Kuwait City

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Kuwait City
مدينة الكويت
Madinat Al Kuwayt
Skyline of Kuwait City
Skyline of Kuwait City
Kuwait City is located in Al- Andalus
Kuwait City
Kuwait City
Location of Kuwait in Kuwait
Coordinates: 29°22′11″N 47°58′42″E / 29.36972°N 47.97833°E / 29.36972; 47.97833Coordinates: 29°22′11″N 47°58′42″E / 29.36972°N 47.97833°E / 29.36972; 47.97833
Country Kuwait Kuwait
Governorate Al Asimah
Area
 • Metro 200 km2 (80 sq mi)
Population (2014 estimate)
 • City 637,411
 • Metro 2,380,000
Time zone AST (UTC+3)

Kuwait City (Arabic: مدينة الكويت) is the capital and largest city of Kuwait. It has a population of 4.1 million in the metropolitan area.

Kuwait City is the political, cultural and economic center of Kuwait. Kuwait City is considered a global city. Kuwait City’s trade and transportation needs are served by Kuwait International Airport, Mina Al-Shuwaik (Shuwaik Port) and Mina Al Ahmadi (Ahmadi Port).

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

In 1613, the town of Kuwait was founded in modern-day Kuwait City. In 1716, the Bani Utubs settled in Kuwait. At the time of the arrival of the Utubs, Kuwait was inhabited by a few fishermen and primarily functioned as a fishing village.[1] In the eighteenth century, Kuwait prospered and rapidly became the principal commercial center for the transit of goods between India, Muscat, Baghdad and Arabia.[2][3] By the mid 1700s, Kuwait had already established itself as the major trading route from the Persian Gulf to Aleppo.[4]

During the Persian siege of Basra in 1775–1779, Iraqi merchants took refuge in Kuwait and were partly instrumental in the expansion of Kuwait's boat-building and trading activities.[5] As a result, Kuwait's maritime commerce boomed.[5] Between the years 1775 and 1779, the Indian trade routes with Baghdad, Aleppo, Smyrna and Constantinople were diverted to Kuwait.[4][6] The East India Company was diverted to Kuwait in 1792.[7] The East India Company secured the sea routes between Kuwait, India and the east coasts of Africa.[7] After the Persians withdrew from Basra in 1779, Kuwait continued to attract trade away from Basra.[8]

Kuwait was the center of boat building in the Gulf region.[9][10] During the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, ship vessels made in Kuwait carried the bulk of trade between the ports of India, East Africa and the Red Sea.[11][12][13] Kuwaiti ship vessels were renowned throughout the Indian Ocean.[14] Regional geopolitical turbulence helped foster economic prosperity in Kuwait in the second half of the 18th century.[15] Kuwait became prosperous due to Basra's instability in the late 18th century.[16] In the late 18th century, Kuwait partly functioned as a haven for Basra's merchants fleeing Ottoman government persecution.[17] According to Palgrave, Kuwaitis developed a reputation as the best sailors in the Persian Gulf.[14][18][19]

During the reign of Mubarak Al-Sabah, Kuwait was dubbed the "Marseilles of the Gulf" because its economic vitality attracted a large variety of people.[20] A Western author's account of Kuwait in 1905:[21]

In the first decades of the twentieth century, Kuwait had a well-established elite: wealthy trading families who were linked by marriage and shared economic interests.[22] The elite were long-settled, urban, Sunni families, the majority of which claim descent from the original 30 Bani Utubi families.[22] The wealthiest families were trade merchants who acquired their wealth from long-distance commerce, shipbuilding and pearling.[22] They were a cosmopolitan elite, they traveled extensively to India, Africa and Europe.[22] The elite educated their sons abroad more than other Gulf Arab elite.[22] Western visitors noted that the Kuwaiti elite used European office systems, typewriters and followed European culture with curiosity.[22] The richest families were involved in general trade.[22] The merchant families of Al-Ghanim and Al-Hamad were estimated to be worth millions before the 1940s.[22]

In 1937, Freya Stark wrote about the extent of poverty in Kuwait at the time:

Poverty has settled in Kuwait more heavily since my last visit five years ago, both by sea, where the pearl trade continues to decline, and by land, where the blockade established by Saudi Arabia now harms the merchants.

