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Not to be confused with Kuttanadu, a province of the Chera Kingdom containing the whole of present day Eranakulam, Alappuzha, Idukki and Kottayam districts and parts of Kollam district.
Kettuvallams line up in the Kuttanad region
Kettuvallams line up in the Kuttanad region
Nickname(s): Lowest Region of India, Lowest Region of the Indian Subcontinent
Kuttanadu is located in Kerala
Location in Kerala, India
Coordinates: 9°25′30″N 76°27′50″E / 9.42500°N 76.46389°E / 9.42500; 76.46389Coordinates: 9°25′30″N 76°27′50″E / 9.42500°N 76.46389°E / 9.42500; 76.46389
Country  India
State Kerala
District Alappuzha
Elevation -2.2 m (−7.2 ft)
 • Official Malayalam, English
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 6895- 6896-
Telephone code 0477 ,0479
Vehicle registration KL 66
Nearest city Alappuzha
Public Transport Boat service in Kuttanadu

Kuttanadu is a region in the Alappuzha, Pathanamthitta and Kottayam Districts, in the state of Kerala, India, well known for its picturesque vast paddy fields and its geographical peculiarities. It's the region with the lowest altitude in India, and one of the few places in the world where farming is carried out below sea level. It’s also one of the historically important places in the ancient history of South India.It is the major rice granary of Kerala, where vast stretches of verdant paddy fields are interlaced with enchanting backwaters create some of the unforgettable sights.

It is noted for its farming below sea level (about 4 to 10 feet). Four major rivers in Kerala viz. Pampa, Meenachil, Achankovil and Manimala flow into the region


The name Kuttanad is from the Karumadikuttan (Malayalam: കരുമാടിക്കുട്ടൻ) which is the endearing name of Buddha. It was known as the land of Karumadikuttan. The land was full of water bodies and the lands were flooded during the monsoon. So the places are named after the banks of the water bodies like Mavelikkara (Mahabalikkarai), Puthukkary, Amichakary, Oorukkary, Mithrakary, Mampuzhakary, Kainakary, Chathurthiakary and Chennamkary where "kary" or "karai" means bank of a water body. During the reign of Chera dynasty that ruled over ancient Kerala, Kuttanadu attained an important place in the history. One of the powerful kings in the dynasty, Cheran Chenguttavan is said to have ruled his vast kingdom from Kuttanadu. It was also a famous centre of Buddhism. Another version for the name is, a Buddhist centre by the name Buddhanad existed in this place, which later gave its name to the place and thereby Kuttanadu.[1]


The Kuttanad region is categorised into:

Lower Kuttanadu comprises taluks of Ambalapuzha taluk, Kuttanadu (excluding Edathua, Thalavady and Muttar, and the northern half of Karthikapally taluk in Alappuzha district).

Upper Kuttanad comprises Veeyapuram village in Karthikapally taluk, Edathua, Thalavady, Kidangara and Muttar in Kuttanad taluk; Chennithala village in Mavelikkara, Mannar, Kuruttissery, Budhanur, Ennakkad villages in Chengannur taluk of Alappuzha district; and Parumala, Kadapra, Niranam, Pulikeezhu, Peringara, Chathenkeri, Nedumpuram, villages of Thiruvalla in Pathanamthitta district.

North Kuttanad comprises Vaikom taluk, western parts of Kottayam taluk, and western parts of Changanacherry taluk in Kottayam district.


A few of the major villages which form Kuttanad are: Kainakary, Ramankary, Puthukkary, Chennamkary, Nedumudi, Niramom, Kaipuzha, Kumarakom, Edathua, Mampuzhakkary, Neelamperoor, Kainady, Kavalam, Pulincunnoo, Kannady, Veliyanadu, Veeyapuram, Vezhapra, Kunnamkary, Kumaramkary, Valady, Kidangara, Mithrakary, Muttar, Neerattupuram, Thalavadi, Changankary, Champakulam, Nedumudi, Moonnatummukham, Melpadom, Payippad, Karichal, Ayaparambu, Anary, Vellamkulangara, Pilappuzha, Pandi, Edathua, Pacha, Chekkidikad, Thakazhy, Cheruthana, Karuvatta, Chennithala, Narakathara, Venattukad, Kayalppuram, Mankompu, Chathurthiakary, Manalady, Koduppunna, Oorukkary, Thayankary, Thiruvarpu, Pullangadi and payattupakka among others.

