east of Damasacus on Mount Qasioun.[14] The Kurdish community’s role in the military continued under the Ottomans. Kurdish soldiers and policeman from city were tasked with both maintaining order and protecting the pilgrims’ route toward Mecca. Many Kurds from Syria’s rural hinterland joined the local Janissary corp in Damascus. Later, Kurdish migrants from diverse areas, such as Diyarbakir, Mosul and Kirkuk, also joined these military units which caused an expansion of the Kurdish community in the city.[11]

Ottoman period[edit]

Kurdish costumes, 1873. On the right is a Kurd from the Jazira (Upper Mesopotamia). Center, a Kurd from Mardin (a city on the Syrian border). On the left is a shepard from the province of Diyarbakır.

During the Ottoman period (1299–1922), large Kurmanji-speaking Kurdish tribal groups both settled in and were deported to areas of northern Syria from Anatolia. The largest of these tribal groups was the Reshwan confederation, which was initially based in the Adiyaman region but eventually also settled throughout Anatolia. The Milli confederation, which was documented in Ottoman sources from the year 1518 onward, was the most powerful tribal group and dominated the entire northern Syrian steppe in the second half of the 18th century. Their influence continued to rise and eventually their leader Timur was appointed Ottoman governor of Raqqa (1800-1803).[11][18] The Danish writer Carsten Niebuhr who travelled to Jazira in 1764 recorded five Kurdish tribes (Dukurie, Kikie, Schechchanie, Mullie and Aschetie) and one Arab tribe. These Kurdish tribes gradually settled in villages and cities and are still present in Jazira (modern Syria's Hasakah Governorate).[19]

In other parts of the country during this period, Kurds became local chiefs and tax farmers in Akkar (Lebanon) and the Qusayr highlands between Antioch and Latakia in northwestern Syria. The Afrin Plateau northwest of Aleppo, just inside what is today Syria, was officially known as the "Sancak of the Kurds" in Ottoman documents.[20] Ibrahim Pasha of the Milli confederation became one of the leading Hamidiye cavalry leaders of the late 19th century Ottoman Empire. After his death in 1908, the Millis again revolted against the Ottoman government and eventually settled for the most part on the Syrian side of the newly drawn Turkish-Syrian border of 1922.[21][22]

French Mandate[edit]

Following World War I, the victorious Allied powers and the defeated Ottoman Empire signed the Treaty of Sevres of 10 August 1920. The treaty stipulated that Ottoman Kurdistan, which included Kurdish inhabited areas in present Syria, was to be given autonomy within the new Turkish Republic, with the choice for full independence within a year. The Kemalist victory in Turkey and subsequent territorial gains during the Turkish War of Independence led to the renegotiated Treaty of Lausanne of 24 July 1923, which made no mention of a future Kurdish state. The majority of Ottoman Kurdish territory was given to Turkey and the rest was divided between the newly established French Mandate of Syria and British Mandate of Iraq.[23]

Provisions of the Treaty of Sèvres for an independent Kurdistan (in 1920).

Under the French Mandate of Syria, the Kurds enjoyed considerable rights as the French Mandate authority encouraged minority autonomy as part of a divide and rule strategy and recruited heavily from the Kurds and other minority groups, such as Alawite and Druze, for its local armed forces.[24] Between December 1931 and January 1932, the first elections under the new Syrian constitution were held.[25] Among the deputies there were three members of the Syrian Kurdish nationalist Xoybûn (Khoyboun) party from the three different Kurdish enclaves in Syria: Khalil bey Ibn Ibrahim Pacha (Jazira province), Mustafa bey Ibn Shahin (Jarabulus) and Hassan Aouni (Kurd Dagh).[26]