Some prominent merchant families left Kuwait in the early 1930s due to the prevalence of economic hardship. At the time of the discovery of oil in 1937, most of Kuwait's inhabitants were impoverished.

Golden Era (1946–1982)[edit]

From 1946 to 1982, Kuwait experienced a period of renowned prosperity driven by oil and its liberal climate.[23] In popular discourse, the years between 1946 and 1982 are referred to as the "Golden Era".[23] In 1950, a major public-work programme began to enable Kuwaitis to enjoy a modern standard of living. By 1952, the country became the largest oil exporter in the Persian Gulf region. This massive growth attracted many foreign workers, especially from Palestine, Egypt and India. In June 1961, Kuwait became independent with the end of the British protectorate and the sheikh Abdullah Al-Salim Al-Sabah became an Emir. Under the terms of the newly drafted constitution, Kuwait held its first parliamentary elections in 1963. Kuwait was the first Gulf country to establish a constitution and parliament.

In the 1960s and 1970s, Kuwait was the most developed country in the Middle East.[24] Kuwait was the pioneer in the Middle East in diversifying its earnings away from oil exports.[25] The Kuwait Investment Authority is the world's first sovereign wealth fund. From the 1970s onward, Kuwait scored highest of all Arab countries on the Human Development Index.[24] Kuwait was the capital of higher education, arts and culture in the Gulf region.[24] Kuwait University, established in 1966, attracted students from neighboring countries.[24] Local arts, music and theatre thrived.[23][24][26] Kuwait's local theatre industry was renowned throughout the Arab world.[23]

In the 1960s and 1970s, Kuwait's press was described as one of the freest in the world.[26] Kuwait was the pioneer in the literary renaissance in the Arab region.[27] In 1958, Al Arabi magazine was first published, the magazine went on to become the most popular magazine in the Arab world.[27] Many Arab writers moved to Kuwait for freedom of expression because Kuwait had greater freedom of expression than elsewhere in the Arab world.[28][29] Kuwait was a haven for writers and journalists from all parts of the Middle East. The Iraqi poet Ahmed Matar left Iraq in the 1970s to take refuge in the more liberal environment of Kuwait.[30]

Kuwaiti society embraced liberal and Western attitudes throughout the 1960s and 1970s.[31] Most Kuwaiti women did not wear the hijab in the 1960s and 1970s.[32][33] At Kuwait University, mini-skirts were more common than the hijab.[34]

1980s to present day[edit]

In the early 1980s, Kuwait experienced a major economic crisis after the Souk Al-Manakh stock market crash and decrease in oil price.[35]

During the Iran-Iraq war, Kuwait supported Iraq. Throughout the 1980s, there were several terror attacks in Kuwait, including the 1983 Kuwait bombings, hijacking of several Kuwait Airways planes and attempted assassination of Emir Jaber in 1985.[36] Kuwait was a leading regional hub of science and technology in the 1960s and 1970s up until the early 1980s,[37] the scientific research sector significantly suffered due to the terror attacks.[37]

The Kuwaiti government strongly advocated Islamism throughout the 1980s.[38] At that time, the most serious threat to the continuity of Al Sabah came from home-grown secular democrats.[38] The secular Kuwaiti opposition were protesting the 1976 suspension of the parliament.[38] Al Sabah were attracted to Islamists preaching the virtues of a hierarchical order that included loyalty to the Kuwaiti monarchy.[38] In 1981, the Kuwaiti government gerrymandered electoral districts in favor of the Islamists.[38] Islamists were the government's main allies, hence Islamists were able to colonize state agencies, such as the government ministries.[38] In 1983, the parliament banned alcohol consumption. By the mid 1980s, Kuwait was described as an autocracy.[38] In 1986, Emir Jaber suspended the parliament.

Oil fires in Kuwait in 1990, which were a result of the scorched earth policy of Iraqi military forces retreating from Kuwait.

