||This article has no lead section. (November 2013)|
|260,401 (in Kenya) |
|Regions with significant populations|
|African Traditional Religion, Christianity|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Kisii, Luhya, other Bantu peoples|
The Kuria (also known as AbaKuria, as they prefer to call themselves) are a community of Bantu people who inhabit Kenya.
- 1 History of Abakuria and their origin
- 2 Social and political organisations
- 3 Tools made by Kurians
- 4 Kuria names derived from events and various conditions
- 5 Kuria names derived animals or birds
- 6 Kuria names – firstborns (Abatangi)
- 7 Ancestor names (ichidonko)
- 8 Wakuria generations (Amakora)
- 9 Circumcision
- 10 Commonly used words in Kuria
- 11 External links
- 12 References
History of Abakuria and their origin
The people now known as Abakuria are of diverse origins and clans. Before the twentieth century they did not know themselves as the Abakuria but by either their various clans or by "provinces" from which they came. Fred Maseke (commonly known as Rick m Fred on Facebook) who is a student in the university of Nairobi school of business, a non-History field has taken the initiative to research on the Kuria tribe, origin of the name and other aspects. The name Kuria seems to have been applied to the whole group by the early colonial chiefs mainly to distinguish them from the other Luoised groups along the southern shores of Lake Victoria who were known as Abasuba – a name which at times also included the Abakuria proper. The Abakuria live in both Kenyan and Tanzanian territories. In Kenya they live in Kuria district east and kuria west districts and in Tanzania they live in Serengeti, Tarime, Musoma town, Musoma rural, Bunda and some parts in mwanza districts. Mara as province is mostly occupied by the Abakuria of late.
The homeland of the Abakuria is between River Migori to the east and the estuary of River Mara to the west. On the eastern side the area stretches from Migori district in south Nyanza to Musoma district of Tanzania on the western side. To the south the land borders the Transmara district on the Kenyan side and the Nguruimi area in Tanzania. To the north is Lake Victoria with a small corridor occupied by the Luo and some other Bantu peoples. The immediate neighbours of the Abakuria are the Maasai, Ngurueme, Zanaki, Ikoma, Luo and Suba of south Nyanza (Suba district).
The Abagusii state that their ancestors originally came from "Misiri" and that they migrated with the ancestors of the Abakuria, Abalogoli, Ababukusu, and Abasuba and that they lost contact with these people in the Mount Elgon area. The Abagusii and Abalogoli followed river Nzoia Valley which eventually took them to the northern shores of Lake Victoria probably between AD 1500 and 1560. At this early stage there doesn't seem to have been significant differences between the Abagusii, Abakuria, Abalogoli and Abasuba among others. Their distinctive names and identities appear to have developed much later when they had separated into their present homelands.The origin of the name Kuria is a thorny point in Abakuria history. The major Abakuria sub-tribes such as Abanyabasi, Abatimbaru, Abanyamongo, Abakira, Abairegi, Abakenye,Abanchaari, and Abagumbe have traditions to the effect that their ancestor was Mokuria (or Mukuria) who lived in "Misiri". His descendants migrated from "Misiri" and after many years of wandering on the other side of Lake Victoria, they eventually reached and settled in the present Bukuria.
According to this tradition, the Abakuria have been divided from time immemorial into two families: the Abasai of the elder wife of Mokuria and the Abachuma of the younger wife. But this tradition does not explain how the Abakuria people got their generation sets, such as Maina, Nyambiriti, Gamnyeri on the Abasai side, and Mairabe (Norongoro), Gini, Nyangi on the Abachuma side. These generation set names are also found among other people such as the Ababukusu, Kalenjin, Agikuyu, Aembu/Ambeere and Ameru. It is therefore most probable that the early Abakuria people who brought the generation set system into Abakuria society were a splinter group from a much larger community living in the area of Mount Elgon from which the Kalenjin people, a section of the Ababukusu and the Agikuyu clusters emerged. Paul Aseka Abuso in his book A Traditional History of the Abakuria has written thus: Abakuria section of the Abagumbe, Abapemba, Abaasi and Abasonga also state in their tradition that they travelled together with the ancestors of the Kikuyu among other people from Misiri to Lake Baringo in the Kenya Rift Valley where they finally separated. Although Kikuyu history does not corroborate this point it looks as if at one time the ancestors of these people originally lived together in some area north of Mount Elgon. Perhaps the people known as Sirikwa mentioned above were part of that larger ancestral community — or possibly their descendants. This is not yet clear.
