Madinat Al Kuwayt
The Skyline of Kuwait City
|• Metro||200 km2 (80 sq mi)|
|Population (2014 estimate)|
|Time zone||AST (UTC+3)|
Kuwait City (Arabic: مدينة الكويت ) is the capital and largest city of Kuwait. It has a population of 2.1 million in the metropolitan area. Kuwait City is the political, cultural and economic center of Kuwait. Kuwait City is considered a global city. Kuwait City’s trade and transportation needs are served by Kuwait International Airport, Mina Al-Shuwaik (Shuwaik Port) and Mina Al Ahmadi (Ahmadi Port).
In 1613, the town of Kuwait was founded in modern-day Kuwait City. In 1716, the Bani Utubs settled in Kuwait. At the time of the arrival of the Utubs, Kuwait was inhabited by a few fishermen and primarily functioned as a fishing village. In the eighteenth century, Kuwait prospered and rapidly became the principal commercial center for the transit of goods between India, Muscat, Baghdad and Arabia. By the mid 1700s, Kuwait had already established itself as the major trading route from the Persian Gulf to Aleppo.
During the Persian siege of Basra in 1775–1779, Iraqi merchants took refuge in Kuwait and were partly instrumental in the expansion of Kuwait's boat-building and trading activities. As a result, Kuwait's maritime commerce boomed. Between the years 1775 and 1779, the Indian trade routes with Baghdad, Aleppo, Smyrna and Constantinople were diverted to Kuwait. The East India Company was diverted to Kuwait in 1792. The East India Company secured the sea routes between Kuwait, India and the east coasts of Africa. After the Persians withdrew from Basra in 1779, Kuwait continued to attract trade away from Basra.
Kuwait was the center of boat building in the Gulf region. During the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, ship vessels made in Kuwait carried the bulk of trade between the ports of India, East Africa and the Red Sea. Kuwaiti ship vessels were renowned throughout the Indian Ocean. Regional geopolitical turbulence helped foster economic prosperity in Kuwait in the second half of the 18th century. Kuwait became prosperous due to Basra's instability in the late 18th century. In the late 18th century, Kuwait partly functioned as a haven for Basra's merchants fleeing Ottoman government persecution. According to Palgrave, Kuwaitis developed a reputation as the best sailors in the Persian Gulf.
During the reign of Mubarak Al-Sabah, Kuwait was dubbed the "Marseilles of the Gulf" because its economic vitality attracted a large variety of people. In the first decades of the twentieth century, Kuwait had a well-established elite: wealthy trading families who were linked by marriage and shared economic interests. The elite were long-settled, urban, Sunni families, the majority of which claim descent from the original 30 Bani Utubi families. The wealthiest families were trade merchants who acquired their wealth from long-distance commerce, shipbuilding and pearling. They were a cosmopolitan elite, they traveled extensively to India, Africa and Europe. The elite educated their sons abroad more than other Gulf Arab elite. Western visitors noted that the Kuwaiti elite used European office systems, typewriters and followed European culture with curiosity. The richest families were involved in general trade. The merchant families of Al-Ghanim and Al-Hamad were estimated to be worth millions before the 1940s.
In 1937, Freya Stark wrote about the extent of poverty in Kuwait at the time:
Poverty has settled in Kuwait more heavily since my last visit five years ago, both by sea, where the pearl trade continues to decline, and by land, where the blockade established by Saudi Arabia now harms the merchants.
Some prominent merchant families left Kuwait in the early 1930s due to the prevalence of economic hardship. At the time of the discovery of oil in 1937, most of Kuwait's inhabitants were impoverished.
Golden Era (1946–1982)
From 1946 to 1982, Kuwait experienced a period of renowned prosperity driven by oil and its liberal climate. In popular discourse, the years between 1946 and 1982 are referred to as the "Golden Era". In 1950, a major public-work programme began to enable Kuwaitis to enjoy a modern standard of living. By 1952, the country became the largest oil exporter in the Persian Gulf region. This massive growth attracted many foreign workers, especially from Palestine, Egypt and India. In June 1961, Kuwait became independent with the end of the British protectorate and the sheikh Abdullah Al-Salim Al-Sabah became an Emir. Under the terms of the newly drafted constitution, Kuwait held its first parliamentary elections in 1963. Kuwait was the first Gulf country to establish a constitution and parliament.