After the Iran-Iraq war ended, Kuwait declined an Iraqi request to forgive its US$65 billion debt.[39] An economic rivalry between the two countries ensued after Kuwait increased its oil production by 40 percent.[40] Tensions between the two countries increased further in July 1990, after Iraq complained to OPEC claiming that Kuwait was stealing its oil from a field near the border by slant drilling of the Rumaila field.[40]

In August 1990, Iraqi forces invaded and annexed Kuwait. After a series of failed diplomatic negotiations, the United States led a coalition to remove the Iraqi forces from Kuwait, in what became known as the Gulf War. On 26 February 1991, the coalition succeeded in driving out the Iraqi forces. As they retreated, Iraqi forces carried out a scorched earth policy by setting oil wells on fire.[41] During the Iraqi occupation, more than 1,000 Kuwaiti civilians were killed.[42] In addition, more than 600 Kuwaitis went missing during Iraq's occupation,[43] approximately 375 remains were found in mass graves in Iraq.

In March 2003, Kuwait became the springboard for the US-led invasion of Iraq. Upon the death of the Emir Jaber, in January 2006, Saad Al-Sabah succeeded him but was removed nine days later by the Kuwaiti parliament due to his ailing health. Sabah Al-Sabah was sworn in as Emir. In 2011–2012, there were protests inspired by the Arab Spring. The parliament was dissolved in December 2011 due to protests against the parliament. The prime minister stepped down following protests and allegations of high-level corruption.

Geography and climate[edit]

Astronaut View of Kuwait

Kuwait City has a hot desert climate (Köppen: BWh) and is one of the hottest cities in summers on earth. Summer temperatures regularly exceed 45 °C (113 °F), and temperatures over 50 °C (122 °F) are not uncommon in the summer, especially in heat waves; nighttime lows often remain above 30 °C (86 °F). Winters, however, frequently see nighttime temperatures drop below 8 °C (46 °F).

Sand storms occur at times during summer from the shamal wind. Sand storms can occur any time of year but occur mostly during summer, and less frequently during autumn.

Climate data for Kuwait City
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 19.5
(67.1)
21.8
(71.2)
26.9
(80.4)
35
(95)
40.9
(105.6)
44.5
(112.1)
46.7
(116.1)
46.9
(116.4)
43.7
(110.7)
36.6
(97.9)
27.8
(82)
21.9
(71.4)
34.35
(93.83)
Daily mean °C (°F) 14
(57)
15.9
(60.6)
20.45
(68.81)
27.25
(81.05)
33.15
(91.67)
36.7
(98.1)
38.7
(101.7)
38.2
(100.8)
34.95
(94.91)
29.05
(84.29)
21.15
(70.07)
15.9
(60.6)
27.117
(80.8)
Average low °C (°F) 8.5
(47.3)
10
(50)
14
(57)
19.5
(67.1)
25.4
(77.7)
28.9
(84)
30.7
(87.3)
29.5
(85.1)
26.2
(79.2)
21.5
(70.7)
14.5
(58.1)
9.9
(49.8)
19.88
(67.78)
Rainfall mm (inches) 30.2
(1.189)
10.5
(0.413)
18.2
(0.717)
11.5
(0.453)
0.4
(0.016)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
1.4
(0.055)
18.5
(0.728)
25.5
(1.004)
116.2
(4.575)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 5 3 3 3 1 0 0 0 0 1 3 3 22
 % humidity 60.5 54.5 46.5 40.5 28.5 18 18.5 22 27 39 49 57.5 38.46
Mean monthly sunshine hours 198.4 223.2 217 228 272.8 303 306.9 300.7 285 251.1 216 192.2 2,994.3
Source #1: World Meteorological Organization (1994-2008),[44] Hong Kong Observatory (1961-1990; mean temperatures, rainy days, sunshine)[45]
Source #2: Climate Charts (humidity),[46] Voodoo Skies (records)[47]

Economy[edit]

Main article: Economy of Kuwait
Al Hamra Tower is the tallest sculpted tower in the world.

Kuwait has a petroleum-based economy, petroleum and fertilizers are the main export products. The Kuwaiti dinar is the highest-valued currency unit in the world.[48] Petroleum accounts for nearly half of GDP and 94% of export revenues and government income.[49] The Kuwait Stock Exchange is the second-largest stock exchange in the Arab world.

