Lötschberg railway line
|Lötschberg railway line|
Luogelkin viaduct near Hohtenn
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge|
|Minimum radius||300 m (980 ft)|
|Electrification||15 kV, 16⅔ Hz,
|Highest elevation||1,240 m (4,068 ft)|
The Lötschberg line is a major railway through the Swiss Alps, which connects Spiez in the Bernese Oberland with Brig in the Valais. It is part of a major European rail axis connecting Germany, northern France and Benelux and Italy. The core of the line was the 14,612 meter Lötschberg Tunnel until the opening of the Lötschberg Base Tunnel in 2007. The line is famous for its double loop of spiral tunnels on its northern approach to the Lötschberg tunnel and the climb out of the Rhone Valley on a steep mountainside through numerous tunnels and viaducts on the southern approach. Reaching a height of 1,240 metres above sea level, the Lötschberg is the highest adhesion and standard gauge railway in Switzerland.
The Lötschberg line is the second most important north-south link through the Swiss Alps after the Gotthardbahn. It is also connects the western part of German-speaking Switzerland, western Germany and eastern France to the Simplon railway to Milan in Italy.
The beginning of the Lötschberg line is in the rail hub of Spiez, where it connects with the Lake Thun line from Thun, with connections to Bern and northern Europe, and Interlaken. From there it runs generally due south through the Kander valley through Frutigen and Kandersteg to the Lötschberg tunnel to Goppenstein. From Hohtenn the line turns in an easterly direction to the southern flank of the Bietschhorn massif down to Brig. The line is 74 km (46.0 mi) long.
The railway from Bern to Münsingen and Thun was opened in 1859 by the Schweizerische Centralbahn ("Swiss Central Railway"). This company, including the Bern–Thun line, was taken over by the Swiss Federal Railways on its establishment in 1902, although most local passenger and freight services on it are now operated by the Bern-Lötschberg-Simplon railway (BLS). In 1893 the Thunerseebahn ("Lake Thun Railway") was opened between Thun, Spiez, Interlaken and Bönigen was opened in 1893. It was absorbed by BLS in 1913.
Around 1890 the canton of Bern began to consider the possibility of building a railway to connect with the proposed Simplon Tunnel. It was entitled under the Swiss constitution to build its own railway through the Alps. However, it was unlikely to receive financial support from the Swiss Confederation because the Swiss government had provided significant funding for the Gotthardbahn; therefore Bern would have to find funds from elsewhere to build its own line to the south.
In 1891 a small group of eminent persons obtained a concession for the construction of a railway line between Spiez and Frutigen with the option of later extending it into the Valais. A retired member of the cantonal government and judge, Wilhelm Teuscher studied route options and concluded that the current route was feasible. On 25 July 1901 the railway was opened from Spiez to Frutigen as the Spiez-Frutigen-Bahn (SFB) as the first stage of the Lötschberg line.
Meanwhile a line from Lenk im Simmental under Wildstrubel to Leukerbad in the Valais was also proposed. However, the supporters of the Lötschberg were able to raise sufficient funds to allow the Lötschberg proposal to go forward. On 27 July 1906, the Berner Alpenbahngesellschaft Bern-Lötschberg-Simplon (BLS) was founded for the construction and operation of the proposed railway and on 1 January 1907, it absorbed the Spiez-Frutigen-Bahn.
The French consortium Entreprise du Lötschberg was awarded the contract for construction of the entire Lötschberg line and construction commenced on 15 October 1906 with the drilling of the northern portal of the Lötschberg tunnel.
It was originally intended that the line be built as a single track, but during construction a decision was taken to build the Lötschberg Tunnel with double track and to prepare the approaches for duplication in the future. The track geometry of the approaches were redesigned to make possible a second track and buildings and tunnels made provision for a second track to be added. The maximum gradient was set at 27 per thousand (2.7%) and curves had a minimum radius of 300 m (980 ft). The builders established a 750 mm (2 ft 5 1⁄2 in) gauge construction railway on both approaches to the tunnel.
During the construction of the Lötschberg line, there were several fatal accidents. On the evening of 29 February 1908 the construction caused an avalanche which hit a hotel and killed 12 of its guests who were eating dinner. On 24 July 1908 a collapse caused by leaking water in the Lötschberg tunnel killed 25 people, all but three of the shift workers present. This collapse forced a detour in the tunnel around the weak strata that collapsed.
Originally it was planned to open the line on 1 March 1912, but this date was twice delayed by the decision to build double line through the main tunnel and make provision for future double track elsewhere. On 15 July 1913 electrification of the line work was completed and a limited service began. On 16 September 1913 a more complete schedule began with 16 trains, including four international express trains.
Completion of Tunnels
The date of the breakthroughs of the approach tunnels were as follows.
- Riedschuk tunnel,
- Felsenburg tunnel II, 28 December 1910
- Ronenwaldtunnel I, 15 September 1910
- Ronenwald tunnel II, 30 September 1910
- Rotbach tunnel, 9 September 1910
- Hemligen tunnel, 10 November 1910
- Rotlaui tunnel, 3 April 1908
- Mittalgraben tunnel, 29 March 1908
- Luegje tunnel, 5 April 1908
- Hohegg tunnel, 30 November 1907
- Marchgraben tunnel, 13 December 1907
- Hohtenn tunnel, 10 March 1908
- Lidenplatten tunnel, 30 September 1907
- Blasboden tunnel, 6 February 1908
- Sevistein tunnel I, 17 March 1908
- Mahnkinn tunnel, 29 March 1908
- Stadel tunnel, 11 March 1908
- Viktoria tunnel, 5 November 1907
- Mundbach tunnel, 28 September 1907
- Stadel tunnel, 25 November 1910
- Schluchi tunnel, 8 April 1911
- Bietschtal tunnel I, 29 August 1911
- Bietschtal tunnel II, 21 February 1911
- Sevistein tunnel II, 30 December 1911
Gründenrunnel, 11 March 1911
- Eggerberg tunnel, 24 March 1911
- Bad tunnel, 31 March 1911
- Sevistein tunnel III, 25 October 1915 (replacement for Sevistein tunnel I and II, damaged by a landslide)
For the construction of the Lötschberg line and the main tunnel two special construction railway had to be constructed to bring material from Frutigen or the junction at Naters near Brig to the portals of the Lötschberg tunnel. The gauge of the railways was 750 mm (2 ft 5 1⁄2 in), the maximum gradient was 60 per thousand (6%) and the minimum curve radius was 50 m (160 ft). While on the northern approach the construction line was built on a different route to the permanent line, on the south side the construction line followed the permanent line to a large extent.