In the mid-1930s, there arose an autonomist movement in the Jazeria province among Kurds and Christians. Its Kurdish leaders were Hajo Agha, Kaddur Bey, and Khalil Bey Ibrahim Pasha. Hajo Agha was the Kurdish chief of the Heverkan tribal confederation and one of the leaders of the Kurdish nationalist party Xoybûn (Khoybun). He established himself as the representative of the Kurds in Jazira maintaining the coalition with the Christian notables, who were represented by the Syriac Catholic Patriarch Ignatius Gabriel I Tappouni and Michel Dôme the Armenian Catholic president of the Qamishli municipality. The Kurdish-Christian Coalition wanted French troops to stay in the province in case of Syrian independence, as they feared the nationalist Damascus government would replace minority officials by Muslim Arabs from the capital. The French authorities, although some in their ranks had earlier encouraged this anti-Damascus movement, refused to consider any new status of autonomy inside Syria and even annexed the Alawite State and the Jabal Druze State to the Syrian Republic.[27]

Syrian independence[edit]

Suleiman Abbas ruled the first autonomous Kurdish region in Syria after the fall of Ottoman Empire. The area known at that time as Jazera or Mesopotamia, later was annexed by the Syrian Republic 1946.Osman Sabri and Daham Miro along with some Kurdish politicians, founded the Kurdistan Democratic Party of Syria (KDPS) in 1957. The objectives of KDPS were promotion of Kurdish cultural rights, economic progress and democratic change. KDPS was never legally recognized by the Syrian state and remains an underground organization, especially after a crackdown in 1960 during which several of its leaders were arrested, charged with separatism and imprisoned. After the failure of Syrian political union with Egypt in 1961, Syria was declared an Arab Republic in the interim constitution.

Syrian Arab Republic[edit]

Jazira census[edit]

On 23 August 1962, the government conducted a special population census only for the province of Jazira, which was predominantly Kurdish. As a result, around 120,000 Kurds in Jazira (20% of Syrian Kurds) were stripped of their Syrian citizenship. In fact, the inhabitants had Syrian identity cards and were told to hand them over to the administration for renewal. However, many of those Kurds who submitted their cards received nothing in return. Many were arbitrarily categorized as ajanib ('aliens'), while others who did not participate in the census were categorised as maktumin ('unregistered'), an even lower status than the ajanib; for all intents and purposes, these unregistered Kurds did not exist in the eyes of the state. They could not get jobs, become educated, own property, participate in politics, or even get married. In some cases, classifications varied even within Kurdish families: parents had citizenship but not their children, a child could be a citizen but nor his or her brothers and sisters. Those Kurds who lost their citizenship were often dispossessed of their lands, which were given by the state to Arab settlers.[28] A media campaign was launched against the Kurds with slogans such as Save Arabism in Jazira! and Fight the Kurdish Menace!.[29]

These policies in the Jazira region coincided with the beginning of Barzani's uprising in Iraqi Kurdistan and discovery of oilfields in the Kurdish inhabited areas of Syria. In June 1963, Syria took part in the Iraqi military campaign against the Kurds by providing aircraft, armoured vehicles and a force of 6,000 soldiers. Syrian troops crossed the Iraqi border and moved into Kurdish town of Zakho in pursuit of Barzani's fighters[30]

Arab cordon[edit]

In 1965, the Syrian government decided to create an Arab cordon (Hizam Arabi) in the Jazira region along the Turkish border. The cordon was 300 kilometers long and 10-15 kilometers wide, stretched from the Iraqi border in the east to Ras Al-Ain in the west. The implementation of the Arab cordon plan began in 1973 and Bedouin Arabs were brought in and resettled in Kurdish areas. The toponymy of the area such as village names were Arabized. According to the original plan, some 140,000 Kurds had to be deported to the southern desert near Al-Raad. Although Kurdish farmers were dispossessed of their lands, they refused to move and give up their houses. Among these Kurdish villagers, those who were designated as alien are not allowed to own property, to repair a crumbling house or to build a new one.[31]

Newroz protests[edit]

In March 1986, a few thousand Kurds wearing Kurdish costume gathered in the Kurdish part of Damascus to celebrate the spring festival of Newroz. Police warned them that Kurdish dress is prohibited and it fired on the crowd leaving one person dead. Around 40,000 Kurds took part in his funeral in Qamishli. Also in Afrin, three Kurds were killed during the Newroz demonstrations.[32]