Kuwait was the pioneer in the Middle East in diversifying its earnings away from oil exports.[25] However the country has struggled to diversify its economy since the Gulf War. In recent years, the hostile relationship between the elected parliament and government has prevented the implementation of economic reforms.[50]

In the past five years, there has been a significant rise in entrepreneurship and small business start-ups in Kuwait.[51][52] The informal sector is also on the rise,[53] mainly due to the popularity of Instagram businesses.[54][55][56] Many Kuwaiti entrepreneurs are using the Instagram-based business model.[57]

International holdings[edit]

The Kuwait Investment Authority (KIA) is Kuwait's sovereign wealth fund specializing in foreign investment. The KIA is the world's oldest sovereign wealth fund. Since 1953, the Kuwaiti government has directed investments into Europe, United States and Asia Pacific. As of 2014, the holdings were valued at $548 billion in assets.[58]

Kuwait is the Arab world's largest foreign investor, with $8.4 billion in FDI outflows in 2013.[59] Kuwait consistently tops regional rankings in FDI outflows. In 2013, Kuwait almost tripled its foreign investments.[59] Over the last 10 years, Kuwait has doubled investments in the UK to more than $24 billion.[60][61] In 2014, Kuwait became the largest foreign investor in China's RMB market.[62]

Diversification[edit]

Kuwait was the pioneer in the Middle East in diversifying its earnings away from oil exports.[25] However the country has struggled to diversify its economy since the Gulf War. In the 2000s, the hostile relationship between the elected parliament and government prevented the implementation of economic reforms.[49]

Since the July 2013 election of a less combative parliament, there has been significant progress in the development of key projects.[50][63] Kuwait is currently the fastest-growing projects market in the Gulf region.[64] A record $33.4bn-worth of contracts are expected to be awarded in 2014, only $8.7bn-worth contracts were awarded in 2013.[50] According to MEED, the surge in activity is mainly due to good relations between the parliament and government.[50]

Science and education[edit]

Main article: Education in Kuwait

Kuwait has one public university and 14 private universities.[65] Kuwait is the most popular destination for GCC students seeking education in other Gulf countries,[66] according to a report by the GCC General Secretariat.[66] 15,897 foreign GCC students are studying at Kuwaiti universities and schools.[66] The international mobility of Kuwaiti students is close to record levels.[65] According to official figures, 50,000 Kuwaiti students study at universities overseas.[67] The main push factor for Kuwaitis studying abroad is the shortage of domestic university places and the perceived prestige of overseas university credentials.[65] The Kuwaiti government's overseas scholarship program aims to transform Kuwait into a "center for IT, financial services and medical sciences".[68][69]

Before the Gulf War, Kuwait was a leading regional hub for science and technology.[70][37] Kuwait's research sector has not fully recovered from the Gulf War. The Kuwaiti government has targeted education as a key sector in bringing Kuwait back to its former glory as the region’s leader of social and economic development.[68][69] In 2012-2013, Kuwait became a top 25 sending country to US universities with a total of 5,100 Kuwaiti students enrolled in USA universities.[69] Kuwait is the only country in the top 25 with a local population of only 1.2 million, the other countries in the top 25 have population sizes exceeding 20 million.[71][72]

To date, Kuwait has registered 283 patents, the second highest figure in the Arab world.[73][74][75] Along with Egypt and Saudi Arabia, Kuwait has been the Arab region’s main driving force behind S&T output at the international level.[76] Among Western Asia countries, Kuwait has the highest number of patents per capita, averaging 2.71 patents for every one million persons.[77] In 2013, Kuwaiti inventors achieved the country's highest rate of annual growth in patents, obtaining more than double the number of patents in 2013 than in 2012.[78][79]

Kuwait has the highest ratio of scientific articles per capita in the Muslim world and Arab world.[80][81] Kuwaiti's participation in international scientific literature is higher than the participation of bigger Arab countries like Egypt and Morocco.[82] In 2006, Microsoft's first innovation center in the Middle East was launched in Kuwait.[83] Kuwait has a higher research publication per capita than all Middle East countries except Israel.[84]

According to the World Bank, Jordan and Kuwait are the top education reformers in the Arab world.[85] 30% of Kuwaitis attend private schools, due to a recent shift in public opinion in favor of a Western curriculum and instruction in the English language.[86][87] Kuwait's public school curriculum is undergoing a revamp due to a project launched in conjunction with the World Bank.[88] In April 2013, the Kuwaiti government partnered with the World Bank to launch a pilot project in 48 schools across the state.[88] The revamped curriculum is set to be implemented in the next two or three years.[88][89]

The University of Massachusetts Lowell will open a campus in Kuwait in the next seven years.[90][91]

Culture[edit]

Main article: Culture of Kuwait

Kuwaiti culture has been influenced by the cultures of Arabia, Persia, India and Britain.[92]

Theatre[edit]

Kuwait is known for its home-grown tradition of theatre.[93] Kuwait is the only country in the Gulf with a theatrical tradition.[94] The theatrical movement in Kuwait constitutes a major part of the country's cultural life.[95] Theatrical activities in Kuwait began in the 1920s when the first spoken dramas were released.[96] Theatre activities are still popular today.[95]

Kuwait Towers, the country's most famous landmark.

