Kuruba

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"Kurumba" redirects here. For the coconut variety, see King coconut.
virupaksha Rayar-2,last kuruba emperor
Kuruba
Religions Hinduism
Languages Kannada, Kuruba language, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil
Populated States Southern India

Kuruba or Kuruma or Gowda or Kuruba Gowda is a caste among Hindus. In the past, people belonging to this caste were primarily shepherds and farmers. The community is present in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. They are known by different names such as Dhangar / Hatkar / Telwar Lingayat in Maharashtra;[1] kshatriyar/Kurumba / Kurumas / Kurumba Goundar /Kurumba idaiyar in Tamil Nadu; Kuruba Gowda or Halumatha Kuruba in Karnataka and Kuruma in Andhra Pradesh.

Etymology[edit]

The word Kuruba means "Warrior". The word "Kuru" means "do or seek" in Sanskrit, and "Kuruhu" means "trust" in Kannada. "Kuruba" can be inferred to mean "doers" or "trustworthy". Kuruba can also be inferred to mean Seeker of Knowledge; Kuru (seek), Bha (Knowledge, Light). Kuruba has a direct meaning of one who herds "Kuri" (Sheep) in Kannada, mainly a Shepherd.

According to the British historian Reginald Edward Enthoven, Kurubas are none other than the Ahirs of the South.[2][3]

History[edit]

The Kuruba community is one of the oldest existing communities of India, tracing its history back to prehistoric times. Before the Tamil Sangam, South India was inhabited by megalith-builders. These were a pastoral people who lived in caves and in the wilderness. They made weapons of stone & metal and pottery. These people built dolmes and cromlechs for their noble dead. In these they buried their dead along with foodgrains, tools, weapons and other eminities for the afterlife. Kurubas are believed to have descended from these people. People of the Kuruba community have long practised a variety of professions, and have not been confined to their traditional (and still predominant) occupation as shepherds and farmers.

Culture[edit]

Kurubas are Hindus who follow the Halumatha tradition, referred to as Palamatha in some parts of India, the religion of the Palakas.[citation needed] They are primarily shaivite and worship the various forms of Lord Shiva such as Revanasiddeshwara,Kalleshewara, Beeralingeshwara, Mailaralingeshwara, Gunthakallappa, Vaikerappa, Siddarameshwara etc. Generally, priests in Beeralingeshwara and Mailaralingeshwara temples are also Kurubas.

Kurubas are of two major divisions: the larger one is the Kannada-speaking pastoral caste of Western Karnataka, while the other is the Kurumba language speaking tribe of Nilgiris and surrounding parts.[citation needed]

Kurubas traditionally and religiously have a ritual of wearing ‘Kankana’ (a form of bracelet). This is further divided into two forms know as Hatthikankana and Unnekankana. The Kurubas wear the Kankana, with pride, as they believe that by wearing them it would give them the power and determination to do good and contribute significantly to the over all growth and development of the society.

Other names[edit]

Kurubas are known by different names in different regions of the country, like, Bharwad, Rabari, Bharavadaru, Dhangar, Dhangad, Dhanwar, Dhanka, Dhangod, Doddi Gowda, Golla, Kurumba Gounder, Halumatha, Heggades, Idaiyar, Kuruba, Kuruba Gowda, Kurumba, Kurmar, Kurumbar, Kuruma, Naikers, Naidus, Nikhers, Oraon,kshatriyar etc.

Gowda is the commonly used surname among Kurubas in Karnataka,Tamil Nadu,Andra pradesh,Kerala.

Sub-castes[edit]

aavesa kuruba Hane kuruba Simple kuruba

Gotras[edit]

The tradition of gotras was started by Kuruba Gowdas as a means of identifying people of same familial lineage. Gotras were used to prevent intermarriages amongst family members within the community. Allama Prabhu, the Lingayat saint had said "Kuruba Hutavamunna Kulavilla Gotra Villam, Kuruban fal kani Basavanna", meaning "Before the Kurubas there were no gotras, gotras came with Kurubas, Basavanna, we are the descendants of kurubas". This shows that many Lingayats were Kurubas/Dhangars previously.[citation needed] The gotra system was later adopted by other communities and is even prevalent to this day.[citation needed]

Deities[edit]

Festivals[edit]

Epics[edit]

Traditions[edit]

Dollukunitha.

