Kyrgyz alphabets

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The Kyrgyz alphabets(кыргыз алфавити) are the alphabets used to write the Kyrgyz language. The Kyrgyz language uses the following alphabets:

The Arabic script was traditionally used to write Kyrgyz before the introduction of the first Latin-based alphabets in 1927. Today an Arabic alphabet is used in China.[1] The Uniform Turkic Alphabet was used in the USSR in the 1930s until its replacement by a Cyrillic script. The Kyrgyz Cyrillic alphabet is the alphabet used in Kyrgyzstan. It contains 36 letters: 33 from the Russian alphabet with 3 additional letters for sounds of the Kyrgyz language: Ң, Ү, Ө.

Although the Latin script is not in official use, some Kyrgyz texts are written in the Turkish variant of the Latin alphabet, and uses Turkish spelling norms e.g. for diphthongization (ey, ay etc). Native Kyrgyz sound values are almost identical to Turkish, the only exception being the velar nasal 〈ŋ〉 which does not exist in Turkish.

Correspondence chart[edit]

Correspondence chart of five Kyrgyz alphabets: the Kyrgyz Cyrillic and Kyrgyz Braille alphabets used in Kyrgyzstan, the modified Turkish alphabet used unofficially by the Kyrgyz communities and Turkologists in Turkey and around the world, the Kyrgyz Latin alphabet used 1928–1938 in Kyrgyzstan, and the Kyrgyz Arabic alphabet used in Xinjiang.

Cyrillic Name Braille Arabic[2] Transliteration Latin
(Based on Turkish)
Latin
(1928–⁠1938)
IPA transcription
А а а ا A a A a A a /ɑ/
Б б бе ب B b B b B ʙ /b/, [w], [v]
В в ве ۋ V v V v V v /v/
Г г ге گ
ع*
G g G g G g, Ƣ ƣ /ɡ/ [ʁ]
Д д де د D d D d D d /d/
Е е e ه E e, Ye ye E e, Ye ye E e, Je je /je/, /e/
Ё ё ё يو Yo yo Yo yo Jo jo /jo/
Ж ж же ج J j C c Ç ç (Ƶ ƶ from 1938) /dʒ/
З з зе ز Z z Z z Z z /z/
И и и ى I i İ i I i /i/
Й й ий ي Y y Y y J j /j/
К к кa ك
ق*
K k K k K k, Q q /k/, [q], [χ]
Л л эл ل L l L l L l /l/
М м эм م M m M m M m /m/
Н н эн ن N n N n N n /n/
Ң ң ың ڭ Ng ng Ñ ñ Ŋ ŋ /ŋ/
О о о و O o O o O o /o/
Ө ө ө ۅ Ö ö Ö ö Ɵ ɵ /ø/
П п пe پ P p P p P p /p/
Р р эр ر R r R r R r /r/
С с эс س S s S s S s /s/
Т т те ت T t T t T t /t/
У у у ۇ U u U u U u /u/
Ү ү ү ۉ Ü ü Ü ü Y y /y/
Ф ф эф ف F f F f F f /f/
Х х ха ح Kh kh H h H h (X x from 1938) [χ] /k/
Ц ц це تس Ts ts Ts ts Ts ts /ts/
Ч ч че چ Ch ch Ç ç C c /tʃ/
Ш ш ша ش Sh sh Ş ş Ş ş /ʃ/
Щ щ ща - Shch shch Şç şç Şc şc /ʃtʃ/, /ʃː/
Ъ ъ ажыратуу белгиси - - - *[3]
Ы ы ы ى Y y I ı Ь ь /ɯ/
Ь ь ичкертүү белгиси - - - *[3]
Э э э ه E e E e E e /e/
Ю ю ю يۋ Yu yu Yu yu Ju ju /ju/, /jy/
Я я я يا Ya ya Ya ya Ja ja /ja/, /jɑ/
  • К – ك changes into ق if precedes or succeeds by letters а, о, у, ы.
  • Г – گ changes into ع if precedes or succeeds by letters а, о, у, ы.

Text sample[edit]

Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights [4]

Kyrgyz in
Cyrillic script
Kyrgyz in
Arabic script
Kyrgyz in
Latin script (Based on Turkish)
Kyrgyz in
Latin script (1928–1938)
English
Бардык адамдар өз беделинде жана укуктарында эркин жана тең укуктуу болуп жаралат. Алардын аң‑сезими менен абийири бар жана бири‑бирине бир туугандык мамиле кылууга тийиш. باردىق ادامدار ۅز بەدەلىندە جانا ۇقۇقتارىندا ەركىن جانا تەڭ ۇقۇقتۇۇ بولۇپ جارالات.۔ الاردىن اڭ-سەزىمى مەنەن ابئيىرى بار جانا بئرى-بئرىنە بئر تۇۇعاندىق مامئلە قىلۇۇعا تئيىش. Bardık adamdar öz bedelinde cana ukuktarında erkin cana teñ ukuktuu bolup caralat. Alardın añ‑sezimi menen abiyiri bar cana biri‑birine bir tuugandık mamile kıluuga tiyiş. Bardьq adamdar ɵz ʙedelinde çana uquqtarьnda erkin çana teŋ uquqtuu ʙolup çaralat. Alardьn aŋ‑sezimi menen aʙijiri ʙar çana ʙiri‑ʙirine ʙir tuugandьk mamile qьluuƣa tijiş. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Arabic[edit]

Name in Kyrgyz Transliteration IPA Final Medial Initial Isolated
a [a] ا
b [b]
p [p] پ
n [n]
t [t]
j [ʒ]
č / ch [t͡ʃ]
ĥ / x [χ]
f [ɸ]
q [q]
ġ [ʁ]
k [k~q] ک
g [ɡ~ʁ] گ
/ ng [ŋ] ڭ
l [l]
m [m]
o [o] و و
ö / oe [ø] ۅ
u [u] ۉ
ü [y]
v [v]
s [s]
š / sh [ʃ]
d [d]
r [r]
z [z]
e [je/e]
ı(b) -
o(f) [y] ﯗﺀ
i(f) ﻰﺋ
y [j] ي
i/ı
- ء
() (la) ([]) () () () (ﻻ)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Minglang Zhou (2003). Multilingualism in China: the politics of writing reforms for minority languages, 1949-2002. Volume 89 of Contributions to the sociology of language (illustrated ed.). Published Walter de Gruyter. p. 149. ISBN 3-11-017896-6. Retrieved 2011-01-01. 
  2. ^ Kyrgyz alphabet, language and pronunciation
  3. ^ a b no phonemic value; only found in borrowings
  4. ^ Kyrgyz edition of Universal Declaration of Human Rights

External links[edit]