Kuriakose Elias Chavara

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Mar Kuriakose Elias Chavara
ܡܪܝ ܩܘܪܝܩܘܣ ܐܠܝܐ
മാർ കുര്യാക്കോസ് ഏലിയാസ് ചാവറ
Kuriakose Chavara und Hl. Familie.jpg
Mar Kuriakose Elias Chavara of Mannanam
Vicar General of Syrian Catholics
Born (1805-02-10)February 10, 1805
Kainakary, Kuttanad, Kingdom of Travancore
Died January 3, 1871(1871-01-03) (aged 65)
Koonammavu, Kingdom of Cochin
Honored in
Catholic Church
Beatified 8 February 1986, Kottayam by Pope John Paul II
Canonized 23 November 2014, Rome by Pope Francis
Major shrine St. Joseph's Syro-Malabar Dayra Church, Mannanam, Kottayam[1]
Feast 3 January (Syro-Malabar)
Attributes Syrian Catholic saint and social reformer
St. Joseph's Syro-Malabar Dayra Church, Mannanam, where the mortal remains of Mar Kuriakose Chavara are kept.
Marth Mariam and Unni Isho, accompanied by Mar Yohanan Mamdana from Peshitta. Painting of Ravi Varma found at Mannanam Dayra.
Part of a series on
Saint Thomas Christians
നസ്രാണികൾ
St. Thomas Cross
Alternate names
Nasrani · Mar Thoma Nasrani · Syrian Christians
History
Saint Thomas · Thomas of Cana · Mar Sabor and Mar Proth · Tharisapalli plates · Synod of Diamper · Coonan Cross Oath
Religion
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Prominent persons
Abraham Malpan · Paremmakkal Thoma Kathanar · Kuriakose Elias Chavara · Varghese Payyappilly Palakkappilly · Kariattil Mar Ousep · Gheevarghese Mar Gregorios of Parumala · Geevarghese Mar Ivanios · Saint Alphonsa · Euphrasia Eluvathingal · Thoma of Villarvattom
Culture

Margam Kali · Parichamuttukali · Cuisine · Suriyani Malayalam

Mar Kuriakose Elias Chavara was a Syrian Catholic saint and social reformer from the Indian state of Kerala.[2] He is the second canonised saint of the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church, an Eastern Catholic Church of the Saint Thomas Christian community founded by St. Thomas the Apostle in the first century.[1][3] He was the co-founder and first Prior General of the first congregation for men in the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church, now known as the Carmelites of Mary Immaculate, and of a similar one for women, the Congregation of the Mother of Carmel.

Early life[edit]

Kuriakose Elias Chavara was born on 10 February 1805 at Kainakary, Kerala in a Nasrani Christian family as the son of Iko (Kuriakose) Chavara and Mariam Chothirakkunnel. Nasranis are Saint Thomas Christians (also known as Syrian Chrstians) who are the ancient Christians of Kerala baptized by St. Thomas the Apostle in the first century. The name Kuriakose is derived from the Syriac Aramaic name ܩܘܪܝܩܘܣ (Quriaqos).[4] He was baptized on 17 February 1805 at St. Joseph's Syro-Malabar Church, Chennamkary.

In his childhood, Kuriakose attended the village school. There he studied language and elementary sciences. He entered the seminary in 1818 in Pallipuram where Palackal Thoma Malpan was the Rector. He was ordained a priest on 29 November 1829 and celebrated first Holy Qurbana at St. Joseph's Syro-Malabar Church, Chennamkary.

Later life[edit]

Kuriakose Kathanar joined with two other priests, Palackal Thoma Malpan and Porukara Thoma Kathanar to lead a monastic life. The name of the community they founded was Servants of Mary Immaculate. The foundation for the first Dayra at Mannanam was laid on 11 May 1831 by Porukara Thomas Kathanar. Palackal Malpan and Porukara Kathanar died in 1841 and 1846 respectively. On 8 December 1855, Kuriakose Kathanar and ten other priests took vows in the Carmelite tradition. He was nominated as the Prior General of Mannanam Dayra. The congregation became affiliated as a Third Order institute of the Order of Discalced Carmelites. From that point on they used the postnominal initials of T.O.C.D.[5]

Social reformer[edit]

Kuriakose Kathanar was also a social reformer.[6][7] Though he hailed from an upper caste Syrian Christian family,[8] he played a major role in educating the people of the lower ranks of society. In 1846, Kuriakose Kathanar St. Joseph's Press at Mannanam which was the third printing press in Kerala and the first press founded by a Malayali without the help of foreigners.[9][7] From this printing press came the first Malayalam daily Nasrani Deepika.[6][7][10] He also started a school at Mannanam in the same year. He was responsible for introducing noon day meals in schools, a practice later adopted by the rulers of Travancore and then by the Indian government.[6] In 1864, while he was serving as the Vicar General of Syrian Catholics, he ordered to start a school along with every church (palli) which was successful in making free education available for everyone.[7][11] Thus schools in Kerala came to be known as pallikudam.[4][12]

