||This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is: Overlong footnotes. (November 2013)|
|First publication of The Protocols|
|Writers, editors, and publishers associated with The Protocols|
|Debunkers of The Protocols|
|Commentaries on The Protocols|
L. (Leslie) Fry (February 16, 1882 - July 15, 1970) was the pen name of Paquita Louise de Shishmareff. Her name is given as Paquita Deshishmaref in the SSDI (Social Security Death Index). She was a pro-Christian, antisemitic activist, who is primarily known for her authorship of Waters Flowing Eastward (1931), which asserts that Jews were to blame for both Capitalism and Bolshevism, and that it was primarily certain Jews who started World War I. She alleged that certain Freemasons were involved as well. She postulated that the ultimate aim of these particular Jews and Freemasons was "World Domination". These conclusions were based on her study of the infamous Protocols of the Elders of Zion.
Leslie Fry's maiden name was Louise A. Chandor. She was born in Paris, the daughter of John Arthur Chandor (1850-1909) and Elizabeth (Red) Fry Ralston (1837-1929). Elizabeth married William Chapman Ralston (1826-1875) on May 20, 1858 in San Francisco. Soon after their marriage, W. C. Ralston rose to become a San Francisco banking and real estate magnate. In fact, W. C. Ralston became a living legend, who after his death (and even during his lifetime) was widely acclaimed as "the man who built San Francisco." However, their marriage was not a happy one, and it finally ended in disaster on August 27, 1875, when William drowned while swimming. After the settlement of her husband's estate, in December 1875 Elizabeth embarked on a steamer to Europe, intending to settle in Paris with her children. It is reported that she first met John Arthur Chandor on this steamer, and that he soon joined her in Paris, even though he had been recently married in New York City. It is not known at this time if J. A. Chandor and Elizabeth ever married, but nevertheless their friendship resulted in the birth of Louise A. Chandor (pen-name: Leslie Fry) in Paris on Feb. 16, 1882.
Early Life in Europe and Russia
Louise married an officer in the Russian Imperial Army named Feodor Ivanovich Shishmarev in 1906 in St. Petersburg. The Shishmarev family was part of the Russian aristocracy. Feodor was murdered by Bolsheviks during the Russian Revolution, but before his murder he had the foresight to send his wife (who was now using her married name 'Paquita Louise de Shishmareff') with their two sons, and the family fortune, out of the country to safety. After leaving Russia, Paquita (Louise) resided shortly in Britain and Canada before moving to New York and finally to California. She was associated with fascist political circles during this period. Her wealth allowed her to financially support right-wing nationalists.
Activities in the United States and Europe, 1920-1970
Paquita met Henry Ford in or around 1920, and presented him with a copy of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion. She conceived the Protocols as part of a conspiracy theory according to which a group led by the "cultural Zionist" Asher Ginzberg plotted world domination. At the time Ginzberg supported an international Jewish cultural and political revival rather than a single Jewish state.
Antisemitic writer and Nazi ideologist Ernst Graf zu Reventlow named Fry as his source for his own view that Ginzberg was the author the Protocols. After Philip Graves provided evidence in The Times of London that the Protocols were plagiarised forgery, Reventlow published his support for Fry's theory in the periodical La Vieille France. Ginzberg's supporters sued Reventlow, who was forced to retract and pay damages.
Strongly opposed to Roosevelt's New Deal, Fry argued that it represented "the transformation of the Constitutional form of American government into that of the Kahal, or Jewish form of government. It has been called the New Deal and the Jew Deal. Both are correct and synonymous."
She was involved in various fascist organisations of the 1930s and founded the nationalist and isolationist Christian Free Press. She joined forces with Henry D. Allen in a failed attempt to revitalize the Ku Klux Klan. However she later accused him of misappropriating money from her.
In 1940 she fled to fascist Italy, but returned the US after the attack on Pearl Harbor. She was interned in Ellis Island and indicted for sedition, but charges were dropped and she was released after the end of the war.
Waters Flowing Eastward
Fry's major work, Waters Flowing Eastward (1931) attempted to prove that the Protocols were part of a plot to destroy Christian civilization. The apparent conflict between Communism and Capitalism was a smoke-screen for Jewish domination, as outlined in the Protocols. She compiled an elaborate chart detailing the claimed Jewish masterplan and linked it to earlier organisations including the Illuminati and leading to the League of Nations. Fry claimed that the Protocols of Zion were identified when "In 1884 the daughter of a Russian general, Mile. Justine Glinka, was endeavouring to serve her country in Paris by obtaining political information, which she communicated to General Orgevskii". A Jew called Joseph Schorst sold her a copy of the Protocols which eventually found its way into the hands of Sergei Nilus who published it.
||This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is: idiosyncratic layout. (November 2013)|
- Akhad-Kham, Asher Gint︠s︡berg.
