Léon Vanderkindere (22 February 1842–9 November 1906) was a Belgian historian, academic and politician.
Vanderkindere was born in Sint-Jans-Molenbeek into a wealthy middle-class family. His father, Albert Vanderkindere, was a Liberal politician. Albert had been a member of the provincial assembly of the province of Brabant from 1844 to 1850 and from 1854 to his death in 1859, and was mayor of Molenbeek from 1842 to 1848, and then of Ukkel, where the family moved, from 1854.
Léon Vanderkindere was a professor at the Université Libre de Bruxelles, a member of the Royal Academy. Like his father he was active in Liberal politics and served as mayor of Ukkel from 1900 until his death in 1906. A square and a street in Ukkel are named for him.
- Pirenne, Henri (1908), "Notice sur Léon Vanderkindere, membre de l'academie: sa vie et ses travaux", Annuaire de l'Académie royale de Belgique (Brussels) 74