In the 1960s and 1970s, Kuwait was the most developed country in the Middle East. Kuwait was the pioneer in the Middle East in diversifying its earnings away from oil exports. The Kuwait Investment Authority is the world's first sovereign wealth fund. From the 1970s onward, Kuwait scored highest of all Arab countries on the Human Development Index. Kuwait University, established in 1966, attracted students from neighboring countries. Local arts, music and theatre thrived. Kuwait's local theatre industry was renowned throughout the Arab world.
In the 1960s and 1970s, Kuwait's press was described as one of the freest in the world. Kuwait was the pioneer in the literary renaissance in the Arab region. In 1958, Al Arabi magazine was first published, the magazine went on to become the most popular magazine in the Arab world. Many Arab writers moved to Kuwait for freedom of expression because Kuwait had greater freedom of expression than elsewhere in the Arab world. Kuwait was a haven for writers and journalists from all parts of the Middle East. The Iraqi poet Ahmed Matar left Iraq in the 1970s to take refuge in the more liberal environment of Kuwait.
Kuwaiti society embraced liberal and Western attitudes throughout the 1960s and 1970s. Most Kuwaiti women did not wear the hijab in the 1960s and 1970s. At Kuwait University, mini-skirts were more common than the hijab.
1980s to present day
During the Iran-Iraq war, Kuwait supported Iraq. Throughout the 1980s, there were several terror attacks in Kuwait, including the 1983 Kuwait bombings, hijacking of several Kuwait Airways planes and attempted assassination of Emir Jaber in 1985. Kuwait was a leading regional hub of science and technology in the 1960s and 1970s up until the early 1980s, the scientific research sector significantly suffered due to the terror attacks.
The Kuwaiti government strongly advocated Islamism throughout the 1980s. At that time, the most serious threat to the continuity of Al Sabah came from home-grown secular democrats. The secular Kuwaiti opposition were protesting the 1976 suspension of the parliament. Al Sabah were attracted to Islamists preaching the virtues of a hierarchical order that included loyalty to the Kuwaiti monarchy. In 1981, the Kuwaiti government gerrymandered electoral districts in favor of the Islamists. Islamists were the government's main allies, hence Islamists were able to colonize state agencies, such as the government ministries. In 1983, the parliament banned alcohol consumption. By the mid 1980s, Kuwait was described as an autocracy. In 1986, Emir Jaber suspended the parliament.
After the Iran-Iraq war ended, Kuwait declined an Iraqi request to forgive its US$65 billion debt. An economic rivalry between the two countries ensued after Kuwait increased its oil production by 40 percent. Tensions between the two countries increased further in July 1990, after Iraq complained to OPEC claiming that Kuwait was stealing its oil from a field near the border by slant drilling of the Rumaila field.
In August 1990, Iraqi forces invaded and annexed Kuwait. After a series of failed diplomatic negotiations, the United States led a coalition to remove the Iraqi forces from Kuwait, in what became known as the Gulf War. On 26 February 1991, the coalition succeeded in driving out the Iraqi forces. As they retreated, Iraqi forces carried out a scorched earth policy by setting oil wells on fire. During the Iraqi occupation, more than 1,000 Kuwaiti civilians were killed. In addition, more than 600 Kuwaitis went missing during Iraq's occupation, approximately 375 remains were found in mass graves in Iraq.
In March 2003, Kuwait became the springboard for the US-led invasion of Iraq. Upon the death of the Emir Jaber, in January 2006, Saad Al-Sabah succeeded him but was removed nine days later by the Kuwaiti parliament due to his ailing health. Sabah Al-Sabah was sworn in as Emir. In 2011–2012, there were protests inspired by the Arab Spring. The parliament was dissolved in December 2011 due to protests against the parliament. The prime minister stepped down following protests and allegations of corruption.
Kuwait City has a hot desert climate (Köppen: BWh) and is one of the hottest cities in summers on earth. Summer temperatures regularly exceed 45 °C (113 °F), and temperatures over 50 °C (122 °F) are not uncommon in the summer, especially in heat waves; nighttime lows often remain above 30 °C (86 °F). In winter, nighttime temperatures frequently drop below 8 °C (46 °F).