Traditionally Kuruba Gowdas celebrate most Hindu festivals. They have their own costumes, songs, ballads and plays in praise of god such as:

Kingdoms and rulers[edit]

Notable Persons[edit]

  • T.Mariappa - Ex-Finance Minister, erstwhile Mysore State. He was a freedom fighter and the first Kuruba to hold the finance ministry in the erstwhile State of Mysore
  • Lokula Narayana - freedom fighter & M.L.A (Secunderabad (1972-1983))
  • Siddaramaiah - Chief Minister of Karnataka.
  • V.L. Patil – freedom fighter & former Revenue Minister, Social welfare Minister, Transport & Labour, Industry, Horticulture and Member of Parliament.
  • K.S.Eshwarappa - Former Deputy Chief minister of Karnataka
  • Late D K Naikar - Former Minister and former President of the Karnataka Pradesh Congress Committee
  • Bandaru Dattatreya - Former Union minister - ( A P )
  • HM Revanna - Former minister
  • A KRISHNAPPA -Ex- MINISTER - JAYAMAHA CONSTITUENCY -BANGALORE
  • Late Smt. Laxmidevi Ex- MLA -bangalore
  • Adagur H.Vishwanath - former minister & MP - mysore
  • C.H.Vijayashankar -former minister & MP - mysore
  • Bandeppa Kaashampur - former minister - bidar
  • Veerupaakshappa - Ex - MP - raichur
  • Amar Simha Patil - Ex- MP - Belgam
  • Ramesh kudchi - Ex-MLA -BELGAM DIST
  • N Nagaraj MTB - MLA Hosakote
  • Vartur Huli. Prakash - MLA Kolar
  • Raghavendra hitnal -MLA,koppal
  • doddanagouda-MLA,kustagi
  • Bhyrathi Basavaraj - MLA KR Puram
  • Kadsiddappa - X MLA Honnali
  • Venkatesh Murthy - Ex- Mayor of Bangalore -BBMP
  • ramachandrapppa -Ex -mayor of -BBMP
  • J Huchchappa Ex-mayor of -BBMP
  • Y Raamachandrappa -former minister * M K Somashekar – Krishnaraja
  • Late Mancnalli Mahadev -Ex -MLA - K R RNAGAR
  • B G Govindappa- MLA- Hosadurga
  • Channabasappa Sathyappa Shivalli – MLA- Kundagola
  • Basaraj Itnal- Koppala
  • Basavaraj Shivannanavar- Byadagi
  • Hullappa Yavanappa Meti- FORMER MINISTER - Bagalkote
  • B B Chimmanakatti- FORMER MINISTER - Badami
  • Sureshbabu- C N Halli
  • G H Srinivasa Gowda - Tarikere
  • DoddeGowda E-mla ,HOLENASIPURA,Hassan.
  • T.H. Shivashankarapp E-Mla,Tarikere.

Film Industry:

  • Rajesh - Kala Tapasvi(Senior Actor)
  • Duniya Vijay
  • Yogesh (Loose Maadha)
  • R Chandru - Director
  • Naganna - Director
  • Anand Appugol - Producer
  • late ratnaakar - comedian
  • Mimicre Dayanand
  • Late Raajesh - jungle jockey
  • Rajshekar - film Director
  • Smt .Aasha Sarjaa - Mrs Arjun Sarjaa - D/o of kala tapasvi Raajesh
===In film===
  IN THE FIELD OF EDUCATION 
  • J LAKKAPPA GOWDA - Ex VICE CHANCELLOR - KANNADA V V - BELLARY
  • Smt . KAANTHA JHADAV -Ex - VC ( FIRST ) -RAAJIV GHANDHI UNIVERSITY OF MEDICAL SCIENCE - BANGALORE
  • MAHESHWARAPPA - VC -VISHVESWRAIAH TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY - BELGAM
  • Smt.MALLIKAA GHANTI - REGISTRAR - KUVEMPU -VV -SHIMOGA
  • DR.F.T.HALLIKERI PROFESSOR, DEPT OF MANUSCRIPTOLOGY & CO-ORDINATOR HALUMATA ADHYAYANA PEETH, KANNADA UNIVERSITY HAMPI, VIDYARANYA -583201, BELLARY DIST, CONTACT-9448184022

IAS , IPS , IFS , KAS .........