- Taĭnyĭ vozhdʹ īudeĭskīĭ.: Perevod s frantsuzskago
- [of Miss L. Fry by Th. Vinberg, being an attempt to prove
- the "Protokoly Sīonskikh Mudret︠s︡ov"
- published in a work by S. A. Nilus
- to be a work by U. Ginzberg].
- by Leslie Fry; Thedor Viktorovich Vinberg
- Type: Microform
- Language: Russian
- Publisher: Berlin, 1922.
- OCLC: 84780936
- System number 002659956
- Author - personal NILUS, Sergei Aleksandrovich.
- Title Протоколы Сіонскихъ Мудрецовъ, по тексту С. А. Нилуса. Всемирный тайный заговоръ.
- [The text of the “Protocols” adapted from M. Joly’s
- “Dialogue aux Enfers entre Machiavel et Montesquieu ... par un Contemporain”
- taken from S. A. Nilus’s Великое въ Маломъ,
- preceded by Miss L. Fry’s Ахадъ-Хамъ.
- Тайный вождь іудейскій in Th. Vinberg’s translation,
- being an attempt to prove the “Protocols” to be a work by U. Ginzberg,
- with a preface to the whole by A. Rogovich.
- With this there are two cuttings from “The Times” and one from “Послѣднія Извѣстія” on the subject.
- With an illustration.]
- Publisher/year Linkpp. 124. Берлинъ, 1922.
- Physical descr. 8º.
- Added name FRY, Leslie.
- GINZBERG, Asher Zvi.
- JOLY, Maurice.
- ROGOVICH, A.
- VINBERG, Thedor Viktorovich.
- Holdings (All) Details
- Shelfmark C.37.ee.2. Request
- Waters Flowing Eastward
- 1st Edition (Paris: Editions R.I.S.S., 1931)
- 2nd Edition Revised 1933
- 3rd Edition Revised 1934
- 4th Edition Revised 1953
- 5th Edition Enlarged 1965 Subtitle: The War Against the Kingship of Christ, (Denis Fahey's imprint)
- 6th Edition 1988 (Copyright 1988 Flanders Hall Publishers)
- 7th Edition 1998
- Current  Web edition.
- In Defense of Youth
- Will the University of California be Seized by Communists?
- Planned Economy
- The New Order
- California Betrayed
- various pamphlets on Zionism
- Who Put Hitler in Power
- in Women's Voice
- ed. by Mrs. Van Hyning
- "Subversive Activities in America First Committee in California". Ajcarchives.com. Retrieved 2012--12.
- "Fry, Leslie (Louise Chandor-Shishmareff)" by Michael Hagemeister, in Handbuch des Antisemitismus 1. A-K (München Saur, 2009), ed. by Wolfgang Benz.
- "In search of evidence of the origin of the "Protocols of the Elders of Zion". UFO 2009, № 96 Michael Hagemeyster (in Russian). Scroll down until you arrive at the phrase "Louise Chandor" in footnote #3 on page 4 (which refers to information in paragraph #6 on page 1)
- Inhaltsverzeichnis.pdf. Degruyter.de. Scroll down to view the following entries: (1) Chandor-Shishmareff, Louise====> Fry, Leslie (2) Fry, Leslie (3) Schischmarjowa, Louise (geb. Chandor)====> Fry, Leslie (4) Shishmareff, Paquita de====> Fry, Leslie[dead link]
- John Arthur Chandor (Jan. 18, 1850 - June 1, 1909) - U. S. diplomat, inventor, and adventurer. He was born in Manhattan, New York, and died in Kensington, Greater London, England. In the early 1880s he held the diplomatic post of Second Secretary at the U. S. Embassy in Paris, France. John's date of death is recorded in the Principal Probate Registry. Calendar of the Grants of Probate and Letters of Administration made in the Probate Registries of the High Court of Justice in England (London, England - Crown copyright), in the volume for year 1912, page 355. The complete statement there on page 355 concerning him is as follows: "Chandor, John Arthur - Of 5 Abingdon Court, Kensington, Middlesex, died on June 1, 1909. Administration (limited): London, November 11  to Reginald Mortimer Chandor, publisher, and attorney of Adeline Augusta Chandor (John's widow). Effects: 1317 (pounds sterling) and 10s." See the following websites for additional documentation on J. A. Chandor: () and () and ()
