# Kværner-process

The Kværner process or the Kværner carbon black & hydrogen process (CB&H) is a method for the production of carbon black and hydrogen gas from hydrocarbons such as methane, natural gas and biogas. The process was developed in the 1980s by the Norwegian engineering firm Kværner, and was first commercially exploited in 1999.[1]

## Description

Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of carbon nanocones (maximum diameter ~1 μm) produced by pyrolysis of heavy oil in the Kvaerner process.[2]

The endothermic reaction separates hydrocarbons into carbon and hydrogen in a plasma burner at around 1600 °C.

$\mathrm{C_n H_m \rightarrow n C + \frac{m}{2} H_2}$

In comparison to other reformation methods such as steam reforming and partial oxidation the natural gas is efficiently and completely transformed into pure carbon and hydrogen. Of the available energy of the feed, approximately 48% is contained in the hydrogen, 40% is contained in activated carbon and 10% in superheated steam.[citation needed][3]

## Plasma variation

A variation of this process using plasma arc waste disposal was presented in 2009. Methane and natural gas is converted to hydrogen, heat and carbon using a plasma converter.[4]

## References

1. ^ "Bellona Report 6:02, "Hydrogen - Status and possibilities" Hydrogen technologies". Interstate Traveler Company. Bellona Foundation. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
2. ^ Naess, Stine Nalum; Elgsaeter, Arnljot; Helgesen, Geir; Knudsen, Kenneth D. (29 December 2009). "Carbon nanocones: wall structure and morphology". Science and Technology of Advanced Materials 10 (6). doi:10.1088/1468-6996/10/6/065002.
3. ^
4. ^ "Hydrogen Breakthrough for Norwegian company". FuelCellsWorks. 12 October 2009. Retrieved 13 March 2014.