The other view of the origin of the name Kuria is as follows. Between about 1774 and 1858, some of the Abakuria people were living in Musoma district in the present Tanzania and were settled in a hilly area north of the River Mara then known as Korea hill. The inhabitants of that area in time became known as Korea people after the name of the hill, which eventually changed to Kuria hill whereby the people became known as the Abakuria. The divergent views on the origin of the name would explain why the name had not gained wide acceptance among the Abakuria even at the beginning of the last century, as people still largely identified themselves by the sub-group names. During the colonial period, it was the name Abatende (after the Abatende clan in Bugumbe area) rather than Abakuria, which was in common use among the Kenya Abakuria. Those living in Tanzania continued to be known by their totems. It is only in about the 1950s that the name Abakuria gained wide usage. In a similar manner the Mijikenda, Abaluyia and Kalenjin became generally accepted as collective ethnic names in the 1940s and 1950s, at a time when in Kenya they were seeking political recognition by the colonial authorities.
The Abakuria are divided into several clans which include the following; the Abagumbe, Abairege, Abanyabasi and Abakira who live in Kenya (a total of 4 clans) Abapemba, Ababurati, Abakira, Abamera, Simbete, Abanyabasi, Watobori, Abakunta, Wiga, Kaboye, Abakenye, Abagumbe and Wasweta, Abatimbaru among others (a total of 13) who live in Tanzania.
Social and political organisations
The Abakuria people appear to have sprung from too many directions to have a common historical origin, although a number of clans claim to have come from Egypt. The culture of the present Abakuria therefore is an amalgam of many different cultures which may originally have been opposed to each other in content and practice. Among the Abakuria today are found people who were originally from the Kalenjin, Maasai, Bantu and Luo speaking communities.
Between AD 1400 and 1800 when migrations into Bukuria took place, the foundation was laid for the future Abakuria cultural and political developments. Early inhabitants of Bukuria came from both Bantu and Nilotic speakers who brought into Bukuria their peculiar cultures. Predominantly agricultural Bantu came into close contact with predominantly Nilotic pastoralists. Thus a blend of cultures took place among the early inhabitants of Bukuria from the start by combining agricultural practice with pastoral pursuit as well as tendencies towards nomadic life. Today elements of Abakuria agriculture is much like that of the Abagusii and the Luo while in cattle keeping they have borrowed the practices of the Maasai, Zanaki and Nguruimi.
Before the population had increased very much, it appears that a number of the Abakuria communities developed independently without many interactions with the others. Many of those who lived at the foothills of such places as Gutura, Maheta and Gwasi tended to carry on with their mode of life as if there were no other people around them. During the seventeenth and the eighteenth centuries, more and More immigrants settled into the region and whether they liked it or not, the earlier communities were forced to interact with the new arrivals or at any rate to confront them. Some of the newcomers were aggressive and would not let their neighbours live in peace as they engaged in raiding for cattle and at times fought for dominance in the region. This meant that the small family clusters that had hitherto lived peacefully in the region shifted location and internal migration and resettlements were a continuous and repetitive process within and around Bukuria. In this way new social groups were formed. Many of these new societies were often swelled by splinter groups running away from other broken-up communities as a result of disruptions of war and raids. The Abamerani, for example, are said to have swallowed up many other clans.
Currently The Kuria are resident in the Tarime, Musoma, Bunda and Serengeti districts of the Mara Region in Northern Tanzania, and the west and east districts of the former Nyanza Province in southwest Kenya. In 2006 the Kuria population was estimated to number 609,000, with 308,000 living in Tanzania and 301,000 in Kenya. The latest (2012) anthropological research estimate the population of the Abakuria in Kenya to be about 650,000 and those of Tanzania to about 700,000.
The Kuria people were mainly pastoralists in the pre-colonial era but currently the Kenyan Kurians lean towards crop production and the Tanzanian Kurians learn more towards pastoralism. The Abakuria are said to have abandoned Pastrolism after they were forced to do so by the Germans when they landed in the modern-day Northern Tanzania. The Kurians in the Serengeti district are distinctly pastoralist. Details on how Abakuria started crop production and abandoned pastrolism will be available as a researcher is currently working on the same.
The Kuria are closely related to the Kisii people of Kenya both in language and physique.
Fred Maseke (Facebook: Rick M Fred -Article Editor and researcher) and Friday Bwiyere (Facebook: Frahiday Bwiyere- research aide) are currently doing a research on various prominent personalities from Kurialand and will soon be featured here.