Qamishli riots[edit]

The flag of Kurdistan is banned in Syria, but it has begun to be flown during the Syrian uprising and civil war.[33][34]

After an incident in a football stadium in Al Qamishli, 65 people were killed and more than 160 were injured in days of clashes starting from 12 March. Kurdish sources indicated that Syrian security forces used live ammunition against civilians after clashes broke out at a football match between Kurdish fans of the local team and Arab supporters of a visiting team from the city of Deir al-Zor. The international press reported that nine people were killed on 12 March. According to Amnesty International hundreds of people, mostly Kurds, were arrested after the riots. Kurdish detainees were reportedly tortured and ill-treated. Some Kurdish students were expelled from their universities, reportedly for participating in peaceful protests.[35]

KNAS (Kurdnas) formation[edit]

The Kurdistan National Assembly of Syria was formed to represent Syrian Kurds based on two major conferences, one at the US Senate in March 2006 and the other at the EU parliament in Brussels in 2006. The Kurdistan National Assembly of Syria (KNAS) seek democracy for Syria and granting rights to Kurds and other Syrian minorities. They seek to transform Syria into a federal state, with a democratic system and structure for the federal government and provincial governments.

Syrian civil war[edit]

Main article: Syrian Civil War
On 22 July 2012, Serê Kaniyê (Ra's al-'Ayn) pictured above and a series of other towns in the Kurdish inhabited northeast of Syria were captured by the Popular Protection Units (YPG).

Following the Tunisian Revolution and the Egyptian Revolution, 4 February 2011 was declared a Day of Rage in Syria by activists through the social website Facebook. Few turned out to protest, but among the few were Kurdish demonstrators in the northeast of the country.[36] On 7 October 2011, Kurdish leader Mashaal Tammo was gunned down in his apartment by masked men widely believed to be government agents. During Tammo's funeral procession the next day in the town of Qamishli, Syrian security forces fired into a crowd of more than 50,000 mourners, killing five people.[37] According to Tammo's son, Fares Tammo, "My father's assassination is the screw in the regime's coffin. They made a big mistake by killing my father."[38] Since then, Kurdish demonstrations became a routine part of the Syrian uprising.[39] In June 2012, the Syrian National Council (SNC), the main opposition group, announced Abdulbaset Sieda, an ethnic Kurd, as their new leader.[40]

Kurdish rebellion[edit]

Protests in the Kurdish inhabited areas of Syria evolved into armed clashes after the opposition Kurdish Democratic Union Party (PYD) and Kurdish National Council (KNC) signed a cooperation agreement on 12 July 2012 that created the Kurdish Supreme Committee as the governing body of all Kurdish controlled areas.[41][42][43]

Under the administration of the Kurdish Supreme Committee, the Popular Protection Units (YPG) were created to control the Kurdish inhabited areas in Syria. On 19 July, the YPG captured the city of Kobanê (Ayn al-Arab), and the next day captured Amûdê and Efrîn.[44] The KNC and PYD afterwards formed a joint leadership council to run the captured cities.[44] By 24 July, the Syrian Kurdish cities of Dêrika Hemko (Al-Malikiyah), Serê Kaniyê (Ra's al-'Ayn), Dirbêsî (Al-Darbasiyah) and Girkê Legê (Al-Ma'bada) had also come under the control of the Popular Protection Units. The only major Kurdish inhabited cities that remained under government control were Hasaka and Qamishli.[45][46]

In 2014, Kurds in Syria declared cantons of Cizîrê, Kobanê and Efrîn, as parts of autonomous Syrian Kurdistan.