Soap operas[edit]

Kuwaiti soap operas (المسلسلات الكويتية) are the among the most-watched soap operas in the Arab world.[97] Most Khaleeji soap operas are based in Kuwait.

Some Kuwaiti soap operas have become extremely popular throughout the Arab world, although they are usually performed in the Kuwaiti dialect, they have been shown with success as far away as Tunisia.[98]

Literature[edit]

Kuwait was the pioneer of literary renaissance in the region.[99] In 1958, Al Arabi magazine was first published, the magazine went on to become the most popular magazine in the Arab world.[27] In the 1970s, writers moved to Kuwait where they enjoyed greater freedom of expression than elsewhere in the Arab world.[28]

Arts[edit]

Kuwait has the oldest modern arts movement in the Arabian Peninsula.[100] Beginning in 1936, Kuwait was the first Gulf country to grant scholarships in the arts.[100] The Kuwaiti artist Mojeb al-Dousari was the earliest recognized visual artist in the Gulf region.[101] He is regarded as the founder of portrait art in the region.[102] In 1943, al-Dousari launched Kuwait's first art gallery.

Khalifa Al-Qattan was the first Kuwaiti artist to hold a single artist art exhibition in Kuwait. He founded a new art theory in the early 1960s known as "circulism".[103][104] The most prominent female Kuwaiti artists are Thuraya Al-Baqsami and Suzan Bushnaq. Kuwait is home to more than 20 art galleries.

Before the Gulf War, Kuwait was the capital of arts and culture in the Gulf region.[24][105] The arts scene struggled to rebuild after the Gulf War.[105] In recent years, there has been a revival in the arts scene. Kuwait is currently regarded as having the second most lively arts scene in the Gulf, second to Dubai.[106]

Music and concerts[edit]

Kuwaitis are pioneers of contemporary Khaleeji music. The Kuwaiti musician Abdul al-Latif al-Kuwayti was the first commercial recording artist in the Gulf region.[107] Kuwait, along with Bahrain, entered the 20th-century Arabic music world much earlier than other Gulf states. Together with Bahrain, Kuwait is the birthplace of the musical genre sawt.[108]

In the pre-oil era, Kuwaiti society was known for its music because 20-30% of Kuwaitis were professional musicians.[109] Traditional Kuwaiti music is a reflection of the country's cosmopolitan seafaring heritage.[110][111] As a trading center, Kuwait attracted foreigners who left their music with the local inhabitants, while Kuwaiti merchants brought back music from East Africa and India.[111] Kuwait is the center of traditional music in the Gulf.[108]

Traditional Kuwaiti music is closely tied to the cosmopolitanism of Kuwaiti pearl divers, who spoke many languages, jammed with Zanzibaris and southwest Indians.[110] Traditional Kuwaiti music includes "Fidjeri". "Fidjeri" is a musical repertoire performed traditionally by male seafarers. "Fidjeri" was used as a means of social communication between Kuwaiti and non-Kuwaiti sailors of the Indian Ocean.[112] "Liwa" and "Fann at-Tanbura" are types of music performed mainly by Kuwaitis of East African ancestry. "Al Arda Al Bahariya" is a well-known Kuwaiti sailor song, as are the "al-Nahma", a class of songs that accompanied many sailing activities. By the early 1970s, most of Kuwait's traditional songs had been recorded and were housed in a national music archive. The national music archive was destroyed by Iraqi soldiers during the Gulf War.