- Elizabeth (Red) Fry Ralston (usually referred to simply as 'Elizabeth Fry Ralston' or 'Lizzie Fry Ralston')(Nov. 9, 1837 - Nov. 30, 1929) - Born in Springfield, Sangamon County, Illinois. Her parents were James Red (July 22, 1814 - Nov. 17, 1857) and Edna Fry. Edna Fry's brother was the famous San Francisco mining and banking magnate John Douglas Fry (July 1, 1819 - Feb. 3, 1901). When Elizabeth was about 10 years old she was adopted by J. D. Fry, who was her maternal uncle. After Fry adopted her, Elizabeth started using 'Fry' (instead of 'Red') as her surname. J. D. Fry moved to California (from Greene County, Illinois) in 1849, and Elizabeth joined him in California as soon as he had established himself in business there. On May 20, 1858, Elizabeth married William Chapman Ralston (Jan. 12, 1826 - Aug. 27, 1875) in San Francisco (See: Ralston-Fry Wedding, Yosemite.ca.us). In March 1867 William and Elizabeth separated temporarily - Elizabeth spent 10 months in France, accompanied only by her 3 living children and 2 maids (See "Timeline San Francisco to 1892 ". Scroll down to the entry dated 1867 March about William Ralston and his wife 'Lizzie'). In 1869 she also spent several months in Europe - again without her husband. During her 1869 European excursion, rumors spread of a romance between Lizzie and artist John O'Brien Inman (1828-1896), who had a studio in Rome. When Elizabeth returned to the U. S., she had another child by W. C. Ralston, a daughter named Bertha Ralston (March 28, 1872 - Oct. 30, 1960). Bertha married Louis Victor Bright (1863-1933), a Manhattan lawyer and banker. W. C. Ralston died by drowning on Aug. 27, 1875. After the settlement of her husband's estate, in December 1875 Elizabeth traveled with her children by steamer to Paris, where she intended to settle permanently. An article which appeared in the San Francisco Chronicle (issue of Nov. 27, 1877) (see below) reports that Elizabeth first met John Arthur Chandor onboard this steamer during her December 1875 voyage to Paris. Surviving her husband W. C. Ralston by some 54 years, Elizabeth eventually returned to the U. S. and lived for many years in a peaceful little cottage in the foothill country near Georgetown, El Dorado County, California. She died at age 92 in San Francisco. Elizabeth's husband, William Chapman Ralston, Sr. (1826-1875), was buried in the Lone Mountain Cemetery (renamed the Laurel Hill Cemetery) in San Francisco. Elizabeth Fry Ralston was cremated, and her cremains are inurned in a columbarium vault at Cypress Lawn Memorial Park (Colma, San Mateo County, California). She shares this columbarium vault (located in Garden E, Section 5) with 9 other family members and close relatives (to date), namely: Samuel Fry Ralston (1859-1888), Etna Louise Ralston (1860-1862), William Chapman Ralston, Jr. (1863-1924), unnamed Page (d. 1893), Edwin Page (d. 1921), Arthur Page (1855-1923), Arthur Ralston Page (1895-1975), Florence Page (d. 1981), and Charles Page Buckingham (d. 2000). To view a photo of W. C. Ralston, Sr., an updated list of William and Elizabeth's children, plus a good photo of the exterior of Elizabeth's shared columbarium vault at Cypress Lawn Memorial Park, see: "William Chapman Ralston" at Findagrave.
- "A Tale of Two Continents; Strange Infatuation of a Widow. Painful Developments Growing Out of the Demand for a Reopening of the Settlement of the Dead Banker Ralston's Estate -- The Mystery of the English 'Lord' and his Bear Explained". New York Times (Dec. 5, 1877, based on an article from the San Francisco Chronicle, Nov. 27, 1877)
- Glen Jeansonne, Women of the Far Right: The Mothers' Movement and World War II, University of Chicago Press, 1997. p.228.