  • CHANDRASHEKARAIAH - IAS
  • KEMPAIAH - IPS - FORMER ADD.DIRECTOR GENERAL OF POLICE
  • M R POOJAAR - IPS - FORMER - IGP - PRESENTLY HEADING - RIGHT TO INFORMATION COMMISSION OF STATE
  • NAARAYANA SWAMY - IFS
  • SHIVANA - IFS
  • MUNI NAARAYANAPPA - Ex- JOINT COMMISSIONER - EXCISE
  • YOGANNANAVAR - KAS
  • Smt. ANUPAMMA -KAS
  • NEELAKANTHA - KAS
  • Mr. C.L. Ananda - A.C., Tumakur district.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ See R. C. Dhere, Shikar Shingnapurcha ShriShambhu Mahadeo, 2001, Pune, (Marathi), Pg. 276, 277, 288, 297, 307, 312, 338, 384, 221, 143, 127, 78, 67, 45, 2
  2. ^ Enthoven, Reginald Edward. The tribes and castes of Bombay. Retrieved 2012-09-17. 
  3. ^ Enthoven, Reginald Edward, The tribes and castes of Bombay, volume 1, page 19
  4. ^ By L. Krishna Anantha Krishna Iyer (Diwan Bahadur), 1936
  5. ^ a b By Suresh K Sharma page 173
  6. ^ a b By Sabyasachi Bhattacharya, page 40
  7. ^ a b Dames, Mansel Longworth,Book of Duarte Barbosa, page 204
  8. ^ Mackenzie collection: a descriptive catalogue of the oriental manuscripts and other articles of south india, surver general of India, volume 1 page cxl3

Further reading[edit]

  • "Bharatha Kurubara Charithre" by V R Hanumanthaiah
  • "Halumatha Darshana" by Shambha Joshi
  • "Karnataka Kurubas" by Shivanand Gubbanna
  • "Badal Aamhi Ghadvinar" in Marathi by Mahadeo Jankar
  • "Satyashodhak,Dandnayak - Saint Kanakadass" (in Marathi) by S.L. Akkisagar
  • "Bharathada Kurubaru" by B.K. Ravi (Kannada) original author Sham Singh Shasi
  • "Halumatha Sanskruthika padakosha by Dr.Lingadahalli Halappa - contact 9448184022
  • " Halumatta hirime" by Dr.Lingadahalli Halappa - contact 9449615600
  • "Halumatha Kuladaiva BEERADEVARU - by Dr.Lingadahalli Halappa - contact 9448150226
  • "Dalavayi"- living god Beerappa - Dr.Lingadahalli Halappa - contact 9448184022
  • "Bingayya" -living god SomaBeerappa -Dr.Lingadahalli Halappa - contact 9448184022
  • "Halumata parampare Part-1" Dr.Lingadahalli Halappa - contact 9448150226
  • "HALUMATA SAMSKRUTI -1" DR.F.T.HALLIKERI KANNADA UNIVRSITY HAMPI, CONTACT 9448184022
  • "HALUMATA VYASANGA-PART-1,2,3,4,5, DR.F.T.HALLIKERI KANNADA UNIVRSITY HAMPI, CONTACT 9448184022
  • "KURUBAR GURU ODEYARU DR.F.T.HALLIKERI KANNADA UNIVRSITY HAMPI, CONTACT 9448184022
  • "HALUMATADA CHARITRE (ORGINAL YALLANAGOUDA F ATTIKOLL, DHARAWAD)EDITED BY ANNAPURNA GOSBAL,HOSPET, CONTACT 9448184022
  • "BEERADEVAR CHARITRE (ORIGINAL BASAVANNAPPA NEELAPPA HALAVALLI, BANMKAPUR), EDITED BY DR.F.T.HALLIKERI, SHODHANA, TEACHERS COLONY, M.P.PRAKASHANAGAR, HOSPET, BELLARY DIST CONTACT 9448184022
  • "HALUMATA MAHASABHE MATTU BHASHANAGALU, DR.F.T.HALLIKERI KANNADA UNIVRSITY HAMPI, CONTACT 9448184022

External links[edit]