Kyakhta

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Kyakhta (English)
Кяхта (Russian)
Хяагта (Buryat)
-  Town[1]  -
Kyakhta is located in Republic of Buryatia
Kyakhta
Kyakhta
Magnify-clip.png
Location of Kyakhta in the Republic of Buryatia
Coordinates: 50°21′N 106°27′E / 50.350°N 106.450°E / 50.350; 106.450Coordinates: 50°21′N 106°27′E / 50.350°N 106.450°E / 50.350; 106.450
Coat of Arms of Kyakhta (Buryatia) (1861).png
Coat of arms
Administrative status (as of January 2013)
Country Russia
Federal subject Republic of Buryatia[1]
Administrative district Kyakhtinsky District[1]
Town Kyakhta[1]
Administrative center of Kyakhtinsky District,[1] Town of Kyakhta[1]
Municipal status (as of May 2013)
Municipal district Kyakhtinsky Municipal District[2]
Urban settlement Kyakhta Urban Settlement[2]
Administrative center of Kyakhtinsky Municipal District,[2] Kyakhta Urban Settlement[2]
Mayor[citation needed] Valery Tsyrempilov[citation needed]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census) 20,024 inhabitants[3]
Time zone IRKT (UTC+09:00)[4]
Founded 1728[5]
Town status since 1861[citation needed]
Previous names Kyakhta,[citation needed]
Troitskosavsk (until 1935)[citation needed]
Dialing code(s) +7 30142[citation needed]
Kyakhta on WikiCommons

Kyakhta (Russian: Кя́хта; Buryat: Хяагта, Khyaagta) is a town and the administrative center of Kyakhtinsky District in the Republic of Buryatia, Russia, located on the Kyakhta River near the Mongolia–Russia border. The town stands directly opposite the Mongolian border town of Altanbulag. Population: 20,041 (2010 Census);[3] 18,391 (2002 Census);[6] 18,307 (1989 Census).[7]

History[edit]

It was founded in 1728 by Serb Sava Vladislavich as a trading point between Russia and the Qing Empire.[5] The eastern terminal of the Great Siberian Route from Moscow, Kyakhta prospered from cross-border trade with Altanbulag which was then a Chinese trading center called Maimachin (Mǎimàichéng, lit. "trading city"). Trade was essentially based on barter, with merchants crossing the border to make their business.

Kyakhta's foundation was paralleled by a treaty, one of the first between China and a Western nation, which established trade agreements and defined the border between Siberia and the Qing Empire territories of Mongolia and Manchuria. As a result of this agreement, Kyakhta became an exclusive trading point on the frontier.

The twin towns of Kyakhta and Maimaicheng can be seen on this 1851 map, on the shortest route from Irkutsk to Peking

Kyakhta and Maimaicheng were visited by the famous English adventurer and engineer Samuel Bentham in 1782. He related that he was entertained by the commander of the Chinese city "with the greatest politeness which a stranger can meet with in any country whatever". At that time, the Russians sold furs, textiles, clothing, hides, leather, hardware, and cattle, while the Chinese sold silk, cotton stuffs, teas, fruits, porcelain, rice, candles, rhubarb, ginger, and musk. Much of the tea is said to have come from Yangloudong, a major center of tea production and trade near today's Chibi City, Hubei.[8]

The town was crowded, unclean, ill-planned and never came to reflect the wealth that flowed through it,[9] although several Neoclassical buildings were erected in the 19th century, including a tea bourse (1842) and the Orthodox cathedral (1807–1817), both of which still stand. It was from Kyakhta that Nikolay Przhevalsky, Grigory Potanin, Pyotr Kozlov, and Vladimir Obruchev set off on their expeditions into the interior of Mongolia and Xinjiang.

Town status was granted to Kyakhta in 1861.[citation needed]

After the entire Russian-Chinese frontier was opened to trade in 1860 and the Trans-Siberian and the Chinese Eastern Railways bypassed it, Kyakhta fell into decline.