Human rights of Kurds[edit]

International and Kurdish human rights organizations have accused the Syrian government of discriminating against the Kurdish minority.[47][48][49] Amnesty International also reported that Kurdish human rights activists are mistreated and persecuted.[50]

Language[edit]

Kurds often speak the Kurdish language in public, unless all those present do not. According to the Human Rights Watch, Kurds in Syria are not allowed to officially use the Kurdish language, are not allowed to register children with Kurdish names, are prohibited to start businesses that do not have Arabic names, are not permitted to build Kurdish private schools, and are prohibited from publishing books and other materials written in Kurdish.[51][52]

Citizenship[edit]

In 1962, 20 percent of Syria's Kurdish population were stripped of their Syrian citizenship following a very highly controversial census raising concerns among human rights groups. According to the Syrian government, the reason for this enactment was due to groups of Kurds infiltrating the Al-Hasakah Governorate in 1945. The Syrian government claims that the Kurds came from neighboring countries, especially Turkey, and crossed into Syrian borders illegally. The government claims that these Kurds settled down, gradually, in the region in cities like Amuda and Al Qamishli until they accounted for the majority in some of these cities. The government also claims that many Kurds were capable of registering themselves illegally in the Syrian civil registers. The government further speculated that Kurds intended to settle down and acquire property, especially after the issue of the agricultural reform law, in order to benefit from land redistribution.[51] However, according to Human Rights Watch, the Syrian government falsely claimed that many of the Kurds who were the original inhabitants of the land were foreigners, and in turn, violated their human rights by stripping them of their Syrian citizenship.[53]

Flag sometimes seen in Kurdish-held areas of Syria since 2012. It is often flown alongside the flag of Kurdistan.

As a result of government claims of an increase in illegal immigration, the Syrian government decided to conduct a general census on 5 October 1962 in the governorate with claims that its sole purpose was to purify registers and eliminate the alien infiltrators. As a result, the verified registrations of the citizens of Syria were included in the new civil registers. The remaining, which included 100,000 Kurds, were registered as foreigners (or "ajanib") in special registers.[51][54] Many others did not participate in the census. through choice or other circumstances; they are known as "maktoumeen", meaning "unrecorded".[54] Since then, the number of stateless Kurds has grown to more than 200,000.[55] According to Refugees International, there are about 300,000 stateless Kurds in Syria; however, Kurds dispute this number and estimate about 500,000. A recent independent report has confirmed that there are at least 300,000 stateless Kurds living in Syria.[54]

According to the Human Rights Watch, by many accounts, the special census was carried out in an arbitrary manner separating members of the same families and classifying them differently. HRW claims that some Kurds in the same family became citizens while others became foreigners suggesting an inaccuracy in the Syrian government's process; HRW also alleges that some of the Kurds who had served in the Syrian army lost citizenship while those who bribed officials kept theirs.[53] Stateless Kurds also do not have the option of legally relocating to another country because they lack passports or other internationally recognized travel documents. In Syria, other than in the governorate of Al-Hasakah, foreigners cannot be employed at government agencies and state-owned enterprises; they may not legally marry Syrian citizens. Kurds with foreigner status do not have the right to vote in elections or run for public office, and when they attend universities they are often persecuted and cannot be awarded with university degrees.[54] Stateless Kurds living in Syria are not awarded school certificates and are often unable to travel outside of their provinces.[54]

In April 2011, the President signed Decree 49 which provides citizenship for Kurds who were registered as foreigners in Hasaka.[56] However, a recent independent report has suggested that the actual number of stateless Kurds who obtained their national ID cards following the decree does not exceed 6,000, leaving the remainder of 300,000 stateless Kurds living in Syria in a state of uncertainty.[54] One newly nationalized Kurd has been reported as saying: ‘I’m pleased to have my ID card .... But not until the process is completed will I truly trust the intentions of this action. Before my card is activated, I must have an interview, no doubt full of interrogation and intimidation, with State Security. Citizenship should not be a privilege. It is my right.’[54]