In the past year, many concerts were held in Kuwait including The Wanted,[113] Mika Singh,[114][115] MYMP,[116][117] Nikki Gil,[118][119] Daler Mehndi,[120][121] Aegis,[122] Shefali Alvares,[123] Arjit Singh,[124][125] Freestyle,[126] Yara, Benny Dayal,[127][128] Shibani Kashyap,[129][130] Udit Narayan,[131] Sharib Sabri,[132][133] Neha Kakkar,[134] Myriam Fares, Shatha Hassoun, Najwa Karam,[135] Diana Haddad, Ahlam, Gladys Guevarra,[136] Anju Panta,[137] Osang, Filligar,[138][139] Julie Anne San Jose,[136] Balqees Ahmed Fathi, Elissa, Thaikkudam Bridge,[140][141][142] Kamikazee,[143] Sugandha Mishra,[144] Himesh Reshammiya,[145] Palak Muchhal,[146] Mohammad Irfan Ali,[146] Amr Diab, Aditya Narayan,[131] Vina Morales,[147][148] Saad Lamjarred, Nader al-Atat[149] and Majid al-Muhandis. Ne-Yo did several concerts in Kuwait in 2011.[150][151] Kim Kardashian visited Kuwait in October 2012 to launch the opening of Millions of Milkshakes.

The annual Hala February Music Festival features many Arab popstars, including Jannat, Abdallah Al Rowaished, Nancy Ajram, Nawal El Kuwaitia, Amr Diab, Elissa, Mohammed Abdo, Rabeh Sager, Ahlam, Majid al-Muhandis, Balqees Ahmed Fathi and Najwa Karam.[152] The annual Kuwait Jazz Music Festival features internationally renowned jazz musicians and local Kuwaiti musicians. Kuwait also hosts the International Music Festival.[153][154] Since 2012, the National Council for Culture and Arts (NCCAL) has hosted "Aswat", a music and dance show mixing traditional Kuwaiti music and hip hop music.[155][156] At the 2014 Futsal Contintental Cup, many Arab popstars including Yara performed.[157][158][159]

R&B music is very popular among the Kuwaiti youth. There are several prominent Kuwaiti R&B artists, most notably Sons of Yusuf [160][161] and Dhari Al Dhulaei (Big D).[162][163]

There are many educational institutions specializing in music and dance, most notably the Kuwait Music Academy, Higher Institute for Musical Arts, British School of Dance, Loyac Academy of Performing Arts, Kuwait School of Dance and the Institute of Academic Art and Musical Sciences. The Kuwaiti government has created a university-level music school. In October 2014, "Spraybox" opened in Kuwait, it is the Middle East's first graffiti park.[164][165] The park hosts monthly R&B dance contests.[166] Bayt Lothan hosts numerous concerts throughout the year, including the Blend Music Festival and Fête De La Musique festival. In 2014, the Contemporary Art Platform began hosting monthly music concerts by local artists, known as "Jam" which is described as a "live music project" featuring artists from all music genres (mostly mainstream pop and R&B). Many Khaleeji popstars do concerts in Kuwait throughout the year for events and openings.[167][168]

Kuwait has a thriving indie music scene. Zahed Sultan was the first Gulf Arab artist to be featured in a globally renowned music compilation.[169][170] In 2014, Zahed Sultan did several concerts throughout Kuwait including a live audio-visual performance in 3D.[171][172][173]

Museums[edit]

Kuwait has approximately 40 museums.

Twin towns — sister cities[edit]

Kuwait City is twinned with:

