Lạc Long Quân

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Lạc Long Quân
Đền thờ Lạc Long Quân.jpg
Lạc Long Quân's temple at Sim Hill (Phú Thọ)
King of Văn Lang
Reign 2793 BC – ?
Predecessor Kinh Dương Vương
Successor Hùng Quốc Vương
Spouse Âu Cơ
Full name
Sùng Lãm
Hùng Hiền
House Hồng Bàng
Father Kinh Dương Vương
Mother Long Mẫu Thần Long

Lạc Long Quân (literally "Dragon Lord of Lạc"; also called Hùng Hiền Vương) is considered the second Hùng king of the Hồng Bàng Dynasty of ancient Vietnam (known then as Văn Lang and before that as Xích Quỷ). Quân was the son and sole successor of Kinh Dương Vương (the first Hung king), who ruled over Xích Quỷ. He is thought to have become king in 2793 BC.

In modern day, his life is mixed with many legends. Quân's wife, Âu Cơ, gave birth to a sac containing 100 eggs from which 100 children were born; this is the origin of the story of the 100 Vietnamese family names. One day Lạc Long Quân told Âu Cơ: "I am descended from dragons, you from fairies. We are as incompatible as water is with fire. So we cannot continue in harmony." This said, the husband and wife parted. The man went to the seawards with 50 of their children, while his wife went to the mountainous region with the other half of the clan. The eldest son, who followed his mother,[1] later installed himself as Quân's successor.[2][3]

Genealogy[edit]

Lạc Long Quân's father was Kinh Dương Vương.[4]

In Vietnamese literature[edit]

The books Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư (from the 15th century) and Lĩnh Nam chích quái ("Wonders plucked from the dust of Linh-nam", from the 14th century) mention the legend with Âu Cơ.[5]

Myths[edit]

Ngư Tinh's elimination: During Lạc Long Quân's time, the people of Van Lang was still undeveloped and isolated. In the Eastern sea, there appears a giant fish, called Ngư Tinh. This fish has lived for centuries, with the size of its mouth, it can consume a ship with 10 fisherman at the same time. Whenever the fish swim, waves can reach the sky, drown multiple ships, all the people passing through the area were all eaten by the fish. Ngư tinh lives in a big cave under the sea, above the cave is a huge mountain which divide the sea into two areas.

Lạc Long Quân decided to slay the beast in order to help the innocents. He built a huge ship, made a burning human-shaped piece of metal, then sailed straight to Ngư tinh's nest. There he held the human-shaped piece of metal up to trick Ngư Tinh. Tinh thought it was a human than opened its mouth and tried to swallow to burning metal. Quân threw the burning metal into Ngư Tinh's mouth. Ngư tinh's throat was burning, it struggled and tried to sink Quân's ship. Quân then took his sword out and slew the beast, slicing it into three different pieces.

Hồ Tinh's elimination: After slaying Ngư Tinh, Quân went down to Long Biên. There appears a nine-tailed fox that live for thousand years. The fox lived in a deep cave, under a rock mountain in the West Long Biên. This fox often disguised into human shape, lure the women, then bring them to the cave and feed on them. This fox has been harassing people from Long Biên to Tản Viên mountain. The innocents were so afraid of the fox that they have to leave their homes, farms to other places in order to live peacefully. Quân brought his sword to the beast's nest and tried to slay the beast. When Quân reached the cave, the fox smelled human, then suddenly attacked, Quân then used magic to called the elements of wind and thunders to trap the beast. After 3 days, the beast has weakened, tried to find a way to run away. Quân caught the beast and sliced its head off. The beast revealed itself as a huge nine-tailed fox. Quân got into the cave and rescued everybody that was alive and tortured by the fox

Descendant of Dragon and Fairy: Lạc Long Quân was married to Đế Lai's daughter, Âu Cơ. She gave birth to a sac of a hundred eggs, which hatched into a hundred boys. One day, Quân confessed to her: "I am a descendant of the Dragon, you are descendant of the Fairy, fire and water cannot live together in harmony." The two of them then divided their children. Fifty sons followed their mother to the mountainous north, the other fifty followed their father to live in the south; these children are ancestor of Bách Việt. The oldest brother followed Âu Cơ to Phong Châu (Phú Thọ), became Quân's successor.

Legacy[edit]

Most cities in Vietnam have named major streets after him.[6] He features both in primary education,[7] and in some forms of popular religious belief as a god.[8][9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ngô Thì Sĩ, Việt sử Tiêu án]
  2. ^ Roseane M Santos An Unashamed Defense of Coffee - Page 268 2009 "A Vietnamese myth claims that the Vietnamese people of various tribes were born outside the womb following the marriage of Lạc Long Quân (Dragon Chief) and Âu Cơ (the Fairy), but Vietnamese historians consider the Dong Son civilization ..."
  3. ^ Nghia M. Vo Saigon: A History 2011 -- Page 285 "According to legend, King Lạc Long Quân wed fairy Âu Cơ who gave him 100 children. Both considered to be the ancestors of the Vietnamese nation, they later split up; taking 50 children, he settled along the coastal area and founded the ..."
  4. ^ Keith Weller Taylor: The Birth of Vietnam. Revision of thesis (Ph.D), Appendix A, pg. 304. University of California Press (1991). ISBN 0-520-07417-3
  5. ^ Keith Weller Taylor: The Birth of Vietnam. Revision of thesis (Ph.D.). Appendix A, page 303. University of California Press (1991). ISBN 0-520-07417-3
  6. ^ Vietnam Country Map. Periplus Travel Maps. 2002–03. ISBN 0-7946-0070-0.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  7. ^ Marie-Carine Lall, Edward Vickers - Education As a Political Tool in Asia - Page 143 2009 "'Vietnamese-ness'. The history of the country really started around 800 bc with the Văn Lang kingship. Children learn about the legends of the nation's birth, which feature heroic figures such as Kinh Dương Vương, Âu Cơ – Lạc Long Quân ..."
  8. ^ Andrea Lauser, Kirsten W. Endres - Engaging the Spirit World: Popular Beliefs and Practices in Modern Vietnam 2012 - Page 93 "of the Water Palace are linked to the mythical foundation of the country and they are considered to be descendants of the Dragon King of Động Đình, father of the mythic founder of the country, Lạc Long Quân. Images from this past are enacted ..."
  9. ^ Philip Taylor Modernity and Re-Enchantment: Religion in Post-Revolutionary Vietnam Page 68 2007 "According to legend, all Vietnamese people can trace their ancestry back to the marriage of the dragon father Lạc Long Quân and the fairy mother Âu Cơ. This magical union produced an egg sac from which hatched one hundred human ..."

External links[edit]

See also[edit]

Lạc Long Quân
Hồng Bàng Dynasty
Preceded by
Kinh Dương Vương
King of Văn Lang
2793 BC – ?
Succeeded by
Hùng Quốc Vương