Sand storms occur at times during summer from the shamal wind. Sand storms can occur any time of year but occur mostly during summer, and less frequently during autumn.
|Climate data for Kuwait City|
|Record high °C (°F)||29.8
|Average high °C (°F)||19.5
|Average low °C (°F)||8.5
|Record low °C (°F)||−4.0
|Rainfall mm (inches)||30.2
|Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm)||5||3||3||1||0||0||0||0||0||1||3||3||19|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||198.1||222.5||217.6||229.3||272.5||304.5||307.1||301.6||285.1||252.2||216.5||193.5||3,000.5|
|Mean daily sunshine hours||7.1||7.7||7.5||7.9||9.4||10.5||10.6||10.8||10.2||9.0||7.7||6.9||8.8|
|Percent possible sunshine||68||69||63||62||69||77||76||78||77||79||72||67||72|
|Source #1: World Meteorological Organization (temperature and rainfall 1994–2008)|
|Source #2: NOAA (sunshine and records, 1961–1990)|
Kuwait has a petroleum-based economy, petroleum and fertilizers are the main export products. The Kuwaiti dinar is the highest-valued currency unit in the world. Petroleum accounts for nearly half of GDP and 94% of export revenues and government income. The Kuwait Stock Exchange is the second-largest stock exchange in the Arab world.
Kuwait was the pioneer in the Middle East in diversifying its earnings away from oil exports. However the country has struggled to diversify its economy since the Gulf War. In recent years, the hostile relationship between the elected parliament and government has prevented the implementation of economic reforms.
In the past five years, there has been a significant rise in entrepreneurship and small business start-ups in Kuwait. The informal sector is also on the rise, mainly due to the popularity of Instagram businesses. Many Kuwaiti entrepreneurs are using the Instagram-based business model.
- International holdings
The Kuwait Investment Authority (KIA) is Kuwait's sovereign wealth fund specializing in foreign investment. The KIA is the world's oldest sovereign wealth fund. Since 1953, the Kuwaiti government has directed investments into Europe, United States and Asia Pacific. As of 2014, the holdings were valued at $548 billion in assets.
Kuwait is the Arab world's largest foreign investor, with $8.4 billion in FDI outflows in 2013. Kuwait consistently tops regional rankings in FDI outflows. In 2013, Kuwait almost tripled its foreign investments. Over the last 10 years, Kuwait has doubled investments in the UK to more than $24 billion. In 2014, Kuwait became the largest foreign investor in China's RMB market.
Kuwait was the pioneer in the Middle East in diversifying its earnings away from oil exports. However the country has struggled to diversify its economy since the Gulf War. In the 2000s, the hostile relationship between the elected parliament and government prevented the implementation of economic reforms.
Since the July 2013 election of a less combative parliament, there has been significant progress in the development of key projects. Kuwait is currently the fastest-growing projects market in the Gulf region. $33.4bn-worth of contracts are expected to be awarded in 2014, only $8.7bn-worth contracts were awarded in 2013. According to MEED, the surge in activity is mainly due to good relations between the parliament and government.
Music and concerts
In the past year, many concerts were held in Kuwait including The Wanted, Mika Singh, MYMP, Nikki Gil, Arjit Singh, Daler Mehndi, Aegis, Shefali Alvares, Freestyle, Yara, Benny Dayal, Shibani Kashyap, Udit Narayan, Sharib Sabri, Neha Kakkar, Myriam Fares, Shatha Hassoun, Najwa Karam, Diana Haddad, Ahlam, Gladys Guevarra, Anju Panta, Osang, Filligar, Julie Anne San Jose, Balqees Ahmed Fathi, Elissa, Thaikkudam Bridge, Kamikazee, Sugandha Mishra, Himesh Reshammiya, Palak Muchhal, Mohammad Irfan Ali, Amr Diab, Aditya Narayan, Vina Morales, Saad Lamjarred, Nader al-Atat and Majid al-Muhandis. Ne-Yo did several concerts in Kuwait in 2011. Kim Kardashian visited Kuwait in October 2012 to launch the opening of Millions of Milkshakes.
The annual Hala February Music Festival features many Arab popstars, including Jannat, Abdallah Al Rowaished, Nancy Ajram, Nawal El Kuwaitia, Amr Diab, Elissa, Mohammed Abdo, Rabeh Sager, Ahlam, Majid al-Muhandis, Balqees Ahmed Fathi and Najwa Karam. The annual Kuwait Jazz Music Festival features internationally renowned jazz musicians and local Kuwaiti musicians. Kuwait also hosts the International Music Festival. Since 2012, the National Council for Culture and Arts (NCCAL) has hosted "Aswat", a music and dance show mixing traditional Kuwaiti music and hip hop music. At the 2014 Futsal Contintental Cup, many Arab popstars including Yara performed.