The rolling stock for the construction lines consisted of 420 waggons and 32 small steam locomotives with Klien-Lindner axles, delivered from June to November 1907 by the German firm of Orenstein & Koppel. The trains reached a top speed of 15 km/h (9.3 mph) and their transport capacity amounted to an average of 13,000 t (12,795 long tons; 14,330 short tons) per month.
The engineer J. Seeberger was responsible for building a construction railway between Frutigen and the northern tunnel portal near Kandersteg; it was over 15 km (9.3 mi) long and climbed about 429 m (1,407 ft) in altitude. The earthworks and structures of the construction railway was completed on 30 June 1907 and on 19 August the first steam locomotive ran to the portal of the tunnel. The construction railway had numerous junctions to lines connecting to the various construction sites for the main line railway. Several wooden viaducts had to be built to climb from Blausee to Kandersteg. The most impressive was the Aegerten viaduct which was 126 m (413 ft) long and had a gradient of 57 per thousand (5.7%) and a curve radius of 50 m (164 ft).
The building of the construction railway on the south side was delayed by many appeals and the groundbreaking ceremony near Naters took place on 12 February 1907. The line of the 28 km (17.4 mi) long construction railway, with an average gradient of 30 per thousand (3%) corresponded almost exactly to the alignment of the permanent railway line as built except that the deviations around many side valleys and spurs were bypassed by the actual line. Even so, the construction line had 34 tunnels with a total length of 5.3 km (3.3 mi), of which 13 tunnels were enlarged to become part of the permanent line.
Finally, in August 1908, almost two years after beginning of tunnelling of the southern portal of the tunnel, the first supply train ran the all the way from Naters to the portal at Goppenstein. Previously all the building supplies had to be laboriously hauled up by mule or by cart through the narrow Lonza gorge.
The footpath along the southern approach to the Lötschberg Tunnel line in some sections follows the route of the construction railway, particularly in the Bietsch and Baltschieder valleys.
Expansion of capacity
The approaches to the Lötschberg tunnel were originally single track and have subsequently been doubled. The bridges and tunnels of the line were partly designed to be doubled, but were initially not fully bored or built. Double tracking of the line was completed between 1976 and 1992. At the same time the tracks were lowered to create a continuous SIM corridor (Simplon Inter-Modal) for a rolling highway (trucks carried on flatcars) and high-cube containers. Also, the passenger train capacity was increased massively.
In mid 2007, the Lötschberg base tunnel was completed between Frutigen and Visp. This is the first of two new lines through the Swiss Alps as part of AlpTransit. As a result the old Lötschberg line between Frutigen and Brig is used much less intensively than previously.
Current operations on the old line
The new base tunnel has taken almost all the long-distance passenger and a considerable part of the freight from the original Lötschberg tunnel, but hourly regional express trains between Bern and Spiez to Brig and freight trains continue to run on the mountain railway. In addition, the car ferry continues to operate on the line between Kandersteg and Goppenstein; it is subsidized by the Swiss government to substitute for a road tunnel under the Rawil Pass that was planned in the 1970s but never built.
- Gauge: 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in)
- Current: 15,000 V AC 16.67 Hz
- Length: 74 km (46 mi)
- Maximum gradient: 27 ‰ (2.7%)
- Height at northern end (Spiez): 630 m (2,067 ft) above sea level
- Height at southern end (Brig): 678 m (2,224 ft) above sea level
- Apex of the line in the Lötschberg tunnel: 1,240 m (4,068 ft) above sea level
- Opening the line Spiez-Frutigen by the Spiez-Frutigen-Bahn: 25 July 1901
- Start of construction of the line between Brig and Frutigen: 15 October 1906
- Takeover of the Spiez-Frutigen-Bahn by the BLS: 1 January 1907
- Breakthrough of the Lötschberg tunnel: 31 March 1911
- Opening of line: 15 July 1913
- Röll, V. Freiherr von: Enzyklopädie des Eisenbahnwesens, Band 2. Berlin, Wien 1912, p. 256 on www.zeno.org/Roell-1912
- Röll, V. Freiherr von: Enzyklopädie des Eisenbahnwesens, Band 2. Berlin, Wien 1912, p. 257/258 on www.zeno.org/Roell-1912
- "The history of navigation on Lakes Thun and Brienz". BLS. Retrieved 12 April 2009.
- Hartung, Karlheinz (1989). Bahn und Reisen Schweiz (in German). R. v. Decker's Verlag. ISBN 3-7685-1289-4.
- Belloncle, Patrick. Die Geschichte der Lötschbergbahn (in German). Les Éditions du Cabri, 1986,. ISBN 2-903310-49-1.
- Jeanmaire, Claude (1989). Lötschbergbahn im Bau (in German). ISBN 3-85649-058-2.