The town was renamed Troitskosavsk during the first part of the 20th century, but the original name was restored in 1935.[citation needed]

In the mid-20th century, a branch railway was built from Ulan-Ude (on the Trans-Siberian) to Mongolia's Ulan Bator, and, eventually, to China, paralleling the old Kyakhta trade route. However, this railway crosses the Russian-Mongolian border not in Kyakhta itself, but in nearby Naushki.[10]

Kyakhta Pidgin[edit]

Trading in Kyakhta

As the first market town on the border between the Russian and Chinese Empires, Kyakhta gave its name to the so-called Kyakhta Russian–Chinese Pidgin, a contact language that was used by Russian and Chinese traders to communicate.[11]

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Kyakhta serves as the administrative center of Kyakhtinsky District.[1] As an administrative division, it is, together with the settlement of Sudzha, incorporated within Kyakhtinsky District as the Town of Kyakhta.[1] As a municipal division, the Town of Kyakhta is incorporated within Kyakhtinsky Municipal District as Kyakhta Urban Settlement.[2]

Climate[edit]

Kyakhta has a borderline subarctic climate (Köppen climate classification Dwc) and humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dwb), with dry, severely cold winters and warm, moist summers.

Climate data for Kyakhta
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) −0.1
(31.8)
8.6
(47.5)
20.5
(68.9)
29.3
(84.7)
35.0
(95)
37.2
(99)
40.6
(105.1)
37.1
(98.8)
31.5
(88.7)
26.6
(79.9)
11.8
(53.2)
5.4
(41.7)
40.6
(105.1)
Average high °C (°F) −15.8
(3.6)
−10.7
(12.7)
−0.9
(30.4)
9.5
(49.1)
17.5
(63.5)
23.7
(74.7)
25.1
(77.2)
22.9
(73.2)
16.2
(61.2)
7.5
(45.5)
−4.8
(23.4)
−13.5
(7.7)
6.39
(43.52)
Daily mean °C (°F) −21.3
(−6.3)
−17.3
(0.9)
−7.9
(17.8)
2.4
(36.3)
10.0
(50)
16.7
(62.1)
19.1
(66.4)
16.6
(61.9)
9.4
(48.9)
0.8
(33.4)
−10.1
(13.8)
−18.7
(−1.7)
−0.02
(31.96)
Average low °C (°F) −26.1
(−15)
−23.0
(−9.4)
−14.0
(6.8)
−4.2
(24.4)
2.7
(36.9)
9.6
(49.3)
13.2
(55.8)
10.8
(51.4)
3.6
(38.5)
−4.6
(23.7)
−15.1
(4.8)
−23.2
(−9.8)
−5.86
(21.45)
Record low °C (°F) −55.2
(−67.4)
−49.1
(−56.4)
−39.7
(−39.5)
−27.4
(−17.3)
−12.1
(10.2)
−4.5
(23.9)
1.4
(34.5)
−2.7
(27.1)
−9.7
(14.5)
−26.8
(−16.2)
−34.7
(−30.5)
−42.1
(−43.8)
−55.2
(−67.4)
Precipitation mm (inches) 4.0
(0.157)
3.3
(0.13)
4.7
(0.185)
11.9
(0.469)
26.4
(1.039)
58.7
(2.311)
86.2
(3.394)
75.2
(2.961)
38.7
(1.524)
13.2
(0.52)
6.6
(0.26)
4.4
(0.173)
333.3
(13.123)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 10.7 6.3 7.2 7.8 10.7 10.4 11.9 12.1 9.6 8.0 8.3 9.4 112.4
 % humidity 79.1 73.9 65.8 53.0 53.0 58.7 64.1 68.0 66.5 68.0 73.9 79.1 66.93
Mean monthly sunshine hours 158.1 187.6 235.6 243.0 275.9 276.0 279.0 254.2 234.0 186.0 153.0 127.1 2,609.5
Source: climatebase.ru (1948-2011)[12]

Economy and infrastructure[edit]

Kyakhta's economy today relies mainly on its status as an important center for trade between Russia, China, and Mongolia, located on the highway from the republic's capital of Ulan-Ude to the Mongolian capital of Ulan Bator. It also has textile, lumber, and food-processing plants.

Culture[edit]

Kyakhta is home to the Damdin Sükhbaatar memorial museum.