Tools made by Kurians
Wooden tools made by Abhabhachi (carpenters)
|English Name||Kuria Name||Application of the tool|
|Stool||Igitumbe||Used as chair|
|Pistel||Ihuri||Thrashing millet, cassava|
|Wooden hoe||Inkuro||Weeding and digging|
|High wooden shoes||Imityambwi||Dancing shoes for sururu|
Straw tools and vessels made by Abharuki (Weavers)
|English Name||Kuria Name||Application of the tool|
|Harvesting Basket||Irikanga||Harvesting Millet|
|Food serving basket||Ekehe, Ekegaro||Utensils|
|Straw door shutter||Egesaku||Door shutter|
|Straw ornaments||Obhogeka||Worn by girls and ladies|
|Guard container||Ekerandi, Egesencho||Serving water, milk|
|Drinking straw||Orokore Beer||drinking straw|
|English Name||Kuria Name||Application of the tool|
|Cow hide Iriho||Engebho Drying floor||bedding|
|Goat/culf skin||Egesero||Wearing as clothing|
|Decorated cow/goat skin||Engemaita, Embotora||Worn by ladies during ceremonies|
|Treated goat skin||Igisiriti||Worn by ladies and girls|
|Shredded skin||Amacharya||Worn by boys during initiation|
|Thong||Urukini, irichi||To tie cows, fireword|
|Hood, Crown||Ekondo||War gear (outfit)|
Pottery products made by Abhabhumbi (potters)
|English Name||Kuria Name||Application of the tool|
|Water pot||Esengo ya Amanche||Water storage|
|Milk pot||Ekenyongo||Milk storage|
|Huge Ugali pot||Inyakaruga||Cooking Ugali|
|Smoking pipe||Ighikwabhe||Tobacco smoking|
|Flour pot||Enyongo ya bhose||Flour pot|
|Vegetable pot||Iririghira||Cooking pot|
Kuria names derived from events and various conditions
Kuria people also name their children according to an event which took place during the birth of a child. Some of the events are natural occurrences such as:
- Earthquake (Kirigiti)
- Lightning (Nkobha)
- Rains (Wambura/Nyambura)
- Famine (Wanchara)
- Harvest (Magesa/Mogesi)
- Floods (Nyamanche)
The list is not exhaustive.
The following list is some of the Kuria names and their literal meaning. Note that all names have deep spiritual relevance and meaning and can be interpreted differently according to circumstances and objectives as discussed earlier. This is a sample list, Wakuria have many more names than expected. It is not Chachas and Mwitas only.
Kuria names derived animals or birds
- Nyamburi = Goat
- Nyang’ombe = Cow
- Gaini = Bull
- Nyangoko/Magoko = Chicken
- Wangwe = Leopard
- Wandui = Lion
- Nyanswi = Fish
- Tyenyi = Animal
- Machage = Zebra
- Nchoka/Waichoka = Snake
- Nguti = Dove
- Sariro = Eagle
- Mang’era = Buffalo
- Nyanchugu = Elephant
- Wankuru = Tortoise
- Kehengu = Rock rabbit
- Ngocho = Parrot
- Ng’wena = Crocodile
- Magige = Locust
- Kinyunyi = Bird
Names after action or fortune.
- Mokami = Milkman
- Motegandi/ Mohagachi = Builder
- Murimi = Farmer
- Nyantahe = From Container
- Muya = Beauty
- Mohoni = Salesman
- Motongori = First Harvester
- Mtundi = Food provider
- Matinde = Land tiler
- Waitara = Granary
- Mataro/ Machera/Mogendi = Traveller
- Moseti = Hunter
- Mbusiro = Seeding grain
Names after clans/tribes
- Mwikabhe/Ikwabhe = Maasai
- Mtatiro = Tatoga
- Mogaya = Luo
- Mgusuhi = Kisii
- Nyabasi = From Nyabasi
- Mtimbaru = From Butimbaru
- Nyanokwe = God
- Wainani = Jinni
- Mgosi = From North
- Wanyancha = From West/Lake
- Mirumbe = Mist/Fog
- Sabure = god of the Wanchari
- Melengali = Sunlight
- Nchota/Nsato = Mystical snake
- Matiko/Butiko = Night
- Ryoba/Rioba = Sun
Kuria names – firstborns (Abatangi)
Firstborns are important to every family hence their names must correspond to the greetings the mother or father would be greeted. Once one has a child he/she will be greeted by the name of his son or daughter. Wakuria have six names for firstborns. Chacha, Marwa and Mwita for boys and Bhoke, Robi and Gati for girls. If the first born is a boy, one of the three names Chacha, Mwita or Marwa is selected. The father now will be greeted Isachacha, Isamwita or Isamarwa. The mother will be greeted Nyamwita or Nyachacha. If the first born is a girl the names available are Bhoke, Robi, Gati and greetings will be prefixed Isa or Nya to the respective name. You will note that there are no greetings like nyaryoba, isamatinde, because these are not names for firstborns. Note that a Kuria will be greeted by the name of the firstborn. When one gets grandchildren then the greeting will change to nyakorochacha or nyakororobi, isakoromwita. The greetings are changed by the first born grandchildren names. If one was greeted isachacha and gets a first born grandchild called Robi his greeting will change from Isachacha to Isakororobi.