Syrian Kurdish personalities[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Will Syria's Kurds benefit from the crisis?". BBC News. 10 August 2012. 
  2. ^ a b "Syria Overview". Minority Rights Group International. October 2011. Retrieved 14 January 2014. 
  3. ^ "Syria: End Persecution of Kurds". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 4 October 2011. 
  4. ^ Ian Black. Syrian human rights record unchanged under Assad, report says, The Guardian, 16 July 2010.
  5. ^ Morris, Loveday (9 August 2012). "Syrian President Bashar al-Assad accused of arming Kurdish separatists for attacks against Turkish government". The Independent (London). 
  6. ^ "Ankara Alarmed by Syrian Kurds' Autonomy". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 16 August 2012. 
  7. ^ "Syrian Kurds more a chance than challenge to Turkey, if…". Al-Arabiya. Retrieved 16 August 2012. 
  8. ^ "Syrian Kurdish moves ring alarm bells in Turkey". Reuters. 24 July 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2012. 
  9. ^ "Kurds seek autonomy in a democratic Syria". BBC World News. 16 August 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2012. 
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  11. ^ a b c d Jordi Tejel, translated from the French by Emily Welle; Welle, Jane (2009). Syria's kurds history, politics and society (1. publ. ed.). London: Routledge. p. 8. ISBN 0-203-89211-9. 
  12. ^ McDowell, David (2005). A modern history of the Kurds (3. revised and upd. ed., repr. ed.). London [u.a.]: Tauris. p. 469. ISBN 1850434166. 
  13. ^ a b Kreyenbroek, Philip G.; Sperl, Stefan (1992). The Kurds: A Contemporary Overview. London: Routledge. p. 147. ISBN 0415072654. 
  14. ^ a b Yildiz, Kerim (2005). The Kurds in Syria : the forgotten people (1. publ. ed.). London [etc.]: Pluto Press, in association with Kurdish Human Rights Project. p. 25. ISBN 0-7453-2499-1. 
  15. ^ Youssef M. Choueiri (2005). A companion to the history of the Middle East (Hardcover ed.). Wiley-Blackwell. p. 475. ISBN 1-4051-0681-6. 
  16. ^ modersmal.skolutveckling.se
  17. ^ cia.gov
  18. ^ Winter, Stefan (2009). "Les Kurdes de Syrie dans les archives ottomanes (XVIIIe siècle)". Études Kurdes 10: 125–156. 
  19. ^ Stefan Sperl, Philip G. Kreyenbroek (1992). The Kurds a Contemporary Overview. London: Routledge. pp. 145–146. ISBN 0-203-99341-1. 
  20. ^ Winter, Stefan (2005). "Les Kurdes du Nord-Ouest syrien et l’État ottoman, 1690-1750". In Afifi, Mohammad. Sociétés rurales ottomanes. Cairo: IFAO. pp. 243–258. ISBN 2724704118. 
  21. ^ Winter, Stefan (2006). "The Other Nahdah: The Bedirxans, the Millîs, and the Tribal Roots of Kurdish Nationalism in Syria". Oriente Moderno 86: 461–474. 
  22. ^ Klein, Janet (2011). The Margins of Empire: Kurdish Militias in the Ottoman Tribal Zone. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 9780804775700. 
  23. ^ Yildiz, Kerim (2005). The Kurds in Syria : the forgotten people (1. publ. ed.). London [etc.]: Pluto Press, in association with Kurdish Human Rights Project. pp. 13–15. ISBN 0745324991. 
  24. ^ Yildiz, Kerim (2005). The Kurds in Syria : the forgotten people (1. publ. ed.). London [etc.]: Pluto Press, in association with Kurdish Human Rights Project. p. 25. ISBN 0745324991. 
  25. ^ The 1930 Constitution is integrally reproduced in: Giannini, A. (1931). "Le costituzioni degli stati del vicino oriente" (in French). Istituto per l’Oriente. Retrieved 31 March 2012. 
