Green Line (Los Angeles Metro)
Metro Green Line train at Redondo Beach Station.
|Transit type||Light rail|
|Number of stations||14|
|Daily ridership||40,922 (July 2014; avg. weekday)|
|Began operation||August 12, 1995|
|Character||Predominantly elevated and fully grade-separated, mostly in freeway median.|
|Number of vehicles||Siemens P2000|
|Train length||1–2 cars|
|System length||20.0 mi (32.2 km)|
|No. of tracks||2|
|Track gauge||4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm)
|Electrification||750 V DC overhead catenary|
The Green Line is a 20-mile (32 km) light rail line running between Redondo Beach and Norwalk within Los Angeles County; it is one of five lines forming the Los Angeles County Metro Rail system. The line opened on August 11, 1995. It became the third line in the Metro Rail system after the opening of the Blue Line and Red Line. The line was delayed due to a change of the line's route from Los Angeles International Airport to El Segundo. In addition to Redondo Beach and Norwalk, the route also serves El Segundo, Hawthorne, South Los Angeles, Lynwood, Downey, and Willowbrook (in South Los Angeles). It serves the Plaza Mexico shopping center at the Long Beach Boulevard station in the city of Lynwood. A free shuttle bus to Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) is available at the line's Aviation/LAX Station. The line is unique because it is a suburb-to-suburb service and does not service downtown Los Angeles.
The fully grade-separated route runs partly in the median of the Century Freeway (Interstate 105) with a mostly elevated section to the west. The line is operated and maintained by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority. The Green Line is internally known as Line 803: this designation appears on internal operating schedules, as well as in the hyperlink on Metro's timetable website. The Green Line is the fastest light rail line (excluding the Red Line and the Purple Line) in the Metro light rail network. Green Line trains typically operate at 50–60 mph on the I-105 freeway portion and around 40 mph on the elevated portion west of Aviation/LAX Station. When the Green Line began service in 1995, it operated with only one-car trains. As ridership increased, two-car trains were then used. Ridership on the Green Line has not been as high as the Blue Line, although it did have a higher ridership than the Gold Line until 2013. Additionally, the Green Line runs with one-car trains in the early mornings (3:35 A.M.–5:30 A.M.) and late evenings (9:00P.M.–12:55 A.M.) on weekdays, and on weekends. Although nearly all of the Green Line stations were built to accommodate three rail cars, it has never had that many. The stations west of Aviation/LAX Station were not built to accommodate three-car trains. It is possible that the Green Line may eventually use three-car trains when the Crenshaw/LAX Line light rail line is complete.
The entire route of the Green Line is elevated, either on track supports, or in the median of the Century Freeway (Interstate 105). The line begins in the west at Redondo Beach station, then heads roughly north through El Segundo. At Aviation/LAX, passengers can transfer to any one of several bus lines from different operators, particularly the shuttle bus to LAX. From here, the Green Line heads east in the median of the Century Freeway, with connection to the Metro Silver Line rapid transit at the Harbor Freeway Station. It then continues to a major transfer connection at the Willowbrook Station (transfer point to the Metro Blue Line). Finally, the line terminates in the city of Norwalk, just east of the 605 Freeway.
Hours of operation
Metro Green Line trains run between approximately 3:36 a.m. and 11:55 p.m. daily. Service on Friday and Saturday nights continues until approximately 2:15 a.m. First and last train times are as follows:
To Norwalk Station
To Redondo Beach Station
- First Train to Redondo Beach Station: 4:01 a.m.
- Last Train to Redondo Beach Station: 12:55 a.m. (2:15 a.m. Friday and Saturday nights))
Trains on the Green Line operate every seven to eight minutes during peak hours Monday through Friday. They operate every 15 minutes during the midday and all day on the weekends, with night service running every 20 minutes.
As part of the consent decree signed by Caltrans in 1972 to allow construction of the fiercely opposed Century Freeway, provisions were made for a transit corridor (without designating the type thereof) in the freeway's median. In the original Metro Rail master plan of the early 1980s, this corridor was designated as a light rail line.
Construction on the Green Line began in 1987. One of the reasons for construction was that the Green Line would serve the aerospace and defense industries in the El Segundo area. Construction of the line cost $718 million. By the time the Green Line opened in 1995, the Cold War was over, and the aerospace sector was hemorrhaging jobs. Furthermore, during the 1980s, the bedroom communities in the Gateway Cities region of southeastern Los Angeles County were rapidly losing their population of middle-class aerospace workers (primarily whites and blacks), a process that radically accelerated in the early 1990s. The working-class and poor Hispanics who filled the vacuum generally had no connection to the aerospace sector. This rationale for Green Line construction was a principal argument cited by the Bus Riders Union when it contended that the MTA was focusing its efforts on serving middle-class whites and not working-class minorities. As a result, ridership has been below projected estimates, averaging approximately 44,000 daily weekday boardings in June 2008.