There are many educational institutions specializing in music and dance, most notably the Kuwait Music Academy, Higher Institute for Musical Arts, British School of Dance, Loyac Academy of Performing Arts, Kuwait School of Dance and the Institute of Academic Art and Musical Sciences. The Kuwaiti government has created a university-level music school. In October 2014, "Spraybox" opened in Kuwait, it is the Middle East's first graffiti park. The park hosts monthly R&B dance contests. Bayt Lothan hosts numerous concerts throughout the year, including the Blend Music Festival and Fête De La Musique festival. In 2014, the Contemporary Art Platform began hosting monthly music concerts by local artists, known as "Jam" which is described as a "live music project" featuring artists from all music genres (mostly mainstream pop and R&B). Many Khaleeji popstars do concerts in Kuwait throughout the year for events and openings.
Kuwait has a thriving indie music scene. Zahed Sultan was the first Gulf Arab artist to be featured in a globally renowned music compilation. In 2014, Zahed Sultan did several concerts throughout Kuwait including a live audio-visual performance in 3D.
Kuwait is known for its home-grown tradition of theatre. Kuwait is the only country in the Gulf with a theatrical tradition. The Arabic theatrical movement in Kuwait constitutes a major part of the country's Arabic cultural life. Theatrical activities in Kuwait began in the 1920s when the first spoken dramas were released. Theatre activities are still popular today.
Kuwaiti soap operas (المسلسلات الكويتية) are the among the most-watched soap operas in the Arab world. Most Khaleeji soap operas are based in Kuwait.
Some Kuwaiti soap operas have become extremely popular throughout the Arab world, although they are usually performed in the Kuwaiti dialect, they have been shown with success as far away as Tunisia.
Twin towns — sister cities
Kuwait City is twinned with:
Built in 1979, the Kuwait Towers are the most famous landmark in Kuwait City.
Al Hamra Tower is the tallest sculpted tower in the world.
- "Constancy and Change in Contemporary Kuwait City: The Socio-cultural Dimensions of the Kuwait Courtyard and Diwaniyya". Mohammad Khalid A. Al-Jassar. 2009. p. 64.
- Shadows on the Sand: The Memoirs of Sir Gawain Bell. Gawain Bell. 1983. p. 222.
- ʻAlam-i Nisvāṉ – Volume 2, Issues 1–2. p. 18.
Kuwait became an important trading port for import and export of goods from India, Africa and Arabia.
- "Constancy and Change in Contemporary Kuwait City". Mohammad Khalid A. Al-Jassar. 2009. p. 66.
- "Beyond the Storm: A Gulf Crisis Reader". Phyllis Bennis. p. 42.
- The Kuwait Crisis: Basic Documents. 1991. p. 4.
- Constancy and Change in Contemporary Kuwait City. 2009. p. 67.
- Thabit Abdullah. Merchants, Mamluks, and Murder: The Political Economy of Trade in Eighteenth-Century Basra. p. 72.
- The impact of economic activities on the social and political structures of Kuwait (1896–1946). p. 108.
- Peoples and Cultures of the Middle East: Cultural depth and diversity. p. 156.
The port of Kuwait was then, and is still, the principal dhow- building and trading port of the Persian Gulf, though offering little trade itself.
- M. Nijhoff (1974). Bijdragen tot de taal-, land- en volkenkunde, Volume 130. p. 111.
- Indian Foreign Affairs. 1965. p. 29.
- Richard Harlakenden Sanger (1970). The Arabian Peninsula. p. 150.
- "The Postal Agencies in Eastern Arabia and the Gulf". Neil Donaldson. 2008. p. 93.
- "Constancy and Change in Contemporary Kuwait City". Mohammad Khalid A. Al-Jassar. p. 68.
- "Waqai-i manazil-i Rum: Tipu Sultan's mission to Constantinople". Mohibbul Hasan. 2007. p. 18.
For owing to Basra's misfortunes, Kuwait and Zubarah became rich.
- "The Politics of Regional Trade in Iraq, Arabia, and the Gulf, 1745–1900". Hala Mundhir Fattah. 1997. p. 114.