Ancestor names (ichidonko)
Kuria also name their children after the names of the ancestors (Abhakoro). Such naming will occur if the wish of the dead grandfather or mother requested to be named a boy or girl. That is why there is mwita for both girls and boys. Some for sake of love one would like to name the ancestors as a sign that the ancestor has been reborn. A child can have two names one for obhotangi and another for endoko. My son is Chacha because he is a first born and he is called Monata a name after my grandfather. The other cause of naming ancestors will result when the child is sick or misfortunes come to a family and they seek omogabho/omoraguli to find out the problem. The omoraguli will advise to name a child an ancestor whose spirits have been troubled by the family. When naming the child, the family will be required to sacrifice (kumwensa) a goat or a cow depending on the wish of the spirits and the magnitude of the problem. Similarly names like Nyamohanga, Ryoba, Magaigwa, Nsato, Sabure, Wankuru, Ng’oina, Wanchoka, Mwikwabhe are named after the spirits. That is why when Kurias were baptized their native names were rejected because they were assumed to be associated with the spirits (Evil spirits?).
Wakuria generations (Amakora)
Wakuria have developed a generation system which place every individual in a generation group. There are two sets of generations
The first set is called Monyasae and the other is Monyachuma.
The Monyasae has a four circle generations as follows:
The Monyachuma has also four circle generations as follows:
The generations identifies an individual in the Kuria society. For example, a child of a Mosae from the monyasae generation circle will be a munyamburiti and will give forth to Omogamunyeri. No one is allowed to marry a child of the same generation. One generation circle is considered to last 25 years. A complete generation circle is hundred yearS. By knowing your generation you can easily calculate the age of your parents and grandparents. In the case of a mugamunyeri, his or her father is a Mnyamburiti.
By using the generation system you can even know when a major event took place by associating the event and those who witnessed the event if their generation is known e.g. Uhuru, Second World War etc.
Change from childhood to adulthood is an important Kuria ritual which transform individual to another stage of life. The change known as saro is a passage to adulthood. Every boy or girl must pass through saro to be recognised as an adult; otherwise, he is Mulisya or Mosagane.
When one is circumcised he/she is placed into an age-set (esaro). It is not the purpose of this issue to describe the circumcision process but to emphasise the importance of the ritual. In Kuria society one is recognised by the age set group. All people circumcised at the same time are given an age set (saro). When a girl is married her age set group is changed to that of the husband if their saro are different. No one is allowed to marry children of same saros, All ceremonies are done on the basis of saro or amakora. One will not be allowed to marry or married if he has not gone through circumcision. In modern times boys are circumcised in hospitals and it is slowly being accepted but looked down as an inferior process. A real mkuria should face a mosali get circumcised without a wink.
Traditionally, circumcision was done at the age around 13 years, but this differed significantly from one clan to another. The Abairege had most of their men circumcised at 15–18 years and above. However, this has changed to the onset of puberty. To this date, various organisations are working to ensure the tradition of female genital mutilation is aborted. Also, due to increased spread of HIV/AIDS organisations advocate for care during circumcision rituals. Many families are opting to take their children to hospitals and the traditional circumcision experts have now opted to use individual razors for each person during circumcision. After the cut, the boys or girls that have undergone the practice are normally led back home by fellow villagers amidst singing and dancing and money is pinned onto their shukas. The shukas are one-piece coloured sheets that the circumcised tie around themselves so as to let the blood drip freely to the ground. Once circumcision has taken place, according to tradition, the boy or girl is deemed ready for marriage. Kurian people are from the Bantu-speaking group of Kenya. They are traditionally farmers, mainly planting maize, beans and Cassava as food crops. For cash crops, the Kuria community mainly grows tobacco. They are also keep cattle and this has led clashes with the neighbouring tribes, mainly the Maasai, over cattle rustling.
Commonly used words in Kuria
- Amang'ana = general greeting
- Mbhuya uhoyile = How was your day.
- Tang'a amanche ghakunywa = Can I have water (drinking)
- Nuuwengw'i = What is your name.
- Omosani = friend
- Omogheni = guest
- Omokhebhara = foreigner
- Omosacha = male
- Omokali = female
- Umwisekhe = young lady
- Umumura = young male
- Kharibhu = Welcome
- Okoreebhuya = Thank you
- Umurisia = uncircumcised male
- Omosaghane = uncircumcised female
- Iritoka = car (from English "car")
- Isukhuuli = school (from English "school")
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kuria people.|
Your description is good, but you have mixed Ikoma language and Kuria despite being closely related