At the time the Green Line opened, the line used rolling stock made by Nippon Sharyo similar to that used on the Metro Blue Line. In 2000, the Nippon Sharyo railcars were transferred to the Blue Line and the Green Line received new railcars made by Siemens.
The Green Line's western alignment was originally planned and partially constructed to connect with LAX, but the airport was planning a major remodeling during the line's construction. Los Angeles World Airports wanted the connection to LAX to be integrated with this construction, but there were concerns that the overhead lines of the rail would interfere with the landing paths of airplanes. In addition, citizens of neighboring communities to LAX opposed the expansion of the airport, and owners of parking lots surrounding LAX feared that a train operating to LAX would create competition, since there is ample free parking at numerous points along the Green Line. As a compromise, a free shuttle from Aviation/LAX Station transports riders to LAX terminals. Today, passengers on the Green Line can see the provision for the LAX extension—two concrete ramp stubs west of the Aviation/LAX station.
The Green Line's eastern terminus also suffers from the fact that it stops two miles (3 km) short of the heavily used Norwalk/Santa Fe Springs Metrolink station, where several Metrolink lines operate. Local bus service is provided between the Metrolink station and the Green Line terminus, but schedules are not coordinated with Green Line arrivals. Because of this, and the Green Line's re-routed western alignment away from LAX, critics have labeled the Green Line as a train that goes "from nowhere to nowhere." The Green Line is the only Metro rail line not to serve Downtown Los Angeles. Transfers to the Blue Line can be made at the Willowbrook Station by downtown-bound riders.
In 2007, the Green Line began placing advertisement banners on the sides of trains, similar to those on the Gold Line. The advertisement banners briefly ceased before returning in April 2009.
During September 2012, the automated voice speaker of the trains was updated to reflect the station name changes of Vermont/Athens Station and Willowbrook Station. In addition, the voice speaker now includes the connection to the Silver Line at Harbor Freeway Station. Before this, riders were not verbally notified that the Green Line connects with the Silver Line at Harbor Freeway Station.
Various studies have suggested extending the Green Line north to LAX, Westchester, Loyola Marymount University, and even Santa Monica. A possible southern extension could take the Green Line's southern terminus farther southeast, to the South Bay Galleria or beyond. And on the line's east end, the line may one day be extended from its current terminus at Norwalk station to Norwalk/Santa Fe Springs station.
Northern Extension to LAX
When the Crenshaw/LAX Line is completed, the Metro Green Line will begin a new operational pattern near LAX, with northern and southern branches. The southern branch will operate as the Green Line currently does: westbound trains will continue through El Segundo, South to Redondo Beach. The northern branch will allow westbound trains to travel North along Aviation and terminate at Aviation/Century station, allowing transfers to the Crenshaw Line or the LAX Metro Connector (which will transport riders to LAX terminals).
Southern Extension to South Bay
Metro is currently working on the initial environmental study of a corridor extension of the Green Line, from its Redondo terminus toward the southeast. The "South Bay Metro Green Line Extension" would roughly follow the Harbor Subdivision ROW into the South Bay, to the Torrance Regional Transit Center (RTC). Metro and the public are considering two alternatives in the DEIR: an elevated light-rail extension, and an at-grade extension over existing tracks, with vehicle type still to be determined.
Study of the South Bay Extension will lead to publication of a Draft Environmental Impact Report (DEIR). The study is expected to be completed in 2011. The project is prioritized in the Long Range Transportation Plan (LRTP) and has funding in Measure R.