- The 2 sons were named Kyril Feodorovich de Shishmarev (aka Kyrill de Shishmareff, Kyrill DeShishmareff, or Kyrill F. de Shishmareff) (1907 - May 12, 1975) and Misha de Shishmarev (aka Michael Theodore Fry de Shishmareff, or simply as Michael Fry) (Jan. 17, 1910 - July 1983) (See: Ancestry.com) - Kyril de Shishmarev claimed that his full name was Prince Kyril Feodorovich de Vassilchikov-Shismarev, Comte de Rohan-Chandor. He used this form of his name as a member of The Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem (Knights of Malta). See: "Summary of History - Sosjmalta.org" (Scroll down to page 5, where Kyril's supposed full name is given). It also states there that Kyril de Shishmarev died in Portugal on May 12, 1975, after suffering mortal injuries during civil upheavals. Kyril held the position of Lieutenant Grand Master in this order from 1971-1975 - see: "Grand Masters of the Order - p. 9 - Sosjmalta.org at the Wayback Machine (archived August 13, 2009) and "Nr. 2060-October 1992 - Sosjmalta.org" - Scroll down to the bottom of page 1, right-hand column) and "Green Book" - sosjmalta.org- see page 3) (The Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem - The Hereditary Order - Outlines of History [Second Edition, 1987] - by K. Vella Haber, Grand Prior International). This order is a chivalric order which claims to be an authentic, legitimate branch of the original Order of St. John of Jerusalem, but many authorities dispute this claim. For some very good accounts of this dispute see: "Cumbo" and: Self-Styled "Orders of Saint John" by Guy Stair Sainty ("Self-Styled Orders 1 - Chivalric Orders"). For the website of the order of which Kyril de Shishmarev was a member, see: [dead link]. By using the name Kyril Feodorovich de Vassilchikov-Shishmarev, Comte de Rohan-Chandor, clearly Kyril was claiming that he was a lineal descendant of various noble families besides the Shishmarev family, namely the Vassiltchikov family of Russia (see: "Famille Vassiltchikov" (French Wikipedia), the Rohan family of France and Hungary, and the Chandor (actually Sándor de Szlavnicza?) family of Hungary and Austria - see Famille Sándor: "Famille Sándor" (French Wikipedia). As to his connection with nobility in the Chandor family, it appears that Kyril's mother's paternal grandfather was Count Laslo Fülöp Chandor (1815/1817 - October 7, 1894) - For verification of this see the obituary of Count Laslo Chandor's great-grandson Elbert Haring Chandor (April 12, 1921 - Dec. 22, 2003): "Death notice: Chandor E. Haring - New York Times. Count Laslo Fülöp Chandor was born in Austria, became an inventor and entrepreneur in the U. S. (he was Director of the Mineral Lighting Company), had extensive business interests in Russia (especially in St. Petersburg), and died at St. Giles, London, England. For more documentation on him see: "All Tax, Criminal, Land & Wills results for Chandor" - ancestry.com- scroll down to Lasslo Chandor, John Arthur Chandor, and Lasalo Chandor). To get an overview of Laslo Chandor's activities as an inventor and businessman/entrepreneur, see: "Etienne Lenoir" (French Wikipedia) (Engl. Tr.) - Scroll down to the subsection titled "Boat," which mentions Laslo Chandor) and (- "At the Dawn of the Kerosene Era" by Alexander Matviechuk - oilru.com - Scroll down to the subsection titled "Pennsylvanian kerosene in St. Petersburg and Moscow," where Laslo Chandor's name is spelled "Laszlo Sandor") and (Chronological Index of Patents Applied For and Patents Granted For the Year 1867 (London, 1868) - Scroll down to Patent No. 678: George Glover, of Ranelagh Road, Pimlico, in the County of Middlesex, for an invention for "Improvements in lamps for burning naptha and like fluids." -- A communication to him from abroad by Laslo Chandor, a person resident at Great Stable Street, St. Petersburg. [Letters Patent sealed]). As to Kyril's connection with the Rohan family, it is believed that Kyril, possibly, was claiming a lineal connection with [François Marie des Neiges] Emanuel de Rohan-Polduc (1725-1797), who was Sovereign Grand Master of the Knights of Malta from 1775-1797. Michael Fry was the author of 2 books: (1) Hitler's Wonderland (London: J. Murray, 1934 - xi + 215 pages) (see: Hitler's wonderland, Library of Congress) (2) Salute the Sun (Glenford, NY: Sun Press, 1980 - 225 pages) (see: Salute the sun, Library of Congress)
- To read an account of Kyril de Shishmarev's memories of his family's life and activities in Russia in the years prior to the Russian Revolution of 1917, see: (1) Guy Richards - The Hunt for the Czar (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1970), Chapter XVI ('The English Baby') (2) William Malpas Clarke - The Lost Fortune of the Tsars (NY: St. Martin's Press, 1st U. S. ed., 1995).
- Susan Sarah Cohen, Antisemitism: an annotated bibliography, Volume 8, Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism, p.444.
- Hadassa Ben-Itto, The lie that wouldn't die: the Protocols of the elders of Zion, Vallentine Mitchell, 2005, p. 200.
- [dead link]
- Waters Flowing Eastward by L. Fry
- Photograph of Mrs. Leslie Fry with Henry Allen, Conrad Chapman, and Mr. Gurin in 1937 at csun.edu
- Photograph Source: California State University, Northridge, Oviatt Library, Special Collections and Archives