Backwater paddy cultivation (kayal cultivation)[edit]

Paddy fields in Kuttanad

The major occupation in Kuttanadu is farming, with rice the most important agricultural product. This activity gives the area its moniker of "The Rice Bowl of Kerala". Three crops are grown every year now instead of the traditional practice of two crops per year. Large farming areas near Vembanad Lake were reclaimed from the lake. The history of paddy cultivation in Kuttanad can be traced back centuries. The evolution of paddy cultivation correlated with technological advancement and changes in the regulatory framework that existed during the 19th and 20th centuries. In earlier times, reclamation was carried out mainly from the shallow part of the Vembanad Lake or from the periphery of the Pamba River. These reclamations constituted small areas of paddy fields called padsekharams. Bailing out of water from the fields were done manually using water wheels called chakram. Gradually the manual method used for bailing out of water gave way to steam engines.

There were robberies in Kuttanad in earlier days, which were prohibited by the Travancore Maharajah Moolam Thirunal.

Three distinct stages can be identified in the reclamation of kayal lands from the lake. The first stage was carried out by private entrepreneurs without any financial support from the government. The Pattom Proclamation made by the Travencore Kingdom in 1865, gave a great fillip to reclamation activities between 1865 to 1890. During this period de-watering of the polders was done manually using chakram, which restricted large-scale reclamation. Only about 250 hectares of land were reclaimed during this period. Venadu kayal and Madathil Kayal were reclaimed during this period and are considered the first "Kayal Nilams" to be reclaimed from the Vembanad Lake.[2] These pioneering reclamation activities in kayal cultivation were made by the two brothers Mathai Luka Pallithanam and Ouseph Luka Pallithanam from Kainady village in Kuttanadu.[3] The period between 1865 and 1890 is usually considered as the first phase of kayal cultivation.

The introduction of kerosene engines for dewatering resulted in the reclamation of wider areas of the lake for cultivation. This made farmers consider venturing into the deeper parts of the lake. During the period between 1898 to 1903, reclamation activity was led by Pallithanam Luka Mathai (alias Pallithanathu Mathaichen) who reclaimed the Cherukara Kayal and Pallithanam Moovayiram Kayal. But the second phase (1890 to 1903) of reclamation activities came to a halt because of the ban on kayal reclamation imposed by the Madras Government in 1903. Cherukali Kayal, Rama Rajapuram Kayal, Aarupanku Kayal, Pantharndu Panku kayal and Mathi Kayal were the other major reclamations during this period.

In 1912, the Madras Government approved a proposal from the Travancore Government for further reclamations in three stages. Under this scheme kayal land was notified for reclamation in blocks each named with a letter of the English alphabet. Out of the total area of 19,500 acres of kayal land, 12,000 acres were reclaimed between 1913 and 1920. After the removal of the ban in 1913, Pallithanam Luca Matthai along with some other prominent families in Kuttanadu, reclaimed E-Block Kayal measuring a total area 2,400 acres. This is the biggest kayal nilam in Kuttanadu. C.J. Kurian, Ex MLC and Mr. John Illikalam were his main partners in this venture. The reclamations between 1914 and 1920, known as the new reclamations, were carried out in three periods. In the first period Blocks A to G measuring an 6300 Acres were reclaimed. C Block, D Block(Attumukham Aarayiram (Attumuttu Kayal), Thekke Aarayiram and Vadakke Aarayiram) and E Block (Erupathinalayiram Kayal) F Block (Judge's Aarayiram Kayal) and G Block (Kochu Kayal) are the major Kayal nilams reclaimed during this period.

During the second period of new reclamation, blocks H to N covering an area of 3600 acres were reclaimed under the leadership of Pallithanam Luca Matthai, Cunnumpurathu Kurien, Vachaparampil Mathen, Pazhayaparmpil Chacko and Kannathusseril Peious. During the third period of new reclamation, R Block Kayal covering 1,400 acres was reclaimed by the joint efforts of eight families led by Pallithanam Luca Matthai, Vachaparampil Mathen and Pazhayaparmpil Chacko.

From 1920 to 1940 reclamation activity came to a halt because of a steep drop in the price of rice.