- "Seafaring in the Arabian Gulf and Oman: People of the Dhow". Dionisius A. Agius. 2012. p. 48.
- Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. 2009. p. 321.
- "The Persian Gulf in History". Lawrence G. Potter. 2009. p. 272.
- "Oil and Politics in the Gulf: Rulers and Merchants in Kuwait and Qatar". Jill Crystal. 1995. p. 37.
- "Kuwait's Modernity Between Memory and Forgetting". Farah Nakib. 2014. p. 7.
- "What Can Nations Learn from Norway and Kuwait in Managing Sovereign Wealth Funds".
- "Understanding Modernity: A Review of the Kuwait Pavilion at the Venice Biennale".
- "Gulf Yearbook 2006-2007". p. 39.
The Kuwaiti press has always enjoyed a level of freedom unparalleled in any other Arab country.
- "The Case of Kuwait: Debating Free Speech and Social Media in the Gulf".
- Muslim Education Quarterly - Volume 8. p. 61.
Kuwait is a primary example of a Muslim society which embraced liberal and Western attitudes throughout the sixties and seventies.
- Guide to Islamist Movements, Volume 1. p. 306.
- The Internet In The Middle East: Global Expectations And Local Imaginations. p. 99.
- "In Kuwait, conservatism a launch pad to success".
In the 1960s and most of the '70s, men and women at Kuwait University dined and danced together, and miniskirts were more common than hijab head coverings, professors and alumni say.
- "Kuwait’s Souk al-Manakh Stock Bubble". Stock-market-crash.net. 2012-06-23. Retrieved 2013-01-14.
- Hunter, Shireen T. (1990). Iran and the world : continuity in a revolutionary decade. Indiana University Press. p. 117.
- "Frankenstein’s Lament in Kuwait".
- "Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait; 1990". Acig.org. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
- The colonial present: Afghanistan ... Google Books. 2004. ISBN 978-1-57718-090-6. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
- "Iraq and Kuwait: 1972, 1990, 1991, 1997". Earthshots: Satellite Images of Environmental Change. Retrieved 2013-01-14.
- "The Use of Terror During Iraq’s Invasion of Kuwait".
- "Iraq and Kuwait Discuss Fate of 600 Missing Since Gulf War". Los Angeles Times. 9 January 2003.
- "World Weather Information Service - Kuwait City". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 2014-02-19.
- "Kuwait International Airport Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 15 January 2015.
- "10 Most Valuable Currencies in the World". Silicon India.
- "The World Factbook". CIA Factbook.
- "Bright future for Kuwait projects market".
- "Encouraging social entrepreneurship in Kuwait – Special report".
- "Keeping Up With Kuwaiti Connection: The Startup Circuit In Kuwait Is Up And At 'Em".
- "What’s behind the growth of Kuwait’s informal economy".
- "In Kuwait, Instagram Accounts Are Big Business".
- "A rising class of Instagram entrepreneurs in Kuwait is selling comics, makeup and sheep". Quartz.
- "Kuwait's booming Instagram economy".
- "How Kuwaitis are Instagramming a business revolution".
- "Kuwait Investment Authority Profile Page". Sovereign Wealth Fund Institute.
- "Kuwait Top Arab Investor Abroad In 2013".
- "Kuwait fund says more than doubled UK investment in past 10 years". Reuters.
- "Kuwait Wealth Fund Doubles Investments in U.K. to $24 Billion". Bloomberg.
- "Kuwait becomes top foreign investor in China RMB market". KUNA.
- "Kuwait gives infrastructure schemes the green light".
- "Kuwait rebound lifts Gulf Projects Index".
- "‘The Wanted’ Coming to Kuwait".
- "Kuwait: Mika Singh live in concert on April 12".
- "Video – Mika Singh’s Live Concert in Kuwait by ooredoo".
- "Al-Mulla treats Filipino customers to MYMP concert".
- "MYMP Concert video".
- "Manila artists arrive for ‘Let’s Jam in Kuwait’ concert".
- "‘Let’s Jam in Kuwait’ concert".
- "Arijit Singh concert takes Kuwait by storm".
- "Singing Sensation Arijit Singh Live concert in Kuwait".
- "King Of Pop Daler Mehndi rocks Kuwait".
- "Daler Mehndi to make Kuwait say 'Ta Ra Ra Ra'!".