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

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  52. ^ "Keeping Up With Kuwaiti Connection: The Startup Circuit In Kuwait Is Up And At 'Em". 
  53. ^ "What’s behind the growth of Kuwait’s informal economy". 
  54. ^ "In Kuwait, Instagram Accounts Are Big Business". 
  55. ^ "A rising class of Instagram entrepreneurs in Kuwait is selling comics, makeup and sheep". Quartz. 
  56. ^ "Kuwait's booming Instagram economy". 
  57. ^ "How Kuwaitis are Instagramming a business revolution". 
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  61. ^ "Kuwait Wealth Fund Doubles Investments in U.K. to $24 Billion". Bloomberg. 
  62. ^ "Kuwait becomes top foreign investor in China RMB market". KUNA. 
  63. ^ "Kuwait gives infrastructure schemes the green light". 
  64. ^ "Kuwait rebound lifts Gulf Projects Index". 
  65. ^ a b c "International Academic Mobility: Kuwait". 
  66. ^ a b c "Kuwait most favoured destination for GCC students". Zawya. Kuwait has the highest number of students from other GCC countries -- 15,897 -- followed by the UAE (12,780), Saudi Arabia (9,265), Qatar (2986), Bahrain (871) and Oman (663). 
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  68. ^ a b "Pillar of socio-economic growth". 
  69. ^ a b c "Scholarships Drive Growth in Students from Kuwait". 
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  71. ^ "International Students: Leading Places of Origin". 
  72. ^ "Survey finds increases in international enrollments, study abroad". 
  73. ^ "Patents By Country, State, and Year - All Patent Types (December 2013)". 
  74. ^ "Arab World to have more than 197 million Internet users by 2017, according to Arab Knowledge Economy Report". To date, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) have granted 858 patents to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, positioning it 29th in the world. Kuwait is at second place with 272 patents and Egypt at third with 212 patents, so far. 
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  76. ^ "UNESCO Science Report 2005". p. 162. Egypt, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia have been the Arab region’s main driving forces behind S&T output at the international level. 
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  78. ^ "Kuwait Sees Fastest Growth of GCC Countries in Obtaining U.S. Patents". 
  79. ^ "Kuwait Sees Fastest Growth of GCC Countries in Obtaining U.S. Patents". 
  80. ^ "Science and Technology in the OIC Member Countries". p. 7. 
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  82. ^ "Bibliometric Indicators of the Scholarly Productivity of Researchers and Scientists in Kuwait as Documented by Citation to Their Published Works". 
  83. ^ "The Report: Kuwait 2008". p. 166. 
  84. ^ "Research publications per capita". 
  85. ^ "World Bank report: Jordan, Kuwait top education reform in Arab world". 
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  89. ^ "Kuwait’s new curriculum to be ready in two years". 
  90. ^ "Raytheon’s $50m will help start UMass Lowell campus in Kuwait". 
  91. ^ "UMass Lowell-Raytheon to open Kuwait campus". 
  92. ^ "The Westernization of Advertisements Published In Kuwaiti Newspapers From 1992 to 2012; A Content Analysis". p. 15. 
  93. ^ "Reviving Kuwait's theatre industry". BBC News. 
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  96. ^ The World Encyclopedia of Contemporary Theatre: The Arab world. 
  97. ^ "Entertainment gets soapy during Ramadan in Kuwait". 
  98. ^ Kuwait: vanguard of the Gulf. p. 113. Some Kuwaiti soap operas have become extremely popular and, although they are usually performed in the Kuwaiti dialect, they have been shown with success as far away as Tunisia. 
  99. ^ "Kuwait Literary Scene A Little Complex". 
  100. ^ a b Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art & Architecture: Three-Volume Set. p. 405. 
  101. ^ "Correcting misconceptions of the Gulf’s modern art movement". 
  102. ^ "Kuwait". 
  103. ^ "Khalifa Qattan, Founder of Circulism". 