Town name in other languages[edit]

The Assumption Church in Kyakhta
  • Mongolian: Хиагт (Khiagt)
  • Manchu: Kiyaktu
  • Chinese: 恰克图 / 恰克圖 (Qiàkètú) or 恰克土 (Qiàkètǔ)
  • Buryat: Хяагта (Khyaagta)

In Mongolian, Kyakhta was formerly known as Ар Хиагт (Ar Khiagt, lit. "North Kyakhta"); Altanbulag (then, Maimaicheng) across the border was Өвөр Хиагт (Övör Khiagt, lit. "South Kyakhta"). When the town was known as Troitskosavsk, its name in Mongolian was Дээд Шивээ (Deed Šhivee).

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Resolution #43
  2. ^ a b c d e Law #985-III
  3. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  4. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  5. ^ a b Mark Mancall (1971). Russia and China: their diplomatic relations to 1728, (Volume 61 of Harvard East Asian series, Center for East Asian Studies, Harvard University).. Harvard University Press. p. 263. 
  6. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  7. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  8. ^ Li Baihao; Zhu Jianhua; Huang Li; Guo Jian (2005), "One cultural route span the Millenary: Chinese Tea Road", Proceedings of the Scientific Symposium "Monuments and sites in their setting - conserving cultural heritage in changing townscapes and landscapes", Xi'an, p. 4 
  9. ^ W. Bruce Lincoln. The Conquest of a Continent: Siberia and the Russians. Cornell University Press, 2007. Page 145.
  10. ^ Rolf Potts, Stranded in Siberia: At an obscure border town, our correspondent discovers the biggest obstacle in negotiating the next 4,000 miles: The train has left without him. (Salon Magazine, 1999-11-10)
  11. ^ International Council for Philosophy and Humanistic Studies (1996). Atlas of languages of intercultural communication in the Pacific, Asia, and the Americas, Volume 2, Part 1. (Volume 13 of Trends in Linguistics, Documentation Series).. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 911–912. ISBN 3-11-013417-9. 
  12. ^ "Kyakhta, Russia". Climatebase.ru. Retrieved 24 January 2013. 

Sources[edit]

  • Правительство Республики Бурятия. Постановление №431 от 18 ноября 2009 г. «О реестре административно-территориальных единиц и населённых пунктов Республики Бурятия», в ред. Постановления №17 от 23 января 2013 г. «О внесении изменений в Постановление Правительства Республики Бурятия от 18.11.2009 №431 "О реестре административно-территориальных единиц и населённых пунктов Республики Бурятия"». Вступил в силу 18 ноября 2009 г. Опубликован: "Бурятия", №216, Официальный вестник №120, 21 ноября 2009 г. (Government of the Republic of Buryatia. Resolution #431 of November 18, 2009 On the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units and the Inhabited Localities of the Republic of Buryatia, as amended by the Resolution #17 of January 23, 2013 On Amending Resolution #431 of November 18, 2009 of the Government of the Republic of Buryatia "On the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units and the Inhabited Localities of the Republic of Buryatia". Effective as of November 18, 2009.).
  • Народный Хурал Республики Бурятия. Закон №985-III от 31 декабря 2004 г. «Об установлении границ, образовании и наделении статусом муниципальных образований в Республике Бурятия», в ред. Закона №3372-IV от 6 мая 2013 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Республики Бурятия "Об установлении границ, образовании и наделении статусом муниципальных образований в Республике Бурятия"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Бурятия", №1, Официальный вестник №1, 12 января 2005 г. (People's Khural of the Republic of Buryatia. Law #985-III of December 31, 2004 On Establishing the Borders, Creating, and Granting a Status to the Municipal Formations in the Republic of Buryatia, as amended by the Law #3372-IV of May 6, 2013 On Amending the Law of the Republic of Buryatia "On Establishing the Borders, Creating, and Granting a Status to the Municipal Formations in the Republic of Buryatia". Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Christie, Ian R. (1993). The Benthams in Russia 1780–1791. Oxford, UK; Providence, RI: Berg Publishers Limited. ISBN 0-85496-816-4. OCLC 25833658.
  • Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.