Pallithanam Luca Matthai, who had served as member of Maharajah Moolam Thirunal's Praja Sabha (Popular Assembly) was considered as the pioneer of cooperative agricultural movement in Kuttanadu. His life marked the beginning of the epoch of first generation Kayal Raja's of Kuttanad (Kayal Raja is the term generally used to refer to the prominent kayal cultivators in the Kuttanadu region). In 1931, in order to strengthen the farming community in Kuttanadu, he founded Kuttandu Karshaka Sangham (Kuttanadu Agricultural Association). From the beginning of his farming career in his teens (he was eighteen when he reclaimed the cherukara kayal), he brought together like minded people and successfully led the reclamation activity from 1898 to 1940.

Due to the steep decline in the price of rice between 1920 and 1940 reclamation activities slowed down, but they gained momentum again in the early 1940s. During this period, in order to increase agricultural output, a government initiated "Grow More Food" campaiagn and the provision of incentives encouraged new reclamations. The advent of electric motors made reclamation relatively easier, cheaper and less risky as compared to in earlier periods. The last tract of the reclamations namely Q, S and T block were made during this period by Thomman Joseph Murickummoottil (Muricken Outhachan). He did cultivation in a very large extent of reclaimed area and achieved such a success that he was crowned as "Krishi Rajan" (farmer king) by the then prime minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru. The prominent families in Kuttanadu who were involved in the backwater paddy cultivation are Pallithanam, Vallickadu, Vachaparampil, Pazhayaparmpil, Thottukadavil, Chalayil, Chirayil, Vettathu, Cunnumpurathu, Illikalam, Akkara, Ettuparayil, Mangalapallil, Paruthickal, Meledom, Murukkummootil, Kunnathusseril, Pattasseril etc.

As farming in the area increased, farmers felt themselves constrained by the two cycles a year for rice cultivation. The reason for which is the limited availability of potable water in Kuttanadu. During the monsoon seasons, the water from the mountains flow through the rivers to the sea, bringing potable water to Kuttanadu. But during summer, due to the low level of the region seawater enters Kuttanadu, significantly increasing the salinity of the water and making it unpotable.

Thottappilli Spillway[edit]

This project was designed as a permanent solution to the flood situation in Kuttanad. This programme was envisaged in such a way that flooded waters from Pamba, Manimalayar and Achankovil were diverted to the sea before it reached Vembanad lake. The construction of the Spillway ended by 1959.

In 1968, the government of India proposed that a bund (Dam) be made across the river so that seawater would not be allowed to come inside Kuttanad during summer, allowing farmers to cultivate an extra crop per year. The project was planned in three phases, the south side, the north side and another phase to join the two sections. The project was delayed and by the time the first two phases were complete the entire money allotted for the project ran out and left the final phase in limbo. The farmers who were expecting lots of financial benefits after the completion of the project decided to take matters into their own hands and one night in 1972, a large group of farmers filled the gap between the north and the south side with earth. To this day, the earth embankment between the two sections of the bund remains. With this, it was possible to close the regulator of shutters during December–June when the saline water enters, and then open it during monsoon. Once the Thanneermukkam bund and spillway became operational two crops were possible in Kuttanad.that are chambavu and karutha charu.

Even though the bund has improved the quality of life of the farmers, the bund is alleged to have caused severe environmental problems. The backwaters which were abundant with fish and part of the staple food of the people of the region require a small amount of salt water for its breeding. The bund has caused deterioration of fish varieties in the region and the fishermen opposed to the bund as of 2005. The bund has also disrupted the harmony of the sea with the backwaters and has caused problems not foreseen before the bund like the omniprescence of the water weeds. Earlier the salt water tends to cleanse the backwaters but this does not happen any more leading to the pollution of the backwaters and the entire land near by.

Notable natives and residents[edit]

¤ ((joji thayamkary)) sardar km panikkar historian and literary figure


Kuttanad assembly constituency was a part of Alappuzha. After the Lok Sabha delimitation in 2008, it now belongs to the Mavelikkara constituency.[4]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Kuttanad.info
  2. ^ M.S. Swaminathan,FRS (May 2013). "The Kuttanadu Below Sea Level Farming System, India". FAO Website. p. 8. Retrieved 8 Oct 2013. 
  3. ^ G S Unnikrishanan Nair (Sep 2013). "Kuttanad; Our Heritage Our wealth". KERALA CALLING. pp. 16–20. Retrieved 26 Sep 2013. 
  4. ^ "Assembly Constituencies - Corresponding Districts and Parliamentary Constituencies". Kerala. Election Commission of India. Retrieved 2008-10-20. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]