  104. ^ "Sheik of the Artists: Khalifa Qattan and Circulism (video project)". 
  105. ^ a b "Young faces enliven Kuwait's faded art scene". 
  106. ^ "Kuwait". 
  107. ^ Performing the Past: Sea Music in the Arab Gulf States. p. 99. 
  108. ^ a b "Hidden Treasures: Reflections of Traditional Music in Kuwait". 
  109. ^ "Kuwait’s musical heritage: The heartbeat of a nation". 
  110. ^ a b "Ya Bahr". 
  111. ^ a b "Culture - Embassy of Kuwait Canberra". 
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  113. ^ "‘The Wanted’ Coming to Kuwait". 
  114. ^ "Kuwait: Mika Singh live in concert on April 12". 
  115. ^ "Video – Mika Singh’s Live Concert in Kuwait by ooredoo". 
  116. ^ "Al-Mulla treats Filipino customers to MYMP concert". 
  117. ^ "MYMP Concert video". 
  118. ^ "Manila artists arrive for ‘Let’s Jam in Kuwait’ concert". 
  119. ^ "‘Let’s Jam in Kuwait’ concert". 
  120. ^ "King Of Pop Daler Mehndi rocks Kuwait". 
  121. ^ "Daler Mehndi to make Kuwait say 'Ta Ra Ra Ra'!". 
  122. ^ "AEGIS concert to take center stage in Kuwait, expects to draw full house". 
  123. ^ "Apna Bharat to present live concert - Shukran Ya Kuwait". 
  124. ^ "Arijit Singh concert takes Kuwait by storm". 
  125. ^ "Singing Sensation Arijit Singh Live concert in Kuwait". 
  126. ^ "Al Mulla Exchange stages concert by Philippine band Freestyle". 
  127. ^ "Benny Dayal steals the show at 'Shukran Ya Kuwait'". 
  128. ^ "Acclaimed singer Benny Dayal rocks Kuwait". 
  129. ^ "Kuwait Times". 
  130. ^ "Shibani Kashyap". 
  131. ^ a b "Udit Narayan and Aditya Narayan Musical Live in concert "Papa Kehte Hain" in Kuwait". 
  132. ^ "Toshi Sabri and Sharib Sabri's message to Kuwait". 
  133. ^ "‘Gutthi’ fame Sunil Grover to Entertain at ‘Indian Carnival 2014’ along with Sharib Sabri & Toshi Sabri and Neha Takkar.". 
  134. ^ "Neha Kakkar's message to Kuwait". 
  135. ^ "نجوى كرم أشرقت في مهرجان "هلا فبراير"". 
  136. ^ a b "Julie Anne San Jose, Gladys Guevarra to perform for Kapuso fans in Kuwait". 
  137. ^ "Al Mulla Exchange stages Musical Extravaganza". 
  138. ^ "Filligar Rocks Kuwait Music Scene". 
  139. ^ "American band ‘Filligar’ taking part in Al-Qurain Festival". 
  140. ^ "Thaikkudam Bridge music band Mesmerized Kuwait at NAFO 11th Anniversary". 
  141. ^ "Desert Rain". 
  142. ^ "NAFO-Kuwait presents Live in concert – ‘Desert Rain'". 
  143. ^ "Kamikazee Live in Kuwait". 
  144. ^ "Sugandha Mishra, an entertainer extraordinaire". 
  145. ^ "India’s high ranking music director Himesh Reshammiya to perform live in Kuwait". 
  146. ^ a b ""Aashiq Banaya Aaapne" Music concert by ICS - in Kuwait". 
  147. ^ "Vina Morales in live concert in Kuwait". 
  148. ^ "Arab Times Online". 
  149. ^ "Nader Al-Atat live in Kuwait". 
  150. ^ "Wataniya Telecom brings Ne-Yo to Kuwait". 
  151. ^ "Ne-Yo at the Avenues Mall". 
  152. ^ "Hala February Music Festival in Kuwait Is On Fire with The Best Arabic Stars". 
  153. ^ "The 16th International Music Festival concludes in Kuwait". 
  154. ^ "Video – 17th International Music Festival 2014". 
  155. ^ "Aswat: Music and Dance Show Debuting in Kuwait Tonight". 
  156. ^ "Aswat - 2". 
  157. ^ "يارا تفتتح كأس القارات لكرة قدم الصالات في الكويت". 
  158. ^ "شعيل ويارا ودشتي أضاءوا حفل بطولة القارات". 
  159. ^ "يارا تفتتح كأس القارات لكرة قدم الصالات في الكويت". 
  160. ^ "Sons of Yusuf: Mideast duo introduces Kuwaiti culture through rap and hip-hop". 
  161. ^ "The Base – Sons of Yusuf". 
  162. ^ "Big D". 
  163. ^ "Kuwaiti Rapper Promotes Positive Message". 
  164. ^ "Spraybox Opening". 
  165. ^ "Cozmo Spraybox". 
  166. ^ "All Styles Dance Battle Finals". 
  167. ^ "مسرح السالمية احتضن تكريم مبدعي "الخليجي" والرويشد والسعيد والجوهر وعبدالستار افتتحوه ... طرباً". 
  168. ^ "سهرة خليجية أسطورية على مسرح السالمية". 
  169. ^ "Haha-ka-tha: Kuwait’s Zahed Sultan Laughs his Way to Stardom". 
  170. ^ "Kuwaiti Artist Zahed Sultan Releases "Revolutionary" New Song & Music Video". 
  171. ^ "Zahed Sultan Live in 3D". 
  172. ^ "Zahed Sultan LIVE in 3D X 248AM". 
  173. ^ "Eye Am Sound – Zahed Sultan LIVE in 3D". 
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