The Green Line consists of the following 14 stations (from west to east):
|Station||Station Connections||Date Opened||Station Parking||City/ Neighborhood|
|Redondo Beach||Metro Local: 126, 215
Beach Cities Transit 102
LADOT Commuter Express: 574
Lawndale Beat Express, Residential Routes
|August 12, 1995||403 Spaces||Redondo Beach|
|Douglas||Metro Local: 125||August 12, 1995||30 Spaces||El Segundo|
|El Segundo||Gardena Transit: 5
LADOT Commuter Express: 574
Municipal Area Express: 2, 3, 3X
Torrance Transit: 8 (Southbound)
|August 12, 1995||90 Spaces|
|Mariposa||Metro Local: 232
Torrance Transit: 8 (Southbound)
|August 12, 1995||No parking|
|Aviation/LAX||Metro Local: 40 Owl, 120, 625
LAX Shuttle: Route G (serves LAX Terminals 1-8 and the Tom Bradley International Terminal)
Santa Monica Transit: 3, Rapid 3
Culver City Transit: 6, Rapid 6
Beach Cities Transit: 109
Municipal Area Express: 2, 3, 3X
|August 12, 1995||405 Spaces|
|Hawthorne/Lennox||Metro Local: 40, 126, 212, 312
Metro Express: 442
Metro Rapid: 740
|August 12, 1995||623 Spaces||Hawthorne|
|Crenshaw||Metro Local: 126, 207 (Weekdays selected Rush Hour AM/PM trips, & Weekends Only), 210
Metro Rapid: 710, 757
Torrance Transit: 5, 10
|August 12, 1995||513 Spaces|
|Vermont/Athens||Metro Local: 204, 206, 209
Metro Rapid: 754
|August 12, 1995||155 Spaces||Athens|
|Harbor Freeway||Metro Silver Line
Metro Local: 45, 81, 120
Metro Express: 450 (Weekdays Rush Hour AM/PM trips, & Sundays Only), 550
Metro Rapid: 745
LADOT Commuter Express: 448
Orange County Transportation Authority: 721
Gardena Transit: 1X
Torrance Transit: 1, 2, 4
|August 12, 1995||253 Spaces||South Los Angeles|
|Avalon||Metro Local: 48, 51, 52, 53, 352
LADOT DASH: Watts
|August 12, 1995||158 Spaces|
|Willowbrook||Metro Blue Line
Metro Local: 55, 120, 205, 355, 612
Gardena Transit: 5
LADOT DASH: Watts
Lynwood Breeze Route D
Willowbrook Shuttle: A, B, King Medical Center
|August 12, 1995||975 Spaces||Willowbrook|
|Long Beach Boulevard||Metro Local: 60, 251
Metro Rapid: 760
Lynwood Trolley: A
|August 12, 1995||650 Spaces||Lynwood|
|Lakewood Boulevard||Metro Local: 117, 265, 266||August 12, 1995||545 Spaces||Downey|
|Norwalk||Metro Local: 111, 115, 120, 125, 270, 311
Metro Express: 460, 577X
Norwalk Transit: 2, 4, 5
Long Beach Transit: 172, 173
|August 12, 1995||2050 Spaces||Norwalk|
The Green Line is operated out of the Division 22 Yard (Aviation Street Yard). This yard stores the fleet used on the Green line. It is also where light maintenance is done on the fleet (Heavier maintenance is done at the Blue Line yard in Long Beach). The Yard is located between Redondo Beach and Douglas stations. Trains enter the yard via a junction halfway between the two stations. Douglas bound trains (Northbound) may enter but there is no exit track to continue North. Redondo Beach bound trains (Southbound) may enter and exit the Yard to continue south.
At the time the Green Line opened, the line used rolling stock made by Nippon Sharyo similar to those used on the Metro Blue Line. In 2000, the Nippon Sharyo railcars were transferred to the Blue Line, and the Green Line received new Siemens P2000 railcars which have been operating on the Green Line ever since.
The Green Line has never been involved in an accident since it began operation in 1995. This is in part because it runs completely on its own dedicated right of way, and does not intersect any streets, which is unique among Metro light rail lines. The tracks are separated from the freeway lanes by concrete barriers and fences on the entire portion of the I-105 freeway.
- "Ridership Statistics - Rail Ridership Estimates". Metro (LACMTA). August 20, 2013. Retrieved 2013-08-25.
- "Monthly Ridership Plot" (pdf). Metro (LACMTA). November 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-16.
- "Facts at a Glance". Metro (LACMTA). Retrieved 2013-11-16.
- "Green Line timetable" (pdf). Metro (LACMTA). June 23, 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-17.
- "Metro Bus & Rail System Map" (pdf). Metro (LACMTA). December 2013. Retrieved 2014-01-15.
- Groves, Martah (October 8, 2005). "MTA's Plan for Westside Transit Line Detours South". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2013-11-17.
- "Crenshaw/LAX Transit Project - Draft Environmental Impact Report/Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIR/DEIS)". Metro (LACMTA). February 24, 2011. Retrieved 2013-11-17.
- "Exploring The South Bay Metro Green Line Extension". KCET. Retrieved 2013-11-18.
- "South Bay Metro Green Line Extension". Metro (LACMTA). October 10, 2011. Retrieved 2013-11-17.