Kurtz (Heart of Darkness)
Kurtz is a central fictional character in Joseph Conrad's novella Heart of Darkness. A trader of ivory in Africa and commander of a trading post, he monopolises his position as a demigod among native Africans. Kurtz meets with the novella's protagonist, Charles Marlow, who returns him to the coast via steamboat. Kurtz, whose reputation precedes him, impresses Marlow strongly, and during the return journey Marlow is witness to Kurtz's final moments.
In the novella
Kurtz is an ivory trader, sent by a shadowy Belgian company into the heart of an unnamed place in Africa (generally regarded as the Congo Free State). With the help of his superior technology, Kurtz has turned himself into a charismatic demigod of all the tribes surrounding his station, and gathered vast quantities of ivory in this way. As a result, his name is known throughout the region. Kurtz's general manager is jealous of Kurtz, and plots his downfall.
Kurtz's mother was half-English, his father was half-French and thus "All Europe contributed to the making of Kurtz.” As the reader finds out at the end, Kurtz is a multitalented man – painter, musician, writer, promising politician. He starts out, years before the novella begins, as an imperialist in the best tradition of the "white man's burden." The reader is introduced to a painting of Kurtz's, depicting a blindfolded woman bearing a torch against a nearly black background, and clearly symbolic of his former views. Kurtz is also the author of a pamphlet regarding the civilization of the natives.
However, over the course of his stay in Africa, Kurtz becomes corrupted. He takes his pamphlet and scribbles in, at the very end, the words "Exterminate all the brutes!" He induces the natives to worship him, setting up rituals and venerations worthy of a tyrant. By the time Marlow, the protagonist, sees Kurtz, he is ill with "jungle fever" and almost dead. Marlow seizes Kurtz and endeavors to take him back down the river in his steamboat. Kurtz dies on the boat with the last words, "The horror! The horror!"
Georges Antoine Klein may have been the real-life individual upon whom Joseph Conrad based the character Kurtz. Klein was an employee of the Brussels-based trading company Société Anonyme Belge pour le Commerce du Haut-Congo, and died shortly after being picked up on the steamboat Conrad was piloting.
In his history book King Leopold's Ghost, Adam Hochschild suggests that Leon Rom was one of the inspirations for the Mr. Kurtz character, citing references as the heads on the stakes outside of the station and other similarities between the two.
Conrad also expressed an admiration of Robert Louis Stevenson's Pacific writings, in particular the stories "The Beach of Falesá" and The Ebb-Tide, as well as the non-fiction account of Tembinok' of the Gilbert Islands that appeared in In the South Seas. All three texts contain megalomaniacs who manipulate their circumstances and remote settings to assert power over others. It is widely believed that Conrad drew influence from these characters, as well as Stevenson's plot lines, when writing Heart of Darkness.
In other works
||It has been suggested that Colonel Kurtz be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since September 2012.|
Francis Ford Coppola's 1979 Vietnam War film Apocalypse Now centers on the protagonist's mission to find and kill the renegade Colonel Kurtz, based on Conrad's character, who has gone rogue far up a river, deep in the Southeast Asian jungle. The 2012 video game Spec Ops: The Line, another modernized loose adaptation of Heart of Darkness (set in a ruined Dubai), has a similar Kurtz figure named Colonel John Konrad.
Notes and references
- Conrad, Joseph (September 1997). Heart of Darkness. Introduction by Joyce Carol Oates. Penguin Putnam. pp. 4–5. ISBN 0-451-52657-0.
- Spec Ops: The Line Preview—The Horror, The Horror | GameFront