  26. ^ Tachjian, Vahé (2004). La France en Cilicie et en Haute-Mésopotamie: aux confins de la Turquie, de la Syrie et de l'Irak, 1919-1933 (in French). Paris: Editions Karthala. p. 354. ISBN 978-2-84586-441-2. Retrieved 2012-04-01. 
  27. ^ Jordi Tejel Gorgas, "Les territoires de marge de la Syrie mandataire : le mouvement autonomiste de la Haute Jazîra, paradoxes et ambiguïtés d’une intégration « nationale » inachevée (1936-1939)" (The territory margins of the Mandatory Syria : the autonomist movement in Upper Jazîra, paradoxs and ambiguities of an uncompleted "national" integration, 1936-39), Revue des mondes musulmans et de la Méditerranée, 126, November 2009, p. 205-222
  28. ^ Tejel, p. 51
  29. ^ Tejel, p. 52
  30. ^ I. C. Vanly, The Kurds in Syria and Lebanon, In The Kurds: A Contemporary Overview, Edited by P.G. Kreyenbroek, S. Sperl, Chapter 8, Routledge, 1992, ISBN 0-415-07265-4, pp.151-2
  31. ^ I. C. Vanly, The Kurds in Syria and Lebanon, In The Kurds: A Contemporary Overview, Edited by P.G. Kreyenbroek, S. Sperl, Chapter 8, Routledge, 1992, ISBN 0-415-07265-4, pp.157,158,161
  32. ^ I. C. Vanly, The Kurds in Syria and Lebanon, In The Kurds: A Contemporary Overview, Edited by P.G. Kreyenbroek, S. Sperl, Chapter 8, Routledge, 1992, ISBN 0-415-07265-4, pp.163-164
  33. ^ www.amude.com
  34. ^ http://www.npr.org/2012/04/05/150064912/with-a-dose-of-caution-kurds-oppose-syrian-regime
  35. ^ Syria: Address Grievances Underlying Kurdish Unrest, HRW, 19 March 2004.
  36. ^ Syria: 'A kingdom of silence' - Features - Al Jazeera English
  37. ^ Syria Funeral Shooting: Forces Open Fire On Mashaal Tammo Mourners, Huffington Post, 10/8/11
  38. ^ Thousands of Kurds could awaken against Syrian regime, By Adrian Blomfield, 9 October 2011
  39. ^ Syria's Kurds: part of the revolution?, Guardian, By Thomas McGee, 26 April 2012
  40. ^ MacFarquhar, Neil (10 June 2012). "Syrian Forces Shell Cities as Opposition Picks Leader". The New York Times. 
  41. ^ "Syrian Kurds Try to Maintain Unity". Rudaw. 17 July 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2012. 
  42. ^ "Syria: Massive protests in Qamishli, Homs". CNTV. 19 May 2011. Retrieved 27 July 2012. 
  43. ^ "Syrian Kurdish Official: Now Kurds are in Charge of their Fate". Rudaw. 27 July 2012. Retrieved 30 July 2012. 
  44. ^ a b "More Kurdish Cities Liberated As Syrian Army Withdraws from Area". Rudaw. 20 July 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2012. 
  45. ^ "Armed Kurds Surround Syrian Security Forces in Qamishli". Rudaw. 22 July 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2012. 
  46. ^ "Girke Lege Becomes Sixth Kurdish City Liberated in Syria". Rudaw. 24 July 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2012. 
  47. ^ "Support Kurds", 14 May 2010
  48. ^ "Kurdish Organization for Human Rights in Austria," 2010-12-14 Memorandum of Kurds in syria [1]
  49. ^ For Zion's sake Yehuda Zvi Blum, Associated University Presse, ISBN 0-8453-4809-4 (1987) p. 220
  50. ^ amnestyusa.org
  51. ^ a b c hrw.org
  52. ^ hrw.org
  53. ^ a b Syria Silenced Kurds, Human Rights Watch
  54. ^ a b c d e f g Rudaw in English The Happening: Latest News and Multimedia about Kurdistan, Iraq and the World - Documentary On The Stateless Kurds of Syria
  55. ^ voanews.com
  56. ^ Legislative Decree on Granting Syrian Nationality to People Registered in Registers of Hasaka Foreigners, SANA, 8 April 2011

Further reading[edit]

  • Tejel, Jordi (2009). Syria's Kurds: History, Politics and Society. London: Routledge. ISBN 9780415424400. 

External links[edit]