- "AEGIS concert to take center stage in Kuwait, expects to draw full house".
- "Apna Bharat to present live concert - Shukran Ya Kuwait".
- "Al Mulla Exchange stages concert by Philippine band Freestyle".
- "Benny Dayal steals the show at 'Shukran Ya Kuwait'".
- "Acclaimed singer Benny Dayal rocks Kuwait".
- "Kuwait Times".
- "Shibani Kashyap".
- "Udit Narayan and Aditya Narayan Musical Live in concert "Papa Kehte Hain" in Kuwait".
- "Toshi Sabri and Sharib Sabri's message to Kuwait".
- "‘Gutthi’ fame Sunil Grover to Entertain at ‘Indian Carnival 2014’ along with Sharib Sabri & Toshi Sabri and Neha Takkar.".
- "Neha Kakkar's message to Kuwait".
- "نجوى كرم أشرقت في مهرجان "هلا فبراير"".
- "Julie Anne San Jose, Gladys Guevarra to perform for Kapuso fans in Kuwait".
- "Al Mulla Exchange stages Musical Extravaganza".
- "Filligar Rocks Kuwait Music Scene".
- "American band ‘Filligar’ taking part in Al-Qurain Festival".
- "Thaikkudam Bridge music band Mesmerized Kuwait at NAFO 11th Anniversary".
- "Desert Rain".
- "NAFO-Kuwait presents Live in concert – ‘Desert Rain'".
- "Kamikazee Live in Kuwait".
- "Sugandha Mishra, an entertainer extraordinaire".
- "India’s high ranking music director Himesh Reshammiya to perform live in Kuwait".
- ""Aashiq Banaya Aaapne" Music concert by ICS - in Kuwait".
- "Vina Morales in live concert in Kuwait".
- "Arab Times Online".
- "Nader Al-Atat live in Kuwait".
- "Wataniya Telecom brings Ne-Yo to Kuwait".
- "Ne-Yo at the Avenues Mall".
- "Hala February Music Festival in Kuwait Is On Fire with The Best Arabic Stars".
- "The 16th International Music Festival concludes in Kuwait".
- "Video – 17th International Music Festival 2014".
- "Aswat: Music and Dance Show Debuting in Kuwait Tonight".
- "Aswat - 2".
- "يارا تفتتح كأس القارات لكرة قدم الصالات في الكويت".
- "شعيل ويارا ودشتي أضاءوا حفل بطولة القارات".
- "يارا تفتتح كأس القارات لكرة قدم الصالات في الكويت".
- "Sons of Yusuf: Mideast duo introduces Kuwaiti culture through rap and hip-hop".
- "The Base – Sons of Yusuf".
- "Big D".
- "Kuwaiti Rapper Promotes Positive Message".
- "Spraybox Opening".
- "Cozmo Spraybox".
- "All Styles Dance Battle Finals".
- "مسرح السالمية احتضن تكريم مبدعي "الخليجي" والرويشد والسعيد والجوهر وعبدالستار افتتحوه ... طرباً".
- "سهرة خليجية أسطورية على مسرح السالمية".
- "Haha-ka-tha: Kuwait’s Zahed Sultan Laughs his Way to Stardom".
- "Kuwaiti Artist Zahed Sultan Releases "Revolutionary" New Song & Music Video".
- "Zahed Sultan Live in 3D".
- "Zahed Sultan LIVE in 3D X 248AM".
- "Eye Am Sound – Zahed Sultan LIVE in 3D".
- "Reviving Kuwait's theatre industry". BBC News.
- Popular Culture in the Arab World: Arts, Politics, and the Media. p. 277.
- The World of Theatre: An Account of the Theatre Seasons 1996-97, 1997-98 and 1998-99. p. 147.
- The World Encyclopedia of Contemporary Theatre: The Arab world.
- "Entertainment gets soapy during Ramadan in Kuwait".
- Kuwait: vanguard of the Gulf. p. 113.
Some Kuwaiti soap operas have become extremely popular and, although they are usually performed in the Kuwaiti dialect, they have been shown with success as far away as Tunisia.
- "Acuerdo de Hermandad abrirá horizontes de colaboración". El Universal (Mexico City).
- "Town Twinning Agreements". Municipalidad de Rosario - Buenos Aires 711. Retrieved 2014-10-14.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kuwait City.|