Service to the Church[edit]

Kuriakose Kathanar introduced retreat preaching for the laity for the first time in the Kerala Church. He popularised devotions and piety exercises such as rosary, way of the cross and eucharistic adoration. He was the Vicar General of Syrian Catholics[11][7] in 1861 in order to counter the influence of Mar Thomas Rochos on Saint Thomas Christians.[13]

Founder of CMI and CMC congregations[edit]

In co-operation with Palackal Thoma Malpan and Thoma Porukara, Kuriakose Kathanar founded an Indian religious congregation for men, now known as the Carmelites of Mary Immaculate. He believed that intellectual development and the education of women was the first step towards overall social welfare. Hence he founded, the Congregation of the Mother of Carmel, the first religious congregation for women in 1866.[14][15]

Death[edit]

Kuriakose Kathanar died on 3 January 1871, aged 66, at Koonammavu. His mortal remains were transferred to St. Joseph's Syro-Malabar Dayra Church, Mannanam on 24 May 1889.[6][7][11] His memorial is celebrated on 3 January as per the Syro-Malabar liturgical calendar.[16]

Images[edit]

There are various images of Kuriakose Kathanar all over the world. The National Shrine of Saint Jude, Faversham, United Kingdom has a beautiful icon of the Saint. In 2004 a fire broke out in the Shrine Chapel which destroyed the murals which hung there, and it damaged much of the other artwork. The decision was made to install icons depicting saints inspired by the Carmelite Rule of Saint Albert, and in commemoration of the 8th centenary of the Carmelite Rule in 2007. The icons were written by Sister Petra Clare, a Benedictine hermit living in Scotland, United Kingdom.[17]

Canonisation[edit]

Scores of miraculous favours were reported by the intercession of Kuriakose Kathanar. Sister Alphonsa, who later became the first saint of India, has testified in 1936 that Kuriakose Kathanar had appeared to her twice during her illness and relieved her suffering. In 1955, Mar Mathew Kavukattu, arch-bishop of Changanacherry, received instructions from Rome to start diocese-level procedure towards the canonisation. On April 7, 1984, Pope John Paul II approved Kuriakose Kathanar's practice of heroic virtues and declared him Venerable.[18]

Kuriakose Kathanar was beatified at Kottayam on 8 February 1986 by Pope John Paul II in the course of a papal visit to India.[18]

On 3 April 2014, Pope Francis authorised the Congregation for the Causes of Saints to promulgate the decrees concerning the miracle attributed to Kuriakose Kathanar's intercession.[19] This confirmed Pope's approval of Kuriakose Kathanar's canonisation.[20] On 23 November 2014, he was canonized at Saint Peter's Square by Pope Francis along with Euphrasia Eluvathingal [21]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "CNN-IBN. Retrieved 23 November 2014". 
  2. ^ http://deepika.epapr.in/c/3897664
  3. ^ "Malayala Manorama Kochi. Retrieved 25 November 2014". 
  4. ^ a b "Malayala Manorama Kochi. Retrieved 23 November 2014". 
  5. ^ "Kuriakose Elias Chavara". CMI. 
  6. ^ a b c d "The Hindu article on Mar Chavara Kuriakose Elias Kathanar". 
  7. ^ a b c d e f "Indian Express article on Mar Chavara Kuriakose Elias Kathanar". 
  8. ^ Forrester, Duncan (1980). Caste and Christianity. Curzon Press. pp. 98,102. 
  9. ^ http://www.marunadanmalayali.com/opinion/devotion/saint-kuriakose-elias-chavara-and-malayalam-printing-8074
  10. ^ "Rashtra Deepika Ltd at a Glance". Deepika. 
  11. ^ a b c "Manorama article on Mar Chavara Kuriakose Elias Kathanar". 
  12. ^ "Unique Contributions of Blessed Kuriakose Elias Chavara in Education". 
  13. ^ "The life of Blessed Chavara". blessedchavara.org. Retrieved 15 September 2014. 
  14. ^ "Congregation of Mother of Carmel". 
  15. ^ "Beatification of Father Kuriakose Elias Chavara and Sister Alfonsa Muttathupandathu - Homily of His Holiness John Paul II". Vatican.va. Retrieved 3 April 2014. 
  16. ^ "Bl. Kuriakose Elias Chavara". 
  17. ^ http://www.carmelite.org/index.php?nuc=content&id=116
  18. ^ a b "Canonisation process of Kuriakose Elias Chavara". BlessedChavara.org. 
  19. ^ "Decrees for the Causes of Saints". The Vatican Information Service. Retrieved 3 April 2014. 
  20. ^ "Laval, Marie de l'Incarnation decreed saints". The Catholic Register. Retrieved 3 April 2014. 
  21. ^ "Six news Saints to be created on feast of Christ the King". Radio Vaticana. Retrieved 13 June